PubMed Journals Articles About "Gonadotropin Inhibitory Hormone Teleosts Insights From Basal Representative" RSS

22:32 EST 19th January 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Gonadotropin inhibitory hormone teleosts insights from basal representative" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 10,000+

Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone in teleosts: new insights from a basal representative, the eel.

Since its discovery in birds, gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) has triggered investigation in the other groups of vertebrates. In the present study, we have identified a single gnih gene in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla), a representative species of a basal group of teleosts (Elopomorphs). We have also retrieved a single gnih gene in Osteoglossomorphs, as well as in more recently emerged teleosts, Clupeocephala. Phylogeny and synteny analyses allowed us to infer that one of the two gnih paralogs...

Mechanistic insight into how gonadotropin hormone receptor complexes direct signaling1.

Gonadotropin hormones and their receptors play a central role in the control of male and female reproduction. In recent years, there has been growing evidence surrounding the complexity of gonadotropin hormone/receptor signalling, with it increasingly apparent that the Gαs/cAMP/PKA pathway is not the sole signalling pathway that confers their biological actions. Here we review recent literature on the different receptor-receptor, receptor-scaffold and receptor-signaling molecule complexes formed and how th...

β-arrestin-dependent signaling in GnRH control of hormone secretion from goldfish gonadotrophs and somatotrophs.

In goldfish, two native isoforms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH2 and GnRH3) stimulate luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) release from pituitary cells through activation of cell-surface GnRH-receptors (GnRHRs) on gonadotrophs and somatotrophs. Interestingly, GnRH2 and GnRH3 induce LH and GH release via non-identical post-receptor signal transduction pathways in a ligand- and cell-type-selective manner. In this study, we examined the involvement of β-arrestins in the control of GnRH-in...

The Effects of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analog and a Combination of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Analog and Recombinant Human Growth Hormone on Adult Height in Girls with Early Puberty.

Early puberty (EP) is due to the activation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse generator in lower ages; EP may be a potential cause for impairment of adult height, leading to short stature. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of GnRH analog (GnRHa) and GnRHa plus recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment on final height in healthy girls with EP.

Ontogeny of the specificity of gonadotropin receptors and gene expression in Carp.

The pituitary gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), are the principle endocrine drivers of reproductive processes in the gonads of jawed vertebrates. Canonically, FSH recruits and maintains selected ovarian follicles for maturation and LH induces the stages of germinal vesicle breakdown and ovulation. In mammals, LH and FSH specifically activate cognate G-protein coupled receptors that affect the proteins involved in steroidogenesis, protein hormone synthesis, and g...

Comparing adult height gain and menarcheal age between girls with central precocious puberty treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist alone and those treated with combined growth hormone therapy.

This study aimed to investigate the outcomes of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) therapy with or without growth hormone (GH) therapy for girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty (CPP).

Correlation of anti-Mullerian hormone with humanchorionic gonadotropin test in the evaluation of testicular function of children with 46 XY male hypogonadism: Use of anti-Mullerian hormone as abiomarker.

It is challenging to evaluate reproductive potential during childhood. These challenges necessitate the use of invasive dynamic tests. Although the anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) is a reliable biomarker in evaluating testicular function, especially in the pre-pubertal period, there are uncertainties concerning its use in a clinical setting. This study is focused on comparing the AMH and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) test in boys with hypogonadism.

Optimal treatment for spermatogenesis in male patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

To compare the efficacies of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) pulse subcutaneous infusion with combined human chorionic gonadotropin and human menopausal gonadotropin (HCG/HMG) intramuscular injection have been performed to treat male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) spermatogenesis.

A novel strategy of using corifollitropin alfa in the ultrashort gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) protocol in unselected patients: A patient-friendly alternative.

To compare the outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and fresh embryo transfer (ET) using corifollitropin alfa in ultrashort gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) protocol and GnRH antagonist protocol.

Synteny and phylogenetic analysis of paralogous thyrostimulin beta subunits (GpB5) in vertebrates.

At some point early in the vertebrate lineage, two whole genome duplication events (1R, 2R) took place that allowed for the diversification and sub-/neo-functionalization of the glycoprotein hormones (GpHs). All jawed vertebrates possess the GpHs luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), each of which are heterodimers with a common alpha subunit and unique beta subunits. In 2002, a novel glycoprotein hormone named thyrostimulin was described to have...

Effects of high and low temperature on expression of GnIH, GnIH receptor, GH and PRL genes in the male grass puffer during breeding season.

Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a multifunctional hypophysiotropic neurohormone and has a stimulatory role in the control of reproduction in the grass puffer. To clarify the neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying the effect of changes in water temperature on reproduction in fish, we previously revealed that, in parallel to gonadal regression, both low and high temperature significantly decreased the expressions of the genes encoding kisspeptin (kiss2), kisspeptin receptor (kiss2r), gonadotropin-rele...

Waterborne pheromones modulate gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone levels in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus).

The relationships between pheromone stimuli and neuropeptides are not well established in vertebrates due to the limited number of unequivocally identified pheromone molecules. The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) is an advantageous vertebrate model to study the effects of pheromone exposure on neuropeptides since many pheromone molecules and neuropeptides have been identified in this species. Sexually mature male sea lamprey release pheromones 7α, 12α, 24-trihydroxy-5α-cholan-3-one 24-sulfate (3 keto-pe...

Regulation of Prepubertal Dynorphin Secretion in the Medial Basal Hypothalamus of the Female Rat.

The onset of puberty is the result of an increase in secretion of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). This action is due to development of stimulatory inputs to its release, but also to a gradual decrease in inhibitory inputs that restrain release of the peptide prior to pubertal onset. Dynorphin (DYN) is one of the inhibitory inputs that is produced in the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH), however, little is known about what substance(s) control its prepubertal synthesis and release. Because...

Exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate based on circadian rhythm changes the fecundity and expression of certain genes on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-liver axis of female zebrafish.

Exposure of a variety of experimental animals to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) has shown that it is a potent endocrine-disrupting chemical. However, its interaction with the circadian rhythm on responses along the hypothalamic - pituitary - gonadal - liver (HPGL) axis should be of significant value but has not been adequately investigated. In present study, the effects of PFOS on fecundity, levels of estradiol (E) and expression of certain genes on the HPGL axis at two time points (8:00 AM and 7:00 P...

New insights into apical-basal polarization in epithelia.

The establishment of an apical-basal axis of polarity is essential for the organization and functioning of epithelial cells. Polarization of epithelial cells is orchestrated by a network of conserved polarity regulators that establish opposing cortical domains through mutually antagonistic interactions and positive feedback loops. While our understanding is still far from complete, the molecular details behind these interactions continue to be worked out. Here, we highlight recent findings on the mechanisms...

Endometrial cell apoptosis impairment associated with hormonal imbalance as a key factor in the development of endometriosis.

The review describes the effect of certain hormones and their imbalance on apoptosis of retrogradely refluxed endometrial cells in the abdominal cavity and the effects of estrogen, progesterone, anti-Mullerian hormone, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone on the internal and external apoptotic pathways of various cell populations in endometriotic foci. The nuclear estrogen receptor β (ER-β) is shown to inhibit TNF receptors that trigger the external apoptotic pathway, but the effects of estrogens do not pla...

Efficacy of follitropin-alpha versus human menopausal gonadotropin for male patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

To compare human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) and recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rFSH) with respect to successful spermatogenesis and pregnancy outcomes in patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH).

Randomized controlled trial of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist microdose flare-up versus flare-up among poor responders undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

To compare the effect of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist microdose flare-up and GnRH agonist flare-up protocols among women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles.

A computational model for gonadotropin releasing cells in the teleost fish medaka.

Pituitary endocrine cells fire action potentials (APs) to regulate their cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and hormone secretion rate. Depending on animal species, cell type, and biological conditions, pituitary APs are generated either by TTX-sensitive Na+ currents (INa), high-voltage activated Ca2+ currents (ICa), or by a combination of the two. Previous computational models of pituitary cells have mainly been based on data from rats, where INa is largely inactivated at the resting potential, and spontaneous A...

Time-of-day-dependent Sensitivity of the Reproductive Axis to RFamide-related Peptide-3 Inhibition in Female Syrian Hamsters.

In spontaneously ovulating rodent species, the timing of the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge is controlled by the master circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN initiates the LH surge through the coordinated control of two, opposing neuropeptidergic systems that lie upstream of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system, the stimulatory peptide, kisspeptin, and the inhibitory peptide, RFamide-related peptide-3 (RFRP-3; the mammalian ortholog of avian gonadotropin-inhi...

Novel Biology of Tachykinins in Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Secretion.

The tachykinin family of peptides, composed of the neurokinins A and B (NKA, NKB) and substance P are involved in the central control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release through a variety of neuronal circuitries that mediate the activation of Kiss1 neurons and the synchronization of their activity within the arcuate nucleus. The major outcome of this role is the precise regulation of the pulsatile pattern of GnRH release. In addition, tachykinins are involved in the maturation of the reproducti...

New insights into cortico-basal-cerebellar connectome: clinical and physiological considerations.

The current model of the basal ganglia system based on the 'direct', 'indirect' and 'hyperdirect' pathways provides striking predictions about basal ganglia function that have been used to develop deep brain stimulation approaches for Parkinson's disease and dystonia. The aim of this review is to challenge this scheme in light of new tract tracing information that has recently become available from the human brain using MRI-based tractography, thus providing a novel perspective on the basal ganglia system. ...

The postnatal presence of human chorionic gonadotropin in preterm infants and its potential inverse association with retinopathy of prematurity.

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are pro-angiogenic gonadotropic hormones, which classically target the reproductive organs. However, hCG, LH, and their shared CG/LH receptor are also present in the human eye. The possibility that a deficiency of these hormones may be involved in the pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) during its early non-proliferative phase has not been explored.

Divergent expression patterns of pituitary gonadotropin subunit and GnRH receptor genes to continuous GnRH in vitro and in vivo.

Continuous, as opposed to pulsatile, delivery of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) leads to a marked decrease in secretion of pituitary gonadotropins LH and FSH and impairment of reproductive function. Here we studied the expression profile of gonadotropin subunit and GnRH receptor genes in rat pituitary in vitro and in vivo to clarify their expression profiles in the absence and continuous presence of GnRH. Culturing of pituitary cells in GnRH-free conditions downregulated Fshb, Cga, and G...

De novo European eel transcriptome provides insights into the evolutionary history of duplicated genes in teleost lineages.

Paralogues pairs are more frequently observed in eels (Anguilla sp.) than in other teleosts. The paralogues often show low phylogenetic distances; however, they have been assigned to the third round of whole genome duplication (WGD), shared by all teleosts (3R), due to their conserved synteny. The apparent contradiction of low phylogenetic difference and 3R conserved synteny led us to study the duplicated gene complement of the freshwater eels. With this aim, we assembled de novo transcriptomes of two highl...

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