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00:59 EST 12th November 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Gentamicin Sulfate" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 891

A review of population pharmacokinetic models of gentamicin in paediatric patients.

Gentamicin is often used for the treatment of Gram-negative infections. Due to pharmacokinetic variability in paediatric patients, appropriate dosing of gentamicin in the paediatric population is challenging. This article reviews published population pharmacokinetic models of gentamicin in paediatric patients, identifies covariates that significantly influence gentamicin pharmacokinetics, and determines whether there is a consensus on proposed dosing for intravenous gentamicin in this population.


Boron, a Trace Mineral, Alleviates Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats.

The present study was considered to assess the protective effects of boron (B) on gentamicin-induced oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines, and histopathological changes in rat kidneys. Rats were split into eight equal groups which were as follows: control (fed with low-boron diet); gentamicin group (100 mg/kg, i.p.); B, B, and B (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg B, i.p.) groups; gentamicin (100 mg/kg, i.p.) plus B, B, and B (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg B, i.p.) groups. B was given to rats 4 days before the gentamicin tre...

Impact of total carbon/sulfate on methane production and sulfate removal from co-digestion of sulfate-containing wastewater and corn stalk.

During the process of preparing furfural by straw depolymerization with dilute sulfuric acid, large amounts of high temperature sulfate-rich organic wastewater were produced. It cannot be treated directly by anaerobic digestion and converted to bioenergy due to high concentrations of sulfate. In this study, anaerobic co-digestion of sulfate containing wastewater and corn stalk was performed at thermophilic conditions to investigate the influences of total carbon (TC)/sulfate (6, 16, 35 and 110) on methane p...


Individualization of treatment with gentamicin in neonates based on drug concentration in the blood serum.

Aim: To evaluate how useful it is to make measurements of gentamicin concentrations in newborns' blood in order to optimize antibiotic therapy.

Bacterial community structure and predicted function in an acidogenic sulfate-reducing reactor: Effect of organic carbon to sulfate ratios.

A lab-scale acidogenic sulfate-reducing reactor with N stripping was continuously operated to uncover its microbial mechanism treating highly sulfate-containing organic wastewaters. Results showed that sulfate reduction efficiency decreased with the influent COD/sulfate ratios. Microbial community analysis showed that VFA accumulation mainly caused by the predominance of fermentative bacteria including Streptococcus and Oceanotoga. Genus Desulfovibrio was the most predominant SRB and enriched at low influen...

In vitro efficacy of gentamicin released from collagen sponge in eradication of bacterial biofilm preformed on hydroxyapatite surface.

Biofilm-related infections of bones pose a significant therapeutic issue. In this article we present in vitro results of the efficacy of gentamicin released from a collagen sponge carrier against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilms preformed on hydroxyapatite surface. The results indicate that high local concentrations of gentamicin released from a sponge eradicate the biofilm formed not only by gentamicin-sensitive strains but, to some extent, also by those that...

Efficient reduction of nitrobenzene by sulfate-reducer enriched biocathode in microbial electrolysis cell.

This study aimed to enhance treatment of wastewater containing nitrobenzene (NB) and sulfate using biocathode enriched with sulfate-reducing bacteria in microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). Artificial wastewater with 50 mg L NB and 200 mg L sulfate was used as the catholyte. With 0.8 V applied voltage, removal efficiencies of NB and sulfate reached 98% and 34%, respectively, within 36 h. Aniline and sulfide were the main reductive products in the catholyte with concentrations increased to 0.32 and...

A novel carbon monoxide fed moving bed biofilm reactor for sulfate rich wastewater treatment.

In this study, a moving bed biofilm reactor was used for biodesulfuruization using CO as the sole carbon substrate. The effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT), sulfate loading rate and CO loading rate on sulfate and CO removal was examined. At 72, 48 and 24 h HRT, the sulfate removal was 93.5%, 91.9% and 80.1%, respectively. An increase in the sulfate loading reduced the sulfate reduction efficiency, which, however, was improved by increasing the CO flow rate into the MBBR. Best results in terms of sulf...

Sulfate Deficiency as a Risk Factor for Autism.

This is a study of water and beverages consumed during pregnancy by mothers of children with autism. Materials included vials for water samples and a survey to describe the water and beverages. Samples were tested for sulfate and surveys evaluated for average daily levels. Results were stratified for selected regions of the United States. Areas with the highest rates of autism showed a trend toward lower levels of sulfate compared to areas with low rates of autism (28% sulfate, n = 45, p = 0.059). S...

Template-free microspheres decorated with Cu-Fe-NLDH for catalytic removal of gentamicin in heterogeneous electro-Fenton process.

Nano-layered double hydroxide (NLDH) decorated with Fe and Cu was applied as a novel heterogeneous catalyst for catalytic degradation of gentamicin by the electro-Fenton (EF) process. The EF process was equipped with graphite plate under aeration to electrochemically generate hydrogen peroxide in the solution. The characterization analyses confirmed the suitable structure of as-synthesized Cu-Fe-NLDH to be acted as catalyst for treating the target pollutant. The comparative study showed the highest removal ...

Enzymatic Conversion of Cypridina Luciferyl Sulfate to Cypridina Luciferin with Coenzyme A as a Sulfate Acceptor in Cypridina (Vargula) hilgendorfii.

In the luminous ostracod Cypridina (presently Vargula) hilgendorfii, Cypridina luciferyl sulfate (3-enol sulfate of Cypridina luciferin) is converted to Cypridina luciferin by a sulfotransferase with 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphate (PAP) as a sulfate acceptor. The resultant Cypridina luciferin is used for the luciferase-luciferin reaction of Cypridina to emit blue light. The luminescence stimulation with major organic cofactors was examined using the crude extracts of Cypridina specimens, and we found that...

Reduced redox-dependent mechanism and glucose-mediated reversal in gentamicin-resistant Vibrio alginolyticus.

Strategy of managing antibiotic-resistant Vibrio alginolyticus, a bacterial pathogen that threatens human health and animal farming, is not available due to the lack of knowledge about the underlying mechanism of antibiotic resistance. Here, we showed that gentamicin-resistant V. alginolyticus (VA-R ) has four mutations on metabolism and one mutation on a two-component system by whole-genome and PCR-based sequencing, indicating the metabolic shift in VA-R Thus, metabolic profile was investigated by GC-MS ba...

Long-term impact of sulfate on an autotrophic nitrogen removal system integrated partial nitrification, anammox and endogenous denitrification (PAED).

A nitrogen removal system integrating partial nitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) and endogenous denitrification (PAED) was established in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for treating low nitrogen sewage (approximately 40 mg L ammonia-nitrogen). The impact of sulfate on PAED sludge was investigated in five identical SBRs, fed with different levels of sulfate (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg L). Ammonia oxidation was improved by the addition of Results showed that the sulfate addition i...

Gentamicin as empirical treatment in hemodialysis patients: safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics.

The aim was to describe safety profile and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameters in end-stage renal disease patients who received gentamicin as empirical treatment in catheter related bacteremia when they showed infection signs, regardless timing of next hemodialysis. Patients received gentamicin 3 mg/kg before blood culture extraction when they showed infection signs and regardless timing of next hemodialysis. Serum concentrations were collected after the gentamicin administration (peak level) and bef...

Effect of twice-daily oral administration of a chondroitin sulfate-containing supplement on urine chondroitin sulfate concentrations in dogs.

To quantify the magnitude and duration of changes in urine chondroitin sulfate concentration (uCS) as a result of oral administration of a chondroitin sulfate-containing supplement in dogs.

Systemic allergic dermatitis due to gentamicin.

The sensitizing potential of aminoglycosides is well known and neomycin is the most commonly reported contact allergen (1). We report a case of systemic allergic dermatitis related to the use of topical gentamicin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Crystal Structure of GenD2, an NAD-Dependent Oxidoreductase Involved in the Biosynthesis of Gentamicin.

Gentamicins are clinically relevant aminoglycoside antibiotics produced by several Micromonospora species. Gentamicins are highly methylated and functionalized molecules and their biosynthesis include glycosyltransferases, dehydratase/oxidoreductases, aminotransferases, and methyltransferases. The biosynthesis of gentamicin A from gentamicin A2 involves three enzymatic steps that modify the hydroxyl group at position 3'' of the unusual garosamine sugar to provide its substitution for an amino group, followe...

Gentamicin compared with ceftriaxone for the treatment of gonorrhoea (G-ToG): a randomised non-inferiority trial.

Gonorrhoea is a common sexually transmitted infection for which ceftriaxone is the current first-line treatment, but antimicrobial resistance is emerging. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of gentamicin as an alternative to ceftriaxone (both combined with azithromycin) for treatment of gonorrhoea.

Generation of zero valent sulfur from dissimilatory sulfate reduction under methanogenic conditions.

Dissimilatory sulfate reduction mediated by sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRMs) has a pivotal role in the sulfur cycle, from which the generation of zero valent sulfur (ZVS) represents a novel pathway. Nonetheless, information on ZVS production from the dissimilatory sulfate reduction remains scarce. This study successfully showed the ZVS production from the dissimilatory sulfate reduction both in a bioreactor and batch experiments under the methanogenic condition. The ZVS was produced in the form of pol...

Improved methane production and sulfate removal by anaerobic co-digestion corn stalk and levulinic acid wastewater pretreated by calcium hydroxide.

Levulinic acid wastewater containing high concentration of sulfate was generated while producing levulinic acid by straw depolymerization with dilute sulfuric acid. In this study, levulinic acid wastewater was pretreated by calcium hydroxide precipitation, then co-digestion of pretreated levulinic acid wastewater and corn stalk was conducted for the further removal of sulfate from levulinic acid wastewater and production of bioenergy. Effects of sulfate loading and substrate level on methane production and ...

Gentamicin loading of calcium phosphate implants: implications for cranioplasty.

Surgical site infections (SSI) are a significant risk in cranioplasty, with reported rates of around 8-9%. The most common bacteria associated with these nosocomial infections are of the Staphylococcus species, which have the ability to form biofilm. The possibility to deliver antibiotics, such as gentamicin, locally rather than systemically could potentially lower the early postoperative SSI. Various antibiotic dosages are being applied clinically, without any true consensus on the effectiveness.

Inhibition of anaerobic biological sulfate reduction process by copper precipitates.

The single-stage biological sulfate reduction process for treatment of heavy metal laden wastewater is a promising treatment method, but the formation of metal precipitates has been suggested to be inhibitory to the activity of sulfate reducers. The present study examined the impact of copper (Cu) precipitates on anaerobic biological sulfate reduction in semi continuous stirred tank reactors (SCSTRs) at 35 ± 2 °C. The results show that Cu precipitates significantly affected the sulfate reduction pro...

Evaluating the in vitro efficacy of gatifloxacin, levofloxacin and gentamicin against Acanthamoeba cysts.

To evaluate the in vitro efficacy of three commercial ophthalmic solutions (gatifloxacin, levofloxacin and gentamicin) against cysts of Acanthamoeba species.

Sulfate reducing bacteria-based wastewater treatment system integrated with sulfide fuel cell for simultaneous wastewater treatment and electricity generation.

This study aimed to design a sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB)-based wastewater treatment system (SWTS) integrated with a sulfide fuel cell (SFC) as an alternative to the energy-intensive aerobic wastewater treatment process. The result showed that the COD/sulfate ratio and hydraulic retention time (HRT) were two important parameters in a SWTS. The highest COD and sulfate removal efficiency rates were at a HRT of 4 h at a COD/sulfate ratio of 0.67, reaching 83 ± 0.2% and 84 ± 0.4% with sulfate r...

Dermatan sulfate oligosaccharides having reducing end 2, 5-anhydro-d-talose inhibit bovine testicular hyaluronidase activity.

Dermatan sulfate oligosaccharides having reducing end 2,5-anhydro-d-talose were prepared by partial N-deacetylation of dermatan sulfate polysaccharide with hydrazine followed by deamination with nitrous acid, and the effect of these oligosaccharides on the activity of bovine testicular hyaluronidase was investigated. Hydrolysis activity and transglycosylation activity of this enzyme were assessed in an independent reaction system by analyzing the products by HPLC. Dermatan sulfate oligosaccharides inhibited...


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