PubMed Journals Articles About "Ganciclovir Cytomegalovirus Infections" RSS

08:25 EST 14th November 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Ganciclovir Cytomegalovirus Infections" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 3,700+

Maribavir for Refractory or Resistant Cytomegalovirus Infections in Hematopoietic-cell or Solid-organ Transplant Recipients: A Randomized, Dose-ranging, Double-blind, Phase 2 Study.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections that are refractory or resistant (RR) to available antivirals ([val]ganciclovir, foscarnet, cidofovir) are associated with higher mortality in transplant patients. Maribavir is active against RR CMV strains.

The Effect of Topical Ganciclovir and Corticosteroid on Cytomegalovirus Corneal Endotheliitis in Korean Patients.

To report long-term outcomes of topical ganciclovir (GCV) and corticosteroids in Korean patients with cytomegalovirus (CMV) corneal endotheliitis.

Topical Ganciclovir for Prophylaxis of Cytomegalovirus Endotheliitis in Endothelial Keratoplasty.

To describe the presentation and management of 2 cases of Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (DSAEK) with failure secondary to cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and prophylaxis with topical ganciclovir to prevent repeat failure of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) regrafts.

Resistance to ganciclovir in cytomegalovirus infection after heart transplant: case report.

Cytomegalovirus infection after a heart transplant is a recurrent medical condition. Its frequency increases when the donors are serum-positive, and the recipients are serum-negative to this virus. In the pediatric population, the infection only develops in a small percentage and the patients rarely present resistance to conventional treatment with ganciclovir and valganciclovir. We presented the first report of a pediatric case of the cytomegalovirus infection resistant to ganciclovir and valganciclovir af...

A Case of a patient with AIDS and pneumocystis pneumonia complicated by cytomegalovirus pneumonitis.

We report a case of a 39-year-old male admitted for respiratory failure. On admission, the patient was diagnosed with advanced HIV infection and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP). The patient's condition improved following specific PJP therapy but then deteriorated. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with cytomegalovirus pneumonitis and treated with ganciclovir. The severe course of both opportunistic infections required long-term care at an intensive care unit. Despite complications, the patient w...

Ganciclovir and foscarnet dual-therapy for cytomegalovirus encephalitis: A case report and review of the literature.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a ubiquitous herpesvirus which establishes lifelong latency following primary infection. It is then capable of reactivating in the face of immunosuppression. Encephalitis is a less common, but particularly devastating syndrome associated with CMV. Here, we describe a case of CMV encephalitis in an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient who received dual antiviral therapy with ganciclovir and foscarnet. The case presentation is followed by a summary of cases reported...

Clinical characteristics, audiological and neurodevelopmental outcomes of newborns with congenital cytomegalovirus infection.

Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infections are the leading nongenetic cause of congenital sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL); however the true impact of cCMV infections remains unknown.

New therapies for human cytomegalovirus infections.

The recent approval of letermovir marks a new era of therapy for human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, particularly for the prevention of HCMV disease in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. For almost 30 years ganciclovir has been the therapy of choice for these infections and by today's standards this drug exhibits only modest antiviral activity that is often insufficient to completely suppress viral replication, and drives the selection of drug-resistant variants that continue to replicate a...

Emergence of letermovir resistance in a lung transplant recipient with ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus infection.

Following a year of valganciclovir prophylaxis, a lung transplant recipient developed cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection that became resistant to ganciclovir, as confirmed by detection of UL97 kinase mutation M460V and a previously uncharacterized UL54 DNA polymerase mutation L516P. The latter mutation is now shown to confer ganciclovir and cidofovir resistance. As predicted from the viral genotype, foscarnet therapy was effective, but resumption of valganciclovir as secondary prophylaxis resulted in a plasma ...

HCMV UL97 phosphotransferase gene mutations may be associated with antiviral resistance in immunocompromised patients in Belém, PA, Northern Brazil.

Human cytomegalovirus is one of the causes of opportunist infections in immunocompromised patients, and is triggered by factors such as state of viral latency, weakened immune responses, and development of antiviral resistance to ganciclovir, the only drug offered by the public health system in Brazil to treat the infection. The goal of this study was to identify mutations that may be associated with antiviral resistance in immunocompromised patients.

Cytomegalovirus meningitis in a patient with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia.

Cytomegalovirus meningitis/meningoencephalitis is a potentially fatal complication following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation that causes significant morbidity and mortality. In the pre-transplant setting, a few cases involving lymphoid malignancies have been reported. However, there have been no reports of patients with myeloid malignancies. A 36-year-old man with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia received high-dose cytarabine-containing salvage chemotherapies and then developed grade 4 lymphopenia fo...

Antiviral activity of maribavir in combination with other drugs active against human cytomegalovirus.

The human cytomegalovirus (CMV) UL97 kinase inhibitor maribavir is in Phase III clinical trials as antiviral therapy, including use for infections refractory or resistant to standard therapy. To assess its activity in combination with approved and experimental CMV antivirals, and with the mTor inhibitor rapamycin (sirolimus), drug effects were tested by in vitro checkerboard assays and the data were analyzed using a three dimensional model based on an independent effects definition of additive interactions....

Cytomegalovirus establishes a latent reservoir and triggers long-lasting inflammation in the eye.

Recent outbreaks of Ebola and Zika have highlighted the possibility that viruses may cause enduring infections in tissues like the eye, including the neural retina, which have been considered immune privileged. Whether this is a peculiarity of exotic viruses remains unclear, since the impact of more common viral infections on neural compartments has not been examined, especially in immunocompetent hosts. Cytomegalovirus is a common, universally distributed pathogen, generally innocuous in healthy individual...

Successful induction of therapeutic urinary concentration by intravenous ganciclovir and oral valganciclovir with remission of adenoviral hemorrhagic cystitis after cord blood transplantation.

AdV11-HC is one of the major complications after allogeneic HSCT in Japan. We previously reported that the intravenous infusion of ganciclovir was effective against AdV11-HC in a post-transplant patient. We here report a case of a 10-year-old boy who underwent cord blood transplantation for the treatment of relapsed lymphoblastic lymphoma. He developed AdV11-HC with an elevated AdV load in his urine and blood on day 14 after HSCT. He was immediately treated with intravenous ganciclovir; he rapidly achieved ...

New Developments in the Management of Cytomegalovirus Infection After Transplantation.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) continues to be one of the most important pathogens that universally affect solid organ and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Lack of effective CMV-specific immunity is the common factor that predisposes to the risk of CMV reactivation and clinical disease after transplantation. Antiviral drugs are the cornerstone for prevention and treatment of CMV infection and disease. Over the years, the CMV DNA polymerase inhibitor, ganciclovir (and valganciclovir), have se...

Comparative Efficacy and Safety of Different Antiviral Agents for Cytomegalovirus Prophylaxis in Allogeneic Hematopoietic-Cell Transplantation: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Over the past 25 years, several randomized controlled trials have investigated the efficacy of different antiviral agents for cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis in allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation. We performed a systematic literature review, conventional meta-analysis and network meta-analysis using a random-effects model and risk ratios (RR) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) as effect estimates. Fifteen randomized controlled trials were identified, including seven different anti...

Comparison of the Cockcroft-Gault, MDRD and CKD-EPI equations for estimating ganciclovir clearance.

Accurately estimating kidney function is essential for the safe administration of renally cleared drugs like ganciclovir. Current practice recommends adjusting renally eliminated drugs according to the Cockcroft-Gault equation. There is no data on the utility of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations in ganciclovir dosing.

Biological relevance of Cytomegalovirus genetic variability in congenitally and postnatally infected children.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is the leading cause of congenital infections resulting in severe morbidity and mortality among infected children. Although the virus is highly polymorphic, particularly in genes contributing to immune evasion, the mechanisms underlying its genetic variability and pathogenicity are only partially understood.

Infusion of cytotoxic T lymphocytes for the treatment of viral infections in hematopoetic stem cell transplant patients.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has proven curative for a range of malignant and nonmalignant disorders. However, the clinical success of this therapy is marred by the morbidity associated with viral infections, which are frequent (cytomegalovirus 15.6-28%, adenovirus 3-21%, BK virus 18.5-20.7%) post-transplant. These infections occur as a consequence of transplant conditioning regimens designed to eliminate not only malignant cells but also host immune cells that might interfere with ste...

Cytomegalovirus Colitis during Dasatinib Treatment for Patients with Hematologic Malignancy: Case Series and Literature Review.

Dasatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is widely used for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although the drug has a potent immunosuppressive effect, infectious complications during dasatinib treatment have been reported rarely. We describe five patients who developed cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis during dasatinib treatment, in whom the colitis was initially confused with other causes. The patients, three with chronic myeloid leukemia, ...

Congenital Cytomegalovirus infection - still a relevant problem (based on own experience and literature).

As far as infectious factors are concerned, Cytomegalovirus is considered one of the most common causes of progressive hearing impairment and neurological disorders among children. The increasing number of CMV infections creates the necessity of quick diagnosis and treatment that may reduce the consequences or even completely resolve the condition. It is essential that the diagnostic team consists of not only neonatologists but also obstetricians/perinatologists. In many countries, including Poland, screeni...

Severe Cytomegalovirus Enterocolitis Developing following Daratumumab Exposure in Three Patients with Multiple Myeloma.

Survival of multiple myeloma (MM) patients has improved with introduction of novel anti-myeloma agents. Myeloma has transformed into a chronic condition, accompanied with multiple relapses requiring salvage therapies, which results in cumulative immunosuppression. The impact of novel therapies on the immune system differs from that of traditional chemotherapy, and their application leads to emergence of infections not previously associated with myeloma, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection being one of them(1). ...

In vitro evaluation of current and novel antivirals in combination against human cytomegalovirus.

Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) can cause severe disease in patients with compromised or immature immune systems. Currently approved pharmacotherapies for the treatment of systemic HCMV infections [ganciclovir (GCV), cidofovir (CDV), foscarnet] are limited by a high incidence of adverse effects and/or the development of drug resistance. Given that many of these drugs have the same viral target (HCMV-encoded DNA polymerase), cross-resistance is relatively common. The primary means to combat drug resistance is c...

The Natural History and Rehabilitative Outcomes of Hearing Loss in Congenital Cytomegalovirus: A Systematic Review.

The purpose of this study was to examine the literature regarding the natural history and rehabilitative outcomes of sensorineural hearing loss from congenital cytomegalovirus infections.

Antenatal treatment options for primary cytomegalovirus infections.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is by far the most common fetal viral infection. It carries a risk of long-term sequelae for the neonate; though the severity depends on the gestational age at the time of infection. Improvement in primary prevention of a CMV infection during pregnancy can be achieved by providing information regarding hygiene to the mother. Once a maternal infection occurs, treatment options include prevention of maternal-fetal transmission and, once transmission occurs, attempts to reduce t...

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