PubMed Journals Articles About "Freedom From Fear" RSS

17:47 EDT 20th October 2017 | BioPortfolio

Freedom From Fear PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Freedom From Fear articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Freedom From Fear" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 756

Oxytocin differentially modulates pavlovian cue and context fear acquisition.

Fear acquisition and extinction have been demonstrated as core mechanisms for the development and maintenance of mental disorders, with different contributions of processing cues versus contexts. The hypothalamic peptide oxytocin (OXT) may have a prominent role in this context, as it has been shown to affect fear learning. However, investigations have focused on cue conditioning, and fear extinction. Its differential role for cue and context fear acquisition is still not known.

Targeting memory reconsolidation to prevent the return of fear in patients with fear of flying.

When a memory is recalled, it may again exist in a labile state and stored information becomes amenable to change, a psychobiological process known as reconsolidation. Exposure therapy for anxiety disorders involves accessing a fear memory and modifying it with less fearful information. A preclinical study reported that providing a reminder of a fear memory 10 min prior to extinction training in humans decreased fear up to 1 year later (Schiller et al., 2010).

Investigating the Fear Avoidance Model in People with Whiplash: The Association between Fear of Movement and in vivo Activity.

The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between fear of movement and activity levels in people with WAD over the first 3 months post injury, to determine the mediating effect of: fear of movement on the relationship between catastrophising and activity levels, and activity levels on the relationship between fear of movement and disability in patients with WAD.

Cellular and oscillatory substrates of fear extinction learning.

The mammalian brain contains dedicated circuits for both the learned expression and suppression of fear. These circuits require precise coordination to facilitate the appropriate expression of fear behavior, but the mechanisms underlying this coordination remain unclear. Using a combination of chemogenetics, activity-based neuronal-ensemble labeling and in vivo electrophysiology, we found that fear extinction learning confers on parvalbumin-expressing (PV) interneurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) a de...

Gradients of fear: How perception influences fear generalization.

The current experiment investigated whether overgeneralization of fear could be due to an inability to perceptually discriminate the initial fear-evoking stimulus from similar stimuli, as fear learning-induced perceptual impairments have been reported but their influence on generalization gradients remain to be elucidated. Three hundred and sixty-eight healthy volunteers participated in a differential fear conditioning paradigm with circles of different sizes as conditioned stimuli (CS), of which one was pa...

Stimulus fear relevance and the speed, magnitude, and robustness of vicariously learned fear.

Superior learning for fear-relevant stimuli is typically indicated in the laboratory by faster acquisition of fear responses, greater learned fear, and enhanced resistance to extinction. Three experiments investigated the speed, magnitude, and robustness of UK children's (6-10 years; N = 290; 122 boys, 168 girls) vicariously learned fear responses for three types of stimuli. In two experiments, children were presented with pictures of novel animals (Australian marsupials) and flowers (fear-irrelevant stim...

Does the trait anxiety affect the dental fear?

The aims of the present study were to evaluate possible associations between trait anxiety, dental fear and the predictors of these interactions including demographic characteristics and dental history of patients applied to the dental care center in Ankara, Turkey. A sample of 607 participants (mean age: 21.02 ± 2.32) responded to a Turkish version of the Modified Dental Fear Survey (MDFS), the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-T) and a questionnaire regarding previous negative dental experience. Multip...

Hippocampal Processing of Ambiguity Enhances Fear Memory.

Despite the ubiquitous use of Pavlovian fear conditioning as a model for fear learning, the highly predictable conditions used in the laboratory do not resemble real-world conditions, in which dangerous situations can lead to unpleasant outcomes in unpredictable ways. In the current experiments, we varied the timing of aversive events after predictive cues in rodents and discovered that temporal ambiguity of aversive events greatly enhances fear. During fear conditioning with unpredictably timed aversive ev...

Validation of the English and Mandarin versions of the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory in an Asian population.

The Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory has shown adequate psychometric properties to assess for fear of cancer recurrence among cancer survivors. However, the use of the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory in Asia is limited due to the paucity of validation studies. Participants include 331 cancer survivors who completed the English and newly developed Mandarin versions of the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory. The results revealed that both versions of the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory demonstrate...

Oxytocin receptor neurotransmission in the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis facilitates the acquisition of cued fear in the fear-potentiated startle paradigm in rats.

Oxytocin (OT) is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that modulates fear and anxiety-like behaviors. Dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTdl) plays a critical role in the regulation of fear and anxiety, and expresses high levels of OT receptor (OTR). However, the role of OTR neurotransmission within the BNSTdl in mediating these behaviors is unknown. Here, we used adult male Sprague-Dawley rats to investigate the role of OTR neurotransmission in the BNSTdl in the modulation of the acoustic startle ...

Interference effects of transcranial direct current stimulation over the right frontal cortex and adrenergic system on conditioned fear.

The effects of pharmacological interventions on fear memory have widely been studied, but there are very few studies about the effects of brain electrical stimulation on fear memory function.

The Small World of a Fear Memory.

How are fear memories organized? In this issue of Neuron, Vetere et al. (2017) take a network-based approach to demonstrate the importance of highly interconnected hub regions in the consolidation of a fear memory. By doing so, they provide an elegant framework for predicting behavior from functional network properties.

COMT val158met polymorphism links to altered fear conditioning and extinction are modulated by PTSD and childhood trauma.

Risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is thought to be mediated by gene × environment (G × E) interactions that affect core cognitive processes such as fear learning. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) val158met polymorphism has been associated with risk for PTSD and impaired fear inhibition. We used a large, relatively homogenous population to (1) replicate previous findings of poor fear inhibition in COMT Met/Met carriers with PTSD; (2) determine if COMT association with fear inhibition is ...

Pain anxiety and fear of (re)injury in patients with chronic back pain: Sex as a moderator.

Anxiety and fear are increasingly seen as related, but distinct concepts, with anxiety describing a reaction to unclear or future threats, and fear to immediate threats. Anxiety and fear both play influential roles in pain. Yet, the two concepts have not been clearly distinguished in pain research. Their reported intensity differs between the sexes, and sex differences in the way pain anxiety and fear of (re)injury relate to pain intensity have been found separately in previous studies. However, they seem t...

Differential effects of stress on fear learning and activation of the amygdala in pre-adolescent and adult male rats.

Adolescence is accompanied by the maturation of several stress-responsive areas of the brain including the amygdala, a key region for the acquisition and expression of conditioned fear. These changes may contribute to the development of stress-related disorders in adolescence, such as anxiety and depression, and increase the susceptibility to these psychopathologies later in life. Here, we assessed the effects of acute restraint stress on fear learning and amygdala activation in pre-adolescent and adult mal...

The relative effectiveness of extinction and counter-conditioning in diminishing children's fear.

Two behavioural strategies for reducing learned fear are extinction and counter-conditioning, and in this study we compared the relative effectiveness of the two procedures at diminishing fear in children. Seventy-three children aged 7-12 years old (M = 9.30, SD = 1.62) were exposed to pictures of two novel animals on a computer screen during the fear acquisition phase. One of these animals was paired with a picture of a scared human face (CS+) while the other was not (CS-). The children were then rando...

Fear learning alterations after traumatic brain injury and their role in development of posttraumatic stress symptoms.

It is unknown how traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One potential mechanism is via alteration of fear-learning processes that could affect responses to trauma memories and cues. We utilized a prospective, longitudinal design to determine if TBI is associated with altered fear learning and extinction, and if fear processing mediates effects of TBI on PTSD symptom change.

Median raphe region stimulation alone generates remote, but not recent fear memory traces.

The median raphe region (MRR) is believed to control the fear circuitry indirectly, by influencing the encoding and retrieval of fear memories by amygdala, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Here we show that in addition to this established role, MRR stimulation may alone elicit the emergence of remote but not recent fear memories. We substituted electric shocks with optic stimulation of MRR in C57BL/6N male mice in an optogenetic conditioning paradigm and found that stimulations produced agitation, but not...

Negative appraisals and fear extinction are independently related to PTSD symptoms.

Considerable research has revealed impaired fear extinction to be a significant predictor of PTSD. Fear extinction is also considered the primary mechanism of exposure therapy, and a critical factor in PTSD recovery. The cognitive theory of PTSD proposes that symptoms persist due to excessive negative appraisals about the trauma and its sequelae. Research has not yet examined the relationship between fear extinction and negative appraisals in PTSD.

Contextual fear conditioning in zebrafish.

Zebrafish are a genetically tractable vertebrate that hold considerable promise for elucidating the molecular basis of behavior. Although numerous recent advances have been made in the ability to precisely manipulate the zebrafish genome, much less is known about many aspects of learning and memory in adult fish. Here, we describe the development of a contextual fear conditioning paradigm using an electric shock as the aversive stimulus. We find that contextual fear conditioning is modulated by shock intens...

Fear of cancer and older people's beliefs about cancer treatment in Poland.

Throughout Europe and the US, more than 60% of all cancer incidents occur in older people. Therefore, the aim of this study was to understand the level of fear people have regarding cancer and older people's beliefs about cancer pain, cancer treatment, and the curability of cancer. We conducted a survey in 2012, in which the sample was comprised of 910 adult residents of Wroclaw, Poland, to ascertain the beliefs people have about cancer and the degree of fear people have with respect to cancer. The majority...

The influence of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158Met on fear of pain and placebo analgesia.

Higher levels of fear have been shown to partly explain individual differences in placebo analgesic responding. The COMT rs4680 Val158Met polymorphism has been associated with both increased placebo analgesia and increased fear-related behavior, in what appears to be inconsistent findings in the literature. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate placebo analgesia and fear-related processes with regard to the COMT genotype, to sort out whether the Met-allele is associated with increased placebo an...

Exploring the screening capacity of the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory - Short Form for clinical levels of fear of cancer recurrence.

Fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) is a common concern among cancer survivors. Identifying survivors with clinically significant FCR requires validated screening measures and clinical cut-offs. We evaluated the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory-Short Form (FCRI-SF) clinical cut-off in two samples.

Dexamethasone facilitates fear extinction and safety discrimination in PTSD: A placebo-controlled, double-blind study.

Psychophysiological hallmarks of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) include exaggerated fear responses, impaired inhibition and extinction of conditioned fear, and decreased discrimination between safety and fear cues. This increased fear load associated with PTSD can be a barrier to effective therapy thus indicating the need for new treatments to reduce fear expression in people with PTSD. One potential biological target for reducing fear expression in PTSD is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axi...

Fear of Movement and Associated Factors among Adults with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis.

To examine the frequency of and factors associated with fear of movement (FOM) among patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (sxKOA), using the new Brief Fear of Movement (BFOM) measure.

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