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PubMed Journals Articles About "Evaluating Efficacy Small Molecules Neural Differentiation Common Marmoset" RSS

02:30 EST 14th December 2019 | BioPortfolio

Evaluating Efficacy Small Molecules Neural Differentiation Common Marmoset PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Evaluating Efficacy Small Molecules Neural Differentiation Common Marmoset articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Evaluating efficacy small molecules neural differentiation common marmoset" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 27,000+

Evaluating the efficacy of small molecules for neural differentiation of common marmoset ESCs and iPSCs.

The common marmoset (marmoset; Callithrix jacchus) harbors various desired features as a non-human primate (NHP) model for neuroscience research. Recently, efforts have been made to induce neural cells in vitro from marmoset pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), including embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which are characterized by their capacity to differentiate into all cell types from the three germ layers. Successful generation of marmoset neural cells is not only invaluab...


Role of mTOR complex in IGF-1 induced neural differentiation of DPSCs.

Recent studies have demonstrated that IGF-1 modulates the pluripotent differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Although mTOR pathway activation has been showed as responsible for IGF-1 induced pluripotent differentiation, the mechanism that the IGF-1-mTOR pathway induces the neural differentiation of DPSCs is still unclear. In our research, we have demonstrated that 0-10 ng/mL IGF-1 had no obvious effect on the proliferation of DPSCs, but IGF-1 nonetheless enhances the neural differentiation of ...

Molecular characterization of functional UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1A, 2B in common marmosets.

UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are essential drug-conjugation enzymes that metabolize a variety of endobiotic and xenobiotic substrates. The molecular characteristics of UGTs have been extensively investigated in humans, but remain to be investigated in common marmosets, a nonhuman primate species widely used in drug metabolism studies. In this study, 11 UGT cDNAs (UGT1A1, 1A3, 1A4, 1A6, 1A7, and 1A9; and UGT2B49, 2B50, 2B51, 2B52, and 2B53) were isolated and characterized in marmosets. Marmoset UGT1As...


Re-learning to be different: Increased neural differentiation supports post-stroke language recovery.

Identifying the neural changes that support recovery of cognitive functions after a brain lesion is important to advance our understanding of human neuroplasticity, which, in turn, forms the basis for the development of effective treatments. To date, the preponderance of neuroimaging studies has focused on localizing changes in average brain activity associated with functional recovery. Here, we took a novel approach by evaluating whether cognitive recovery in chronic stroke is related to increases in the d...

Improved neural differentiation of normal and abnormal iPSC lines in the presence of valproic acid.

During the generation of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines from cord blood CD34 cells, a line having complete trisomy of chromosome 1 and deletion of q23 to qTer of chromosome 11 was accidentally developed in our lab. The abnormality was consistently detected even at higher passages. These chromosomal anomalies are known to manifest neurological developmental defects. In order to examine if such defects occur during in vitro differentiation of the cell line, we set up a protocol for neural differen...

Splice-switching small molecules: a new therapeutic approach to modulate gene expression.

Manipulating alternative RNA splicing events with small molecules is emerging as a viable mechanism for the development of therapeutics. A salient challenge in the field is understanding the molecular determinants defining the selectivity of splice-switching events and their mechanisms of action. In this review, the current state-of-the-art in splice-switching small molecules is described. Three examples of splice-switching small molecules are presented, and the differences in their modes of action compared...

MicroRNA-34a mediates ethanol-induced impairment of neural differentiation of neural crest cells by targeting autophagy-related gene 9a.

Neural crest cells (NCCs) are multipotent progenitor cells that are sensitive to ethanol and are implicated in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). The objective of this study is to test whether ethanol exposure can inhibit the neural differentiation of NCCs by inhibiting autophagy and whether miR-34a is involved in ethanol-induced inhibition of autophagy in NCCs. We found that ethanol exposure resulted in the inhibition of neural differentiation of NCCs. Exposure to ethanol also significantly decreased...

Small molecules from natural products targeting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a therapeutic strategy.

The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved developmental signaling event that plays a critical role in regulating tissue development and maintaining homeostasis, the dysregulation of which contributes to various diseases. Natural products have been widely recognized as a treasure trove of novel drug discovery for millennia, and many clinical drugs are derived from natural small molecules. Mounting evidence has demonstrated that many natural small molecules could inhibit the Wnt/β-c...

Tau isoform expression and phosphorylation in marmoset brains.

Tau is a microtubule-associated protein expressed in neuronal axons. Hyperphosphorylated tau is a major component of neurofibrillary tangles, a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates are also found in many neurodegenerative diseases, collectively referred to as "tauopathies," and tau mutations are associated with familiar frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Previous studies have generated transgenic mice with mutant tau as tauopathy models, but non-human ...

Radiation effects on early phase of NT2/D1 neural differentiation .

Widespread medical use of radiation in diagnostic, imaging and treatment of different central nervous system malignancies lead to various consequences. Aim of this study was to further elucidate mechanism of cell response to radiation and possible consequence on neural differentiation.

The marmoset cytochrome P450 superfamily: sequence/phylogenetic analyses, genomic structure, and catalytic function.

The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is a New World monkey that has attracted much attention as a potentially useful primate model for preclinical testing. A total of 36 marmoset cytochrome P450 (P450) isoforms in the P450 1-51 subfamilies have been identified and characterized by the application of genome analysis and molecular functional characterization. In this mini-review, we provide an overview of the genomic structures, sequence identities, and substrate selectivities of marmoset P450s compared w...

Spatial encoding in primate hippocampus during free navigation.

The hippocampus comprises two neural signals-place cells and θ oscillations-that contribute to facets of spatial navigation. Although their complementary relationship has been well established in rodents, their respective contributions in the primate brain during free navigation remains unclear. Here, we recorded neural activity in the hippocampus of freely moving marmosets as they naturally explored a spatial environment to more explicitly investigate this issue. We report place cells in marmoset hippocam...

The new entries in the therapeutic armamentarium: the small molecule JAK inhibitors.

The past decade has witnessed an explosion in trial data on JAK inhibitors (JAKi). These small molecules target the Janus kinase - signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) pathway, blocking crucial cytokines across a septum of rheumatic diseases. As a class, JAKi are beginning to demonstrate efficacy on par, if not superior to biologics. Two first generation JAKi are licensed for use in inflammatory arthritis; tofacitinib and baricitinib. Next-generation JAKi have been designed with selec...

FMRP Modulates Neural Differentiation through mA-Dependent mRNA Nuclear Export.

N-methyladenosine (mA) modification of mRNA is emerging as a vital mechanism regulating RNA function. Here, we show that fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) reads mA to promote nuclear export of methylated mRNA targets during neural differentiation. Fmr1 knockout (KO) mice show delayed neural progenitor cell cycle progression and extended maintenance of proliferating neural progenitors into postnatal stages, phenocopying methyltransferase Mettl14 conditional KO (cKO) mice that have no mA modificati...

Evaluating rectal swab collection method for gut microbiome analysis in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is increasingly used as an animal model for biomedical research; however, gastrointestinal diseases causing significant morbidity are endemic in many captive marmoset colonies. Establishing gut microbiome patterns in a marmoset colony may aid in clinical decision-making and model reproducibility. A standardized method of sample collection and storage is essential for proper interpretation of microbiome data. While microbiome studies commonly utilize fecal samples, th...

Small molecules as theranostic agents in cancer immunology.

With further research into the molecular mechanisms and roles linking immune suppression and restraint of (pre)malignancies, immunotherapies have revolutionized clinical strategies in the treatment of cancer. However, nearly 70% of patients who received immune checkpoint therapeutics showed no response. Complementary and/or synergistic effects may occur when extracellular checkpoint antibody blockades combine with small molecules targeting intracellular signal pathways up/downstream of immune checkpoints or...

Roles of Reelin/Disabled1 pathway on functional recovery of hemiplegic mice after neural cell transplantation; Reelin promotes migration toward motor cortex and maturation to motoneurons of neural grafts.

Reelin is a large glycoprotein which regulates central nervous system (CNS) development. Dysfunctions of Reelin were reported on certain neuropsychiatric diseases. We examined involvement of Reelin pathway in functional recovery of hemiplegic mice after neural transplantation. Reelin was expressed 1 day after cryogenic injury of right motor cortex. We transplanted neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) from wild-type mice into ipsilateral striatum of hemiplegic mice. The grafts migrated from the striatum an...

Coordinative Alignment in the Pores of MOFs for the Structural Determination of N-, S-, and P-Containing Organic Compounds Including Complex Chiral Molecules.

Coordinative alignment of target small molecules onto a chiral metal-organic framework (MOF-520) provides a powerful method to determine the structures of small molecules through single-crystal X-ray diffraction (SXRD). In this work, the structures of seventeen molecules with eight new coordinating functionalities and varying size have been determined by this method, four of which are complex molecules being crystallized for the first time. The chirality of the MOF backbone not only enables enantioselective...

Rapid Prediction of Electron-Ionization Mass Spectrometry Using Neural Networks.

When confronted with a substance of unknown identity, researchers often perform mass spectrometry on the sample and compare the observed spectrum to a library of previously collected spectra to identify the molecule. While popular, this approach will fail to identify molecules that are not in the existing library. In response, we propose to improve the library's coverage by augmenting it with synthetic spectra that are predicted from candidate molecules using machine learning. We contribute a lightweight ne...

Birth of a marmoset following injection of elongated spermatid from a prepubertal male.

The common marmoset is a small nonhuman primate in which the application of transgenesis and genetic knockout techniques allows the generation of gene-modified models of human diseases. However, its longer generation time than that of rodents is a major obstacle to the widespread use of gene-modified marmosets for biomedical research. In this study, we examined the feasibility of shortening the generation time by using prepubertal marmoset males as gamete donors. We collected late round stage spermatids (St...

Microelectrode array electrical impedance tomography for fast functional imaging in the thalamus.

Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) has the potential to be able to observe functional tomographic images of neural activity in the brain at millisecond time-scales. Prior modelling and experimental work has shown that EIT is capable of imaging impedance changes from neural depolarisation in rat somatosensory cortex. Here, we investigate the feasibility of EIT for imaging impedance changes using a stereotaxically implanted microelectrode array in the thalamus. Microelectrode array EIT was simulated using ...

Expression of transcription factors and signaling molecules in the cerebellar granule cell development.

Cerebellar granule cell precursors (GCPs) and granule cells (GCs) constitute a good model system to investigate proliferation of neural precursors and differentiation of neurons. During development, GCPs proliferate in the outer external granule cell layer (outer EGL) and then exit the cell cycle in the inner EGL to become GCs, which inwardly migrate to the inner granule cell layer (IGL). Misregulation of GCP proliferation or GC differentiation leads to maldevelopment of the cerebellum and the formation of ...

Small Molecule-Based Strategy Promotes Nucleus Pulposus Specific Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) are promising for regenerating degenerated intervertebral discs (IVDs), but the low efficiency of nucleus pulposus (NP)-specific differentiation limits their clinical applications. The Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway is important in NP-specific differentiation of ADSCs, and Smoothened Agonist (SAG) is a highly specific and effective agonist of Shh signaling. In this study, we proposed a new differentiation strategy with the use of the small molecu...

Plasmonic Nano surface for neuronal differentiation and manipulation.

Neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic brain injuries can destroy neurons, resulting in sensory and motor function loss. Transplantation of differentiated neurons from stem cells could help restore such lost functions. Plasmonic gold nanorods (AuNR) were integrated in growth surfaces to stimulate and modulate neural cells in order to tune cell physiology. An AuNR nanocomposite system was fabricated, characterized, and then utilized to study the differentiation of embryonic rat neural stem cells (NSCs). Re...

MFN2 silencing promotes neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells via the Akt signaling pathway.

Mitofusin 2 (MFN2) is a regulatory protein participating in mitochondria dynamics, cell proliferation, death, differentiation, and so on. This study aims at revealing the functional role of MFN2 in the pluripotency maintenance and primitive differetiation of embryonic stem cell (ESCs). A dox inducible silencing and routine overexpressing approach was used to downregulate and upregulate MFN2 expression, respectively. We have compared the morphology, cell proliferation, and expression level of pluripotent ...


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