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22:07 EST 28th February 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Fast specific insights into acquisition generalization motor acuity" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 24,000+

Fast and specific: insights into the acquisition and generalization of motor acuity.

Motor acuity is considered to be the outcome of prolonged practice and to involve morphological changes in the motor cortex. We have previously designed a curved pointing task, the arc pointing task (APT), to study motor acuity acquisition, defined as a change in the speed-accuracy tradeoff function (SAF) of the task. Here we study the generalization of motor acuity between hands and between tasks (drawing the arc in the opposite direction and with the untrained hand) and the effect of training duration on ...

Acquisition and consolidation of implicit motor learning with physical and mental practice across multiple days of anodal tDCS.

Acquisition and consolidation of a new motor skill occurs gradually over long time span. Motor imagery (MI) and brain stimulation have been showed as beneficial approaches that boost motor learning, but little is known about the extent of their combined effects.

Temporal dynamics of Arc/Arg3.1 expression in the dorsal striatum during acquisition and consolidation of a motor skill in mice.

Region- and pathway-specific plasticity within striatal circuits is critically involved in the acquisition and long-term retention of a new motor skill as it becomes automatized. However, the molecular substrates contributing to this plasticity remain unclear. Here, we examined the expression of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) in the associative or dorsomedial striatum (DMS) and the sensorimotor or dorsolateral striatum (DLS), as well as in striatonigral and striatopallidal neur...

Motor Skill Acquisition during a Balance Task as a Process of Optimization of Motor Primitives.

It has been argued that the central nervous system relies on combining simple movement elements (i.e. motor primitives) to generate complex motor outputs. However, how movement elements are generated and combined during the acquisition of new motor skills is still a source of debate. Herein, we present results providing new insights into the role of movement elements in the acquisition of motor skills that we obtained by analyzing kinematic data collected while healthy subjects learned a new motor task. The...

Hear it, fear it: Fear generalizes from conditioned pictures to semantically related sounds.

Fear generalization is thought to be an important mechanism in the acquisition and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Previous studies have investigated fear generalization within one sensory modality - mainly within the visual domain. However, a growing body of evidence shows that emotional information is processed in more than one sensory modality. Based on network theories, we expected that fear may also generalize from stimuli in one sensory modality to another. To test our hypothesis, 42 participants un...

Force field generalization and the internal representation of motor learning.

When learning a new motor behavior, e.g. reaching in a force field, the nervous system builds an internal representation. Examining how subsequent reaches in unpracticed directions generalize reveals this representation. Although often studied, it is not known how this representation changes across training directions, or how changes in reach direction and the corresponding changes in limb impedance, influence these measurements. We ran a force field adaptation experiment using eight groups of subjects each...

Nerve Excitability Differences in Slow and Fast Motor Axons of the Rat: more than just I.

: To determine biophysical differences between fast and slow motor axons using threshold tracking and demonstrate confounds related to anaesthetic. : Nerve excitability of motor axons innervating the slow-twitch soleus (SOL) and fast-twitch tibialis anterior (TA) muscles was tested. The experiments were conducted with sodium pentobarbital (SP) anaesthetic and compared to previous results that used ketamine-xylazine (KX). : Nerve excitability indices measured with SP show definitive differences between TA an...

Neurophysiology of motor skill learning in chronic stroke.

Motor learning is relevant in chronic stroke for acquiring compensatory strategies to motor control deficits. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying motor skill acquisition with the paretic upper limb have received little systematic investigation. The aim of this study was to assess the modulation of corticomotor excitability and intracortical inhibition within ipsilesional primary motor cortex (M1) during motor skill learning.

Generalization of instrumentally acquired pain-related avoidance to novel but similar movements using a robotic arm-reaching paradigm.

Avoidance is considered a key contributor to the development and maintenance of chronic pain disability, likely through its excessive generalization. This study investigated whether acquired avoidance behavior generalizes to novel but similar movements. Using a robotic arm, participants moved their arm from a starting to a target location via one of three possible movement trajectories. For the Experimental Group, the shortest, easiest trajectory was always paired with pain (T1 = 100% reinforcement/no res...

Generalization of extinction of a generalization stimulus in fear learning.

Two experiments examined whether extinction of a generalization stimulus (GS) after single cue fear conditioning would in turn generalize to other stimuli, relative to a control group that received regular extinction of CS + itself. We found only a weak effect of such "generalization of GS extinction" either back to CS + or to a different GS, on either US expectancy or skin conductance measures. In other words, despite extinction trials with a stimulus highly similar to CS+, participants showed a return...

High- and Low-Contrast Letter Acuity Perception Matures With Age in Normally Sighted Children.

High-contrast visual acuity (HCVA) changes with age, yet little is known about pediatric-specific age- and sex-normative values for low-contrast letter acuity (LCLA). We define maturational changes in monocular and binocular HCVA and LCLA in childhood and adolescence.

The role of attention in motor control and learning.

Performing and learning motor behaviors are fundamental to everyday life. The relations between perceptual input and motor output have been studied and are well understood for simple experimental settings. Recent findings, however, suggest that motor actions also critically depend on cognitive factors; these influences are most notable in complex environments that place high demands on attention and memory. In this review, the role of various aspects of attention in motor control is discussed, focusing on t...

The effect of motor and physical activity intervention on motor outcomes of children with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review.

Difficulty performing age-appropriate motor skills affects up to 83% of children with autism spectrum disorder. This systematic review examined the effect of motor and physical activity intervention on motor outcomes of children with autism spectrum disorder and the effect of motor learning strategies on motor skill acquisition, retention, and transfer. Six databases were searched from 2000 to 2019. Forty-one studies were included: 34 intervention studies and 7 motor learning studies. The overall quality of...

Facial nerve atrophy in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Evaluation with fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA).

In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), motor neurons in the brainstem markedly deplete, whereas sensory neurons are less severely affected.

Do prism and other adaptation paradigms really measure the same processes?

Sensorimotor plasticity allows the nervous system to set up appropriate motor and sensory compensations when individuals face changing demands in a given motor task. A much-debated question in neuroscience research is the identification of processes that encompass this capacity of plasticity. Prism adaptation is the oldest experimental paradigm that has been used to achieve this goal (Helmholtz, 1867). Since 1990's, other paradigms have emerged such as visuomotor rotations or dynamical perturbations (inerti...

Effect of four weeks of ocular-motor exercises on dynamic visual acuity and stability limit of female basketball players.

Visual skills are an integral part of most daily activities and an effective indicator of the functional ability of athletes, particularly in the fields of dynamic sports like basketball. Despite the important role of vision and effect of ocular exercises on functional skills in athletes, a few studies have been conducted in this regard. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effect of ocular-motor exercises on dynamic visual acuity and stability limit of female basketball players.

CEST MR-Fingerprinting: Practical considerations and insights for acquisition schedule design and improved reconstruction.

To understand the influence of various acquisition parameters on the ability of CEST MR-Fingerprinting (MRF) to discriminate different chemical exchange parameters and to provide tools for optimal acquisition schedule design and parameter map reconstruction.

Predicting patient acuity according to their main problem.

To assess the ability of the patient main problem to predict acuity in adults admitted to hospital wards and step-down units BACKGROUND: Acuity refers to the categorization of patients based on their required nursing intensity. The relationship between acuity and nurses clinical judgment on the patient problems, including their prioritization, is an underexplored issue.

Association of Postfungal Keratitis Corneal Scar Features With Visual Acuity.

Corneal opacity is a leading cause of visual impairment worldwide; however, the specific features of corneal scars, which decrease visual acuity, have not been well characterized.

Electroencephalographic Evidence for a Reinforcement Learning Advantage: During Motor Skill Acquisition.

The feedback that we receive shapes how we learn. Previous research has demonstrated that quantitative feedback results in better performance than qualitative feedback. However, the data supporting a quantitative feedback advantage are not conclusive and further little work has been done to examine the mechanistic neural differences that underlie the relative benefits of quantitative and qualitative feedback. To address these issues, participants learned a simple motor task in quantitative and qualitative f...

Validation of an automated-ETDRS near and intermediate visual acuity measurement.

The aim of this study was to determine the repeatability of an automated-ETDRS (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study) near and intermediate visual acuity measurement in subjects with normal visual acuity and subjects with reduced visual acuity. The agreement of automated-ETDRS with gold standard chart-based visual acuity measurement was also studied.

Correction: Force field generalization and the internal representation of motor learning.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0225002.].

Early stages of sensorimotor map acquisition: learning with free exploration, without active movement or global structure.

One of the puzzles of learning to talk or play a musical instrument is how we learn which movement produces a particular sound: an audiomotor map. The initial stages of map acquisition can be studied by having participants learn arm movements to auditory targets. The key question is what mechanism drives this early learning. Three learning processes from previous literature were tested: map learning may rely on active motor outflow, (target) error correction and on the correspondence between sensory and mot...

Influence of Attentional Focus Instructions on Motor Performance Among Adolescents With Severe Visual Impairment.

Substantial research has demonstrated that an external (vs. internal) attentional focus enhances motor performance among various populations. Interest has recently grown in examining the effects of attentional focus among individuals with visual impairments (VI), and, to date, research results have been conflicting with some studies supporting a potential benefit to an external focus among adults with VI, while a study of children with severe VI was inconclusive regarding this benefit. The present investiga...

Asymmetry in kinematic generalization between visual and passive lead-in movements are consistent with a forward model in the sensorimotor system.

In our daily life we often make complex actions comprised of linked movements, such as reaching for a cup of coffee and bringing it to our mouth to drink. Recent work has highlighted the role of such linked movements in the formation of independent motor memories, affecting the learning rate and ability to learn opposing force fields. In these studies, distinct prior movements (lead-in movements) allow adaptation of opposing dynamics on the following movement. Purely visual or purely passive lead-in movemen...

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