PubMed Journals Articles About "Fetal Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models Systems Information Fetal" RSS

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Showing "Fetal Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models Systems Information Fetal" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 51,000+

Fetal Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models: Systems Information on Fetal Blood Components and Binding Proteins.

Fetal blood and plasma volume and binding components are critical parameters in a fetal physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. To date, a comprehensive review of their changes during fetal development has not been reported.

Development of a new methylation-based fetal fraction estimation assay using multiplex ddPCR.

Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for fetal aneuploidies has rapidly been incorporated into clinical practice. Current NGS-based methods can reliably detect fetal aneuploidies non-invasively with fetal fraction of at least 4%. Inaccurate fetal fraction assessment can compromise the accuracy of the test as affected samples with low fetal fraction have an increased risk for misdiagnosis. Using a novel set of fetal-specific differentially methylated regions (DMRs) and methylation sensitive restriction diges...

End-to-end trained CNN encoder-decoder network for fetal ECG signal denoising.

Non-invasive fetal electrocardiography has the potential of providing vital information for evaluating the health status of the fetus. However, the low signal-to-noise ratio of the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) impedes the applicability of the method in clinical practice. Quality improvement of the fetal ECG is of great importance for providing accurate information, enabling support in medical decision making. In this paper, we propose the use of artificial intelligence for the task of one-channel fetal ECG...

Where do PBPK Models Stand in Pharmacometrics and Systems Pharmacology?

Modern population based Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic models have contributed to the advancement of model informed drug development and regulatory decision-making. These models are developed based on principles of 'systems pharmacology', which covers a range of modeling approaches including 'Quantitative Systems Pharmacology'. To integrate pharmacometric and systems pharmacology approaches a profound understanding of the objectives and remits of each technique is required and new definitions, algori...

Cell-Free Fetal DNA in the Early and Late First Trimester.

The aim of this work was to investigate the association between maternal and fetal characteristics and the fetal fraction at 8-14 weeks' gestation, with emphasis on the change in the fetal fraction upon repeat sampling.

Evaluating the accuracy and precision of sonographic fetal weight estimation models in extremely early-onset fetal growth restriction.

Birthweight is a critical predictor of survival in extremely early-onset fetal growth restriction (fetal growth restriction diagnosed pre-28 weeks' gestation, with abnormal umbilical/uterine artery Doppler waveforms), therefore accurate fetal weight estimation is a crucial component of antenatal management. Currently available sonographic fetal weight estimation models were predominantly developed in populations of mixed gestational age and varying fetal weights, but not specifically tested within the conte...

Fetal Phenotypes Emerge as Genetic Technologies Become Robust.

Prenatal genomic evaluation of the fetus is available at decreasing cost and with a faster turnaround time. However, fetal genotype-phenotype correlations are in their infancy. By comparison, pediatric and adult genotype-phenotype databases are well-established and publicly accessible. A similar system for fetal genomics is lacking. When a fetal anomaly is identified by ultrasound imaging, a genetic diagnosis provides important information. However, fetal prognostic counseling is problematic if the only ava...

Managing the Unusual Causes of Fetal Anemia.

Rare causes of fetal anemia requiring intrauterine transfusion (IUT) are challenging for fetal medicine specialists.

Antenatal Fetal Adrenal Measurements at 22 to 30 Weeks' Gestation, Fetal Growth Restriction, and Perinatal Morbidity.

 Our objective was to test the association of fetal adrenal size with perinatal morbidity among fetuses with fetal growth restriction (FGR; estimated fetal weight [EFW] 

Retinol-binding protein 4, fetal overgrowth and fetal growth factors.

Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP-4) is an adipokine involved in regulating insulin sensitivity which would affect fetal growth. It is unclear whether RBP-4 is associated with fetal overgrowth, and unexplored which fetal growth factor(s) may mediate the association.

Characteristics of fetal and maternal heart rate tracings during labor: A prospective observational study.

Fetal well-being is assured during labor and delivery with the employment of electronic fetal heart monitoring (EFHM). In uncommon instances, maternal heart rate (MHR) instead of fetal heart rate (FHR) can be the source of signals on monitors (signal ambiguity) leading to erroneous interpretation and management. Information about MHR characteristics are comparatively inadequate. We aim to analyze and compare MHR and FHR characteristics during the first and second stages of labor.

Imaging of Fetal Tumors and Other Dysplastic Lesions: A Review with Emphasis on MR Imaging.

Fetal tumors and other dysplastic masses are relatively rare. They are usually the result of failure of differentiation and maturation during embryonic or fetal life; dysplastic lesions may be the consequence of an obstruction sequence. In this review we present the most commonly encountered tumors and masses seen during fetal life. Imaging characteristics, tumoral organ of origin, and its effect on the surrounding organs and overall fetal hemodynamics are descriptors that must be relayed to the fetal surge...

Fetal cardiac remodeling and dysfunction is associated with both preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction.

Preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction share some pathophysiological features and are both associated with placental insufficiency. Fetal cardiac remodeling has extensively been described in fetal growth restriction, whereas little is known about preeclampsia with a normally grown fetus.

Individual variation in simulated fetal SAR assessed in multiple body models.

We generate 12 models from 4 pregnant individuals to evaluate individual differences in local specific absorption rate (SAR) for differing body habitus and fetal and maternal positions.

Current and future role of fetal cardiovascular MRI in the setting of fetal cardiac interventions.

Over recent years, technical developments resulting in the feasibility of fetal cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) have provided a new diagnostic tool for studying the human fetal heart and circulation. During the same period, we have witnessed the arrival of several minimally invasive fetal cardiac interventions (FCI) as a possible form of treatment in selected congenital heart diseases (CHD). The role of fetal CMR in the planning and monitoring of FCI is not yet clear. Indeed, high quality fetal CMR ...

Monitored Anesthesia Care versus General Anesthesia for Intrauterine Fetal Interventions: Analysis of Conversions and Complications for 480 Cases.

Fetal intervention/surgery constitutes a relatively new field of maternal-fetal medicine in which monitored anesthesia care (MAC) or general anesthesia (GA) are utilized as anesthetic techniques when feasible. In this study, we sought to calculate the usage of MAC and GA in various fetal procedures as well as investigate any anesthetic complications and conversions from MAC to GA.

Preterm Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model. Part II: Applications of the Model to Predict Drug Pharmacokinetics in the Preterm Population.

Preterm neonates are usually not part of a traditional drug development programme, however they are frequently administered medicines. Developing modelling and simulation tools, such as physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models that incorporate developmental physiology and maturation of drug metabolism, can be used to predict drug exposure in this group of patients, and may help to optimize drug dose adjustment.

Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modelling versus Allometric Scaling for the Prediction of Infliximab Pharmacokinetics in Pediatric Patients.

The comparative performances of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling and allometric scaling for predicting the pharmacokinetics of large molecules in pediatrics are unknown. Therefore, both methods were evaluated for their accuracy in translating knowledge of infliximab pharmacokinetics from adults to children. PBPK modelling was performed using the base model for large molecules in PK-Sim v7.4 with modifications in Mobi. Eight population pharmacokinetic models from literature were reconst...

Role OfOmega-6 and Omega-3 fatty acids in fetal programming.

Maternal nutrition plays a critical role in fetal development and can influence adult onset of disease. Linoleic acid (LA) and alpha- linolenic acid (ALA) are major omega-6 (n-6) and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), respectively, that are essential in our diet. LA and ALA are critical for the development of the fetal neurological and immune systems. However, in recent years, the consumption of n-6 PUFA has increased gradually worldwide, and elevated n-6 PUFA consumption may be harmful to human health...

Assessment of fetal cardiac function with echocardiography.

The circulatory physiology of fetuses differs from that of neonates. The concept of biventricular combined cardiac output is necessary to understand and assess the fetal cardiac function. Fetal cardiac function has been estimated using echocardiographic methods such as M-mode, B-mode and pulsed wave Doppler. In addition, recent studies have reported the utility of tissue Doppler imaging in fetal echocardiography. However, parameters for fetal cardiac function remain to be established. Recently, we developed...

Preventing term stillbirth: benefits and limitations of using fetal growth reference charts.

This review examines the variation in clinical practice with regards to ultrasound estimation of fetal weight, as well as calculation of fetal weight centiles.

Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of 3D-Printed Models and 3D Ultrasonography on Maternal-Fetal Attachment.

To determine whether the addition of 3D-printed models improves maternal-fetal attachment in healthy pregnancies more than 3D ultrasonography alone.

Neurosurgeons' opinions on the prenatal management of myelomeningocele.

Improvements in imaging and surgical technological innovations have led to the increasing implementation of fetal surgical techniques. Open fetal surgery has demonstrated more favorable clinical outcomes in children born with open myelomeningocele (MMC) than those following postnatal repair. However, primarily because of maternal risks but also because of fetal risks, fetal surgery for MMC remains controversial. Here, the authors evaluated the contemporary management of MMC in the hope of identifying barrie...

Maternally perceived fetal movement patterns: The influence of body mass index.

Maternal reports of decreased fetal movements are associated with adverse pregnancy outcome, but there are conflicting data about perception of fetal movements in women with obesity.

A new approach to automatic fetal brain extraction from MRI using a variational level set method.

Appropriate images extracted from the MRI of mothers' wombs can be of great help in the medical diagnosis of fetal abnormalities. As maternal tissue may appear in such images, affecting visualization of myelination of the fetal brain, it is not possible to use methods routinely used for extraction of adult brains for fetal brains. The aim of the present study was to use a variational level set approach to extract fetal brain from T2-weighted MR images of the womb.

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