PubMed Journals Articles About "Health Decisions" RSS

18:58 EDT 22nd October 2018 | BioPortfolio

Health Decisions PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Health Decisions articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Health Decisions" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 19,000+

Specialty Drug Coverage Varies Across Commercial Health Plans In The US.

We analyzed specialty drug coverage decisions issued by the largest US commercial health plans to examine variation in coverage and the consistency of those decisions with indications approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Across 3,417 decisions, 16 percent of the 302 drug-indication pairs were covered the same way by all of the health plans, and 48 percent were covered the same way by 75 percent of the plans. Specifically, 52 percent of the decisions were consistent with the FDA label, 9 ...

Environment and the "Health in All Policies" approach-an overview.

One quarter of the global disease burden could be avoided with management strategies for environmental risk factors such as air and water pollution, food contamination, injuries and poor road safety. Many decisions influencing health are made outside the health sector; thus, the joint consideration and implementation of health and environmental factors in the relevant policies are becoming increasingly important.

Financing Medicare Into The Future: Premium Support Fails The Risk-Bearing Test.

One often-discussed option for controlling Medicare spending is to switch to a premium-support design. This would shift part of the risk of future health care cost increases from the federal treasury to Medicare beneficiaries. The economics of risk bearing suggests that this would be a mistake for three reasons. First, political decisions, not beneficiary choices, are the critical determinants of future health care costs. Second, only Congress can take into account the consequences of cost-containment decis...

High CD4 counts associated with better economic outcomes for HIV-positive adults and their HIV-negative household members in the SEARCH Trial.

Country decisions to scale-up "test and treat" approaches for HIV depend on consideration of both the health and economic consequences of such investments. Evidence about economic impacts of expanded antiretroviral therapy (ART) provision is particularly relevant for decisions regarding foreign assistance levels for HIV/AIDS programs. We used baseline data from the Sustainable East Africa Research in Community Health (SEARCH) cluster randomized controlled trial in Kenya and Uganda to examine the association...

Health information and life-course smoking behavior: evidence from Turkey.

We investigate whether individuals are less likely to start and more likely to quit smoking in years when newspapers publish more articles about the health risks of smoking. With data from 9030 respondents to the 2008 Global Adult Tobacco Survey in Turkey, we construct respondents' life-course smoking histories back to 1925 and model initiation and cessation decisions taken 1925-2008. To measure information, we count articles published in Milliyet, one of Turkey's major newspapers. Results from linear proba...

End-of-life Decisions in Emergency Patients: Prevalence, Outcome, and Physician Effect.

End-of-life decisions (EOLD) represent potentially highly consequential decisions often made in acute situations, such as "do not attempt resuscitation" (DNAR) choices at emergency presentation.

Limited self-control and longevity.

This paper proposes a new framework to discuss self-control problems in the context of life-cycle health and longevity. Individual decisions are conceptualized as the partial control of impulsive desires of a short-run self by a rationally forward-looking long-run self. The short-run self strives for immediate gratification through consumption of health-neutral and unhealthy goods. The long-run self reflects the long-term consequences of unhealthy behavior on health outcomes and longevity and invests time a...

It Does Take Two to Tango: An Applied Conversation Analysis of Interactions between a Psychiatrist and Service-Users Discussing Medication.

Decisions concerning psychiatric medication are complex and often involve a protracted process of trial and error. We examine three recorded meetings for power-sharing and power-taking discourse strategies employed by both the psychiatrist and mental health service-user, when discussing psychiatric medication. We identify examples of good practice, as well as missed opportunities to engage service-users in co-constructed dialogue, and highlight that participation and active involvement in decisions is not b...

A Comparative Review of Marketing Authorization Decisions in Switzerland, the EU, and the USA.

In this study we compared Swissmedic's (SMC's) regulatory marketing authorization decisions to those of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European drug regulatory authorities (EU). We investigated the overall similarity of the regulatory decisions, approval, and postmarketing withdrawal rates in the 3 jurisdictions. In case regulatory decisions diverged, we analyzed the reasons for rejection of marketing authorization applications (MAAs).

Implementing parallel spreadsheet models for health policy decisions: The impact of unintentional errors on model projections.

Spreadsheet software is increasingly used to implement systems science models informing health policy decisions, both in academia and in practice where technical capacity may be limited. However, spreadsheet models are prone to unintentional errors that may not always be identified using standard error-checking techniques. Our objective was to illustrate, through a methodologic case study analysis, the impact of unintentional errors on model projections by implementing parallel model versions.

Older Adult and Surrogate Perspectives on Serious, Difficult, and Important Medical Decisions.

To elicit decisions that diverse older adults and surrogates perceive as serious, difficult, or important and explore what helped them make those decisions.

Should Artificial Intelligence Augment Medical Decision Making? The Case for an Autonomy Algorithm.

A significant proportion of elderly and psychiatric patients do not have the capacity to make health care decisions. We suggest that machine learning technologies could be harnessed to integrate data mined from electronic health records (EHRs) and social media in order to estimate the confidence of the prediction that a patient would consent to a given treatment. We call this process, which takes data about patients as input and derives a confidence estimate for a particular patient's predicted health care-...

Relationship Between Internet Health Information and Patient Compliance Based on Trust: Empirical Study.

The internet has become a major mean for acquiring health information; however, Web-based health information is of mixed quality and may markedly affect patients' health-related behavior and decisions. According to the social information processing theory, patients' trust in their physicians may potentially change due to patients' health-information-seeking behavior. Therefore, it is important to identify the relationship between internet health information and patient compliance from the perspective of tru...

The role of travel distance and price promotions in tobacco product purchase quantity.

Rural Americans are particularly vulnerable to tobacco price reducing promotions are known to be directed to and used by vulnerable populations. Tobacco purchasing decisions, such as unit quantity purchased, may vary by rurality, by price promotion use, and possibly by the interaction between the two. Purchase decisions are likely to affect tobacco use behavior. Therefore, explanation of variation in tobacco purchase quantity by factors associated with rural vulnerability and factors that fall under the reg...

Probability discounting of treatment decisions in multiple sclerosis: associations with disease knowledge, neuropsychiatric status, and adherence.

Patients weigh risks and benefits when making treatment decisions. Despite this, relatively few studies examine the behavioral patterns underpinning these decisions. Moreover, individual differences in these patterns remain largely unexplored.

Choosing to Decline: Finding Common Ground through the Perspective of Shared Decision Making.

Respectful communication is a key component of any clinical relationship. Shared decision making is the process of collaboration that occurs between a health care provider and patient in order to make health care decisions based upon the best available evidence and the individual's preferences. A midwife and woman (and her support persons) engage together to make health care decisions, using respectful communication that is based upon the best available evidence and the woman's preferences, values, and goal...

What factors influence the decisions of mental health professionals to release service users from seclusion?

Mental health policy stipulates seclusion should only be used as an intervention of last resort and for the minimum possible duration. Current evidence details which service users are more likely to be secluded, why they are secluded, and what influences the decision to seclude them. However, very little is known about the decision to release service users from seclusion. An integrative review was undertaken to explore the decision-making processes of mental health professionals which guide the ending of se...

On the Usefulness of Narratives: An Interdisciplinary Review and Theoretical Model.

How can we use stories from other people to promote better health experiences, improve judgments about health, and increase the quality of medical decisions without introducing bias, systematically persuading the listeners to change their attitudes, or altering behaviors in nonoptimal ways? More practically, should narratives be used in health education, promotion, or behavior change interventions?

Librarians Promoting Changes in the Health Care Delivery System through Systematic Assessment.

Patient engagement in health care decisions largely depends on a patient's health literacy and the health literacy attributes of the health care organization. Librarians have an established role in connecting patients with health information in the context of their care. However, librarians can play a larger role in helping to make changes in their organization's health literacy attributes. This article discusses one medical library's process of leading systematic assessment of their organization's health l...

Latent risk assessment tool for health care leaders.

Efforts to improve quality of care and patient safety have concentrated on provider practice and frontline care processes. Little attention has focused on understanding the role that leadership decisions play in creating risk within a health care system. The framework and tool described in this article builds on Reason's construct of latent organizational failure by assessing the latent risks of leadership decisions and identifying appropriate mitigation strategies before the implementation of a change. Sta...

Using real world data to extrapolate evidence from randomized controlled trials.

Randomized controlled trials provide evidence for regulatory agencies, shape clinical practice, influence formulary decisions and have important implications for patients. However, many patient groups that are major consumers of drugs are underrepresented in randomized trials. We review 3 methods to extrapolate evidence from trial participants to different target populations following market approval and discuss how these could be implemented in practice to support regulatory and health technology assessmen...

Varieties of trust in preschoolers' learning and practical decisions.

Keeping commitments to others can be difficult, and we know that people sometimes fail to keep them. How does a speaker's ability to keep commitments affect children's practical decisions to trust and their epistemic decisions to learn? An amassing body of research documents children's trust in testimonial learning decisions, which can be moved in the face of epistemic and moral evidence about an agent. However, other bases for trust go largely unexplored in this literature, such as interpersonal reasons to...

The impact of trust decision-making on outcome processing: Evidence from brain potentials and neural oscillations.

It may be beneficial, although risky, to decide to trust others during social interactions in daily life. The current study explored the time course of the effect of trust decisions on outcome evaluation processing using electroencephalographic (EEG) techniques. Twenty-two healthy young adults made trust or distrust decisions regarding a message they received from a stranger in a card game. The results showed that at the early stage of outcome processing, feedback-related negativity (FRN) was more negative ...

Development and validation of alternative cardiovascular risk prediction equations for population health planning: a routine health data linkage study of 1.7 million New Zealanders.

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction equations are primarily used in clinical settings to inform individual risk management decisions. We sought to develop and validate alternative equations derived solely from linked routinely collected national health data that could be applied countrywide to inform population health planning.

Shaping parents, shaping penises: How medical teams frame parents' decisions in response to hypospadias.

Psychological research provides insights into how parents approach medical decisions on behalf of children. The medical decision of concern here is the surgical alteration of a hypospadic penis, whose urethral opening does not appear at the tip. Hypospadias surgery is routinely carried out in infancy, despite criticism by international organizations concerned about children's rights. The focus of this study is on the framing of hypospadias surgery.

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