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PubMed Journals Articles About "Graphene Multielectrode Arrays Versatile Tool Extracellular Measurements" RSS

02:35 EDT 16th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Graphene Multielectrode Arrays Versatile Tool Extracellular Measurements PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Graphene Multielectrode Arrays Versatile Tool Extracellular Measurements articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Graphene Multielectrode Arrays Versatile Tool Extracellular Measurements" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 12,000+

Automated in vivo patch clamp evaluation of extracellular multielectrode array spike recording capability.

Much innovation is currently aimed at improving the number, density, and geometry of electrodes on extracellular multielectrode arrays for in vivo recording of neural activity in the mammalian brain. To choose a multielectrode array configuration for a given neuroscience purpose, or to reveal design principles of future multielectrode arrays, it would be useful to have a systematic way of evaluating the spike recording capability of such arrays. We here describe an automated system that performs robotic pat...


Technical feasibility study for production of tailored multielectrode arrays and patterning of arranged neuronal networks.

In this manuscript, we first reveal a simple ultra violet laser lithographic method to design and produce plain tailored multielectrode arrays. Secondly, we use the same lithographic setup for surface patterning to enable controlled attachment of primary neuronal cells and help neurite guidance. For multielectrode array production, we used flat borosilicate glass directly structured with the laser lithography system. The multi layered electrode system consists of a layer of titanium coated with a layer of d...

A novel green approach for reduction of freestanding graphene oxide: Electrical and electronic structural investigations.

Ion beam irradiation technique has been proposed, for efficient, fast and eco-friendly reduction of graphene oxide (GO), as an alternative to the conventional methods. 5 MeV, Au+ ion beam has been used to reduce the free standing GO flake. Both electronic and nuclear energy loss mechanisms of the irradiation process play a major role in removal of oxygen moieties and recovery of graphene network. Atomic resolution scanning tunnelling microscopy analysis of the irradiated GO flake shows the characteristic ho...


Ultrasensitive graphene optoelectronic probes for recording electrical activities of individual synapses.

The complex neuronal circuitry connected by sub-micron synapses in our brain calls for technologies that can map neural networks with ultrahigh spatiotemporal resolution to decipher the underlying mechanisms for multiple aspects of neuroscience. Here we show that through combining graphene transistor arrays with scanning photocurrent microscopy, we can detect the electrical activities of individual synapses of primary hippocampal neurons. Through measuring the local conductance change of graphene optoelectr...

Long-Term Plasticity at the Mitral and Tufted Cell to Granule Cell Synapse of the Olfactory Bulb Investigated with a Custom Multielectrode in Acute Brain Slice Preparations.

Single extracellular stimulation electrodes are a widespread means to locally activate synaptic inputs in acute brain slices. Here we describe the fabrication and application of a multielectrode stimulator that was developed for conditions under which independent stimulation of several nearby sites is desirable. For the construction of the multielectrode we have developed a method by which electrode wires can be spaced at minimal distances of 100 μm. This configuration increases the efficiency of stimulat...

A spike sorting toolbox for up to thousands of electrodes validated with ground truth recordingsand.

In recent years, multielectrode arrays and large silicon probes have been developed to record simultaneously between hundreds and thousands of electrodes packed with a high density. However, they require novel methods to extract the spiking activity of large ensembles of neurons. Here we developed a new toolbox to sort spikes from these large-scale extracellular data. To validate our method, we performed simultaneous extracellular and loose patch recordings in rodents to obtain 'ground truth' data, where th...

Fabrication of comb-drive actuators for straining nanostructured suspended graphene.

We report on the fabrication and characterization of an optimized comb-drive actuator design for strain-dependent transport measurements on suspended graphene. We fabricate devices from highly p-doped silicon using deep reactive ion etching with a chromium mask. Crucially, we implement a gold layer to reduce the device resistance from ≈51.6 kΩ to ≈236 Ω at room temperature in order to allow for strain-dependent transport measurements. The graphene is integrated by mechanically transferring it directly...

Oxo-Functionalized Graphene - A Versatile Precursor for Alkylated Graphene Sheets by Reductive Functionalization.

Controlled covalent functionalization of graphene remains a challenging task due to the heterogeneous nature of materials. Functionalization approaches of graphene either lack in quantifying the degree of functionalization or they do not discriminate between covalent and non-covalent functionalization. Here, graphite is oxidized and exfoliated in a three-step procedure and subsequently reduced and functionalized by hexylation. While Raman spectroscopy is powerful to determine the degree of in-plane lattice ...

Strong Anisotropic Spin-Orbit Interaction Induced in Graphene by Monolayer WS_{2}.

We demonstrate strong anisotropic spin-orbit interaction (SOI) in graphene induced by monolayer WS_{2}. Direct comparison between graphene-monolayer WS_{2} and graphene-bulk WS_{2} systems in magnetotransport measurements reveals that monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide can induce much stronger SOI than bulk. Detailed theoretical analysis of the weak antilocalization curves gives an estimated spin-orbit energy (E_{so}) higher than 10 meV. The symmetry of the induced SOI is also discussed, and the dom...

Electronically Tunable Perfect Absorption in Graphene.

The demand for dynamically tunable light modulation in flat optics applications has grown in recent years. Graphene nanostructures have been extensively studied as means of creating large effective index tunability, motivated by theoretical predictions of the potential for unity absorption in resonantly-excited graphene nanostructures. However, the poor radiative coupling to graphene plasmonic nanoresonators and low graphene carrier mobilities from imperfections in processed graphene samples have led to low...

Extracellular vesicles: a promising tool for assessment of embryonic competence.

Extracellular vesicles have recently emerged as a promising field of research due to their pivotal roles in intercellular communication and potential to serve as biomarkers. This review focuses on extracellular vesicles secreted by the human preimplantation embryo. The most recent findings on embryo-derived extracellular vesicles are described and discussed, as well as current technical challenges to study them.

Controllable Bipolar Doping of Graphene with 2D Molecular Dopants.

The fine control of graphene doping levels over a wide energy range remains a challenging issue for the electronic applications of graphene. Here, the controllable doping of chemical vapor deposited graphene, which provides a wide range of energy levels (shifts up to ± 0.5 eV), is demonstrated through physical contact with chemically versatile graphene oxide (GO) sheets, a 2D dopant that can be solution-processed. GO sheets are a p-type dopant due to their abundance of electron-withdrawing functional group...

Chronic recording and electrochemical performance of Utah microelectrode arrays implanted in rat motor cortex.

Multisite implantable electrode arrays serve as a tool to understand cortical network connectivity and plasticity. Furthermore, they enable electrical stimulation to drive plasticity, study motor/sensory mapping, or provide network input for controlling brain-computer interfaces. Neurobehavioral rodent models are prevalent in studies of motor cortex injury and recovery as well as restoration of auditory/visual cues due to their relatively low cost and ease of training. Therefore, it is important to understa...

Minimum Resistance Anisotropy of Epitaxial Graphene on SiC.

We report on electronic transport measurements in rotational square probe configuration in combination with scanning tunneling potentiometry (STP) of epitaxial graphene monolayers, which were fabricated by polymer-assisted sublimation growth on SiC substrates. The absence of bilayer graphene on the ultra-low step edges of below 0.75 nm scrutinized by AFM and STM result in a not yet observed resistance isotropy of graphene on 4H- and 6H-SiC(0001) substrates as low as 2%. We combine microscopic electronic pro...

Extracellular Lactate: A Novel Measure of T Cell Proliferation.

Following activation, T cells rapidly divide and acquire effector functions. This energetically demanding process depends upon the ability of T cells to undergo metabolic remodeling from oxidative phosphorylation to aerobic glycolysis, during which glucose is converted into lactate and released extracellularly. In this article, we demonstrate that extracellular lactate can be used to dynamically assess human T cell responses in vitro. Extracellular lactate levels strongly correlated with T cell proliferatio...

CRISPRCasFinder, an update of CRISRFinder, includes a portable version, enhanced performance and integrates search for Cas proteins.

CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) arrays and their associated (Cas) proteins confer bacteria and archaea adaptive immunity against exogenous mobile genetic elements, such as phages or plasmids. CRISPRCasFinder allows the identification of both CRISPR arrays and Cas proteins. The program includes: (i) an improved CRISPR array detection tool facilitating expert validation based on a rating system, (ii) prediction of CRISPR orientation and (iii) a Cas protein detection and typi...

Curcumin-assisted ultrasound exfoliation of graphite to graphene in ethanol.

In this paper, we demonstrated a simple and cost-effective method to produce graphene from graphite in ethanol using ultrasound assisted with curcumin. The influence of curcumin concentration, starting graphite amount, sonication power, and sonication time on the graphene concentration was studied schematically. The π-π interaction between curcumin and graphene, being confirmed by FTIR spectrum, facilitate the exfoliation of the graphite into graphene. The concentration of the graphene in the ethanol reac...

New insights into enhanced anaerobic degradation of coal gasification wastewater (CGW) with the assistance of graphene.

The up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system with graphene assisted was developed for coal gasification wastewater (CGW) treatment. Short-term results showed that optimal graphene addition (0.5 g/L) resulted in a more significant enhancement of methane production and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal compared with that of the optimal activated carbon addition (10.0 g/L). Long-term results demonstrated that COD removal efficiency and methane production rate with graphene assisted achieved 64.7% ...

Effect of humidity and water intercalation on the tribological behavior of graphene and graphene oxide.

In this work, the effect of humidity and water intercalation on the friction and wear behavior of few-layers of graphene and graphene oxide (GO) was studied using friction force microscopy. Thickness measurements demonstrated significant water intercalation within GO affecting its surface topography (roughness and protrusions), whereas negligible water intercalation of graphene was observed. It was found that water intercalation in GO contributed to wearing of layers at a relative humidity as low as ~30%. T...

Free-anchored Nb2O5@graphene networks for ultrafast-stable lithium storage.

Orthorhombic Nb$_2$O$_5$ (T-Nb$_2$O$_5$) has structural merit but poor electrical conductivity, limiting their applications in energy storage. Although graphene is frequently adopted to effectively improve its electrochemical properties, the ordinary modified methods cannot meet the growing demands for high-performance. Here, we demonstrate that different graphene modified routes play a vital role in affecting the electrochemical performances of T-Nb$_2$O$_5$. By only manual shaking within one minute, Nb$_2...

Copper-Vapor-Assisted Growth and Defect-Healing of Graphene on Copper Surfaces.

Although there is significant progress in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of graphene on Cu surfaces, the industrial application of graphene is not realized yet. One of the most critical obstacles that limit the commercialization of graphene is that CVD graphene contains too many vacancies or sp -type defects. Therefore, further investigation of the growth mechanism is still required to control the defects of graphene. During the growth of graphene, sublimation of the Cu catalyst to produce Cu vapor occ...

Microfluidic viscometry using magnetically actuated micropost arrays.

Here we describe development of a microfluidic viscometer based on arrays of magnetically actuated micro-posts. Quantitative viscosities over a range of three orders of magnitude were determined for samples of less than 20 μL. This represents the first demonstration of quantitative viscometry using driven flexible micropost arrays. Critical to the success of our system is a comprehensive analytical model that includes the mechanical and magnetic properties of the actuating posts, the optical readout, and f...

A graphene-based fluorescent nanoprobe for simultaneous monitoring of miRNA and mRNA in living cells.

Since microRNA-21 (miR-21) and protein programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) are implicated in tumor progression, simultaneous monitoring of the dynamic variation of miR-21 and PDCD4 mRNA in living cells is of great interest for understanding their relationship in the pathology of the disease. Herein, a versatile nanoprobe based on graphene oxide (GO) and DNA was prepared which can simultaneously monitor and visualize miR-21 and PDCD4 mRNA in living cells. In vitro experiments demonstrate that the nanoprobe exhib...

Robust Multilayer Graphene-Organic Frameworks for Selective Separation of Monovalent Anions.

The chemical and mechanical stability of graphene nanosheets was used in this work to design a multilayer architecture of graphene, grafted with sulfonated 4,4'- diaminodiphenyl sulfone (SDDS). Quaternized poly (phenylene oxide) (QPPO) was synthesized and mixed with SDDS (rGO-SDDS-rGO@QPPO), yielding a multilayer graphene-organic framework (MGOF) with positive as well as negative functional groups that can be applied as a versatile electro-driven membrane in electrodialysis (ED). Multilayer graphene-organic...

Camphor-Enabled Transfer and Mechanical Testing of Centimeter-Scale Ultrathin Films.

Camphor is used to transfer centimeter-scale ultrathin films onto custom-designed substrates for mechanical (tensile) testing. Compared to traditional transfer methods using dissolving/peeling to remove the support-layers, camphor is sublimed away in air at low temperature, thereby avoiding additional stress on the as-transferred films. Large-area ultrathin films can be transferred onto hollow substrates without damage by this method. Tensile measurements are made on centimeter-scale 300 nm-thick graphene o...


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