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PubMed Journals Articles About "From Amazonia Southern Africa Atmospheric Moisture Transport Through" RSS

18:54 EDT 26th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "From Amazonia southern Africa atmospheric moisture transport through" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 5,500+

From Amazonia to southern Africa: atmospheric moisture transport through low-level jets and atmospheric rivers.

A Lagrangian analysis is applied to identify the main moisture source areas associated with atmospheric rivers (ARs) making landfall along the west coast of South Africa during the extended austral winter months from 1980 to 2014. The results show that areas that provide the anomalous uptake of moisture can be categorized into four regions: (1) the South Atlantic Ocean between 10°S and 30°S, (2) a clear local maximum in the eastern South Atlantic, (3) a continental source of anomalous uptake to the north ...


Genetic structure and sex-biased gene flow in the history of southern African populations.

We investigated the genetic history of southern African populations with a special focus on their paternal history. We reexamined previous claims that the Y-chromosome haplogroup E1b1b (E-M293) was brought to southern Africa by pastoralists from eastern Africa, and investigated patterns of sex-biased gene flow in southern Africa.

Analyses of Neanderthal introgression suggest that Levantine and southern Arabian populations have a shared population history.

Modern humans are thought to have interbred with Neanderthals in the Near East soon after modern humans dispersed out of Africa. This introgression event likely took place in either the Levant or southern Arabia depending on the dispersal route out of Africa that was followed. In this study, we compare Neanderthal introgression in contemporary Levantine and southern Arabian populations to investigate Neanderthal introgression and to study Near Eastern population history.


Modeling primary and secondary fractionation effects and atmospheric transport of polychlorinated biphenyls through single-source emissions.

The Chinese Gridded Industrial Pollutants Emission and Residue Model (ChnGIPERM) was used to investigate potential fractionation effects and atmospheric transport of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) derived from single-source emissions in China. Modeling the indicative PCBs (CB28, CB101, CB153, and CB180) revealed spatiotemporal trends in atmospheric transport, gas/particle partitioning, and primary and secondary fractionation effects. These included the inference that the Westerlies and East Asian monsoons...

Survey of local impacts of biofuel crop production and adoption of ethanol stoves in southern Africa.

The two datasets outlined in this paper contain information related to (a) the local impacts of biofuel feedstock production, and (b) the factors that influence the adoption and/or sustained use of ethanol stoves in southern Africa. The first dataset was generated through extensive household surveys around four operational jatropha and sugarcane production sites in Malawi, Mozambique, and Swaziland. This project aimed to examine the local impacts of the most prominent modes of existing or intended biofuel f...

Biomimetic Fibrous Murray Membranes with Ultrafast Water Transport and Evaporation for Smart Moisture Wicking Fabrics.

Both antigravity directional water transport and ultrafast evaporation are critical to achieving a high-performance moisture wicking fabric. The transpiration in vascular plants possess both of these features, which is due to their optimized hierarchical structure composed of multi-branching porous networks following Murray's law. However, it remains a great challenge to simultaneously realize the ultrafast water transport and evaporation by mimicking nature's Murray networks in the synthetic materials. Her...

First description of subglacial megalineations from the late Paleozoic ice age in southern Africa.

We identify late Paleozoic ice age (LPIA) subglacial megalineations from field and geospatial imagery of the Twyfelfontein area of northern Namibia, and present the results of a geomorphometric analysis of those data. Asymmetric 0.1-1.5 km-long megawhalebacks indicate a paleo-ice flow to the northwest. We infer that an ice stream draining the LPIA Kaokoveld ice sheet existed within the proto-Huab River valley and that was comparable to ice streams in modern Antarctica. Recognition of a paleo-ice stream in n...

Impacts of different types and intensities of El Niño events on winter aerosols over China.

El Niño is a strong signal of interannual climate variability. The occurrence of an El Niño event may have an important impact on atmospheric pollutant concentrations in China through changes to the regional climate. This study quantitatively examines the differences among the effects of different types and intensities of El Niño events on winter mean aerosol concentration and severe haze days in China. It is found that Central Pacific (CP) El Niño events lead to larger increases in the aerosol burden o...

CO, CO, hydrocarbon gases and PM emissions on dry season by deforestation fires in the Brazilian Amazonia.

The rate of deforestation in Brazil increased by 29% between 2015 and 2016, resulting in an increase of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) of 9%. Deforestation fires in the Amazonia are the main source of GHG in Brazil. In this work, amounts of CO, CO, main hydrocarbon gases and PM emitted during deforestation fires, under real conditions directly in Brazilian Amazonia, were determined. A brief discussion of the relationship between the annual emission of CO equivalent (CO) and Paris Agreement was conducted. Ex...

STACKing the odds for adolescent survival: health service factors associated with full retention in care and adherence amongst adolescents living with HIV in South Africa.

There are two million HIV-positive adolescents in southern Africa, and this group has low retention in care and high mortality. There is almost no evidence to identify which healthcare factors can improve adolescent self-reported retention. This study examines factors associated with retention amongst antiretroviral therapy (ART)-initiated adolescents in South Africa.

Anthropogenic I in the sediment cores in the East China sea: Sources and transport pathways.

With the increased numbers of nuclear power plants constructed along the east coast of China, it is important to know radioactive sources and transport pathways between land and sea, in order to better understand the impact of these nuclear facilities to the marine environment. Two sediment cores collected from the East China Sea dated to 1959-2010 were analyzed for long-lived radioactive I and stable I. It was observed that I levels (I/I ratio of (15.0-75.0) × 10) were significantly increased compared...

Spatial variation of modelled total, dry and wet nitrogen deposition to forests at global scale.

Forests are an important biome that covers about one third of the global land surface and provides important ecosystem services. Since atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) can have both beneficial and deleterious effects, it is important to quantify the amount of N deposition to forest ecosystems. Measurements of N deposition to the numerous forest biomes across the globe are scarce, so chemical transport models are often used to provide estimates of atmospheric N inputs to these ecosystems. We provide an...

Atmospheric mercury outflow from China and interprovincial trade.

Mercury (Hg) is characterized by the ability to migrate between continents and adverse effects on human health, arousing great concerns around the world. The transboundary transport of large anthropogenic Hg emissions from China has attracted particular attention, especially from neighboring countries. Here, we combine an atmospheric transport model, a mass budget analysis, and a multiregional input-output model to simulate the atmospheric Hg outflow from China and investigate the impacts of Chinese interpr...

Super Moisture-Absorbent Gels for All-Weather Atmospheric Water Harvesting.

Atmospheric water harvesting (AWH)-producing fresh water via collecting moisture from air-enables sustainable water delivery without geographical and hydrologic limitations. However, the fundamental design principle to prepare materials that can convert the water vapor in the air to collectible liquid water is still mostly unknown. Here, a super moisture-absorbent gel, which is composed of hygroscopic polypyrrole chloride penetrating in hydrophilicity-switchable polymeric network of poly N-isopropylacrylami...

A Predictive Transport Model for Convective Drying of Polymer Strip Films Loaded with a BCS Class II Drug.

Drying is an important unit operation in the manufacturing of polymer strip films as it affects various film quality attributes. Optimal design and control of convective drying process require models that capture the impact of critical process parameters such as air temperature and velocity on the temporal evolution of film thickness and moisture. Here, a detailed transport model was presented to capture moisture diffusion, heat transfer and moving boundary in convective drying of polymer strip films loaded...

Atmospheric observation-based estimation of fossil fuel CO emissions from regions of central and southern California.

Combustion of fossil fuel is the dominant source of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere in California. Here, we describe radiocarbon (CO) measurements and atmospheric inverse modeling to estimate fossil fuel CO (ffCO) emissions for 2009-2012 from a site in central California, and for June 2013-May 2014 from two sites in southern California. A priori predicted ffCO mixing ratios are computed based on regional atmospheric transport model (WRF-STILT) footprints and an hourly ffCO prior emission map (Vul...

Heavy metals transport pathways: The importance of atmospheric pollution contributing to stormwater pollution.

Pollution has become a serious issue in the urban water environment as stormwater runoff transports a range of pollutants to receiving water bodies, undermining water quality and posing human and ecosystem health risks. Commonly, the primary focus of stormwater quality research is on the role of pollutants directly accumulating at the ground phase. However, atmospheric phase can also exert a significant impact on stormwater quality through atmospheric deposition. Unfortunately, only limited research has foc...

Mitochondrial genome annotation and phylogenetic placement of Oreochromis andersonii and O. macrochir among the cichlids of southern Africa.

Genetic characterization of southern African cichlids has not received much attention. Here, we describe the mitogenome sequences and phylogenetic positioning of Oreochromis andersonii and O. macrochir among the African cichlids. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequences were determined for O. andersonii and O. macrochir, two important aquaculture and fisheries species endemic to southern Africa. The complete mitogenome sequence lengths were 16642 bp and 16644 bp for O. andersonii and O. macrochir respective...

The Howiesons Poort lithic sequence of Klipdrift Shelter, southern Cape, South Africa.

Howiesons Poort (HP) sites, over the past decades, have provided exceptional access to anthropogenic remains that are enhancing our understanding of early modern human behaviour during the Middle Stone Age in southern Africa. Here, we analyse the technological and typological trends in the lithic record that form part of these behaviours, based on the HP sequence recently excavated at Klipdrift Shelter, located on the southern Cape coast of South Africa. This study contributes to enhance knowledge on the me...

Fluorescence spectroscopy-based study of balanced transport of charge carriers in hot-air-annealed perovskites.

Using fluorescence spectroscopy, we investigate the transport of charge carriers in (p-i-n) planar perovskite (CHNHPbICl) solar cells with the structure ITO/PEDOT:PSS/perovskites/PCBM/Ca/Al, in which the perovskite morphology is optimized by moisture pretreatment (MPT) and the hot-air-annealing process (HAAP). After annealing with hot air, the electron transport time of the perovskites is shortened by a factor of 3.6 (from 28.8 to 7.9 ns), eventually leading to balanced transport of electrons and holes (c...

Marine versus continental sources of iodine and selenium in rainfall at two European high-altitude locations.

The essential elements selenium (Se) and iodine (I) are often present in low levels in terrestrial diets, leading to potential deficiencies. Marine Se and I emissions and subsequent atmospheric wet deposition has been suggested to be an important source of Se and I to soils and terrestrial food chains. However, the contribution of recycled moisture of continental origin to Se and I to precipitation has never been analyzed. Here we report concentrations and speciation of Se and I, as well as of bromine (Br),...

Moisture-responsive supramolecular nanotubes.

Living organisms have evolved functional structures for seeds dispersal in response to humidity changes. In this study, we construct moisture-responsive nanotubes by the supramolecular coordination of a peptide lipid with metal ions for potential applications in material delivery systems. These hydrophilic nanotubes can uptake atmospheric moisture and the water molecules are associated with unsaturated metal centers of the bis(lipid)-metal(ii) complex, thereby changing the molecular packing and inducing mor...

Increasing temperature seasonality may overwhelm shifts in soil moisture to favor shrub over grass dominance in Colorado Plateau drylands.

Ecosystems in the southwestern U.S. are predicted to experience continued warming and drying trends of the early twenty-first century. Climate change can shift the balance between grass and woody plant abundance in these water-limited systems, which has large implications for biodiversity and ecosystem processes. However, variability in topo-edaphic conditions, notably soil texture and depth, confound efforts to quantify specific climatic controls over grass vs. shrub dominance. Here, we utilized weather re...

The characteristic release of noble gases from an underground nuclear explosion.

Prompt release of gases at the ground surface resulting from explosively propagated vents or large operational releases has typically been considered to be the only mode of transport for detonation gases from an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) giving rise to detectable levels of radioxenon gases in downwind atmospheric samples captured at distances exceeding 100 km. Using a model for thermally and barometrically driven post-detonation transport across the broad surface of a simulated UNE site, we show...

Barriers and incentives for conducting research amongst the ophthalmologists in Sub-Sahara Africa.

Research is a critical component amongst the strategies to improve health outcomes of any country. The role of research assumes greater importance in Africa as it carries a larger share of the global burden of diseases, blindness, and low vision. "Vision 2020- the Right to Sight" is a WHO-IAPB collaborated initiative aiming to eliminate preventable blindness by the year 2020. High quality research in eye care is imperative for the initiative to succeed, however, there is a dearth of research in eye care in ...


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