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PubMed Journals Articles About "Help Wanted Helper NLRs Plant Immune Responses" RSS

14:51 EST 16th February 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Help wanted helper NLRs plant immune responses" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 15,000+

An N-terminal motif in NLR immune receptors is functionally conserved across distantly related plant species.

The molecular codes underpinning the functions of plant NLR immune receptors are poorly understood. We used Mu transposition to generate a random truncation library and identify the minimal functional region of NLRs. We applied this method to NRC4-a helper NLR that functions with multiple sensor NLRs within a Solanaceae receptor network. This revealed that the NRC4 N-terminal 29 amino acids are sufficient to induce hypersensitive cell death. This region is defined by the consensus MADAxVSFxVxKLxxLLxxEx (MA...


Plant immune signaling: Advancing on two frontiers.

Plants have evolved multiple defense strategies to cope with pathogens, among which plant immune signaling that relies on cell-surface localized and intracellular receptors takes fundamental roles. Exciting breakthroughs were made recently on the signaling mechanisms of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and intracellular nucleotide-binding site (NBS) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain receptors (NLRs). This review summarizes current view of PRRs activation, emphasizing the most recent discoveries about...

The Plant "Resistosome": Structural Insights into Immune Signaling.

Plant innate immunity is triggered via direct or indirect recognition of pathogen effectors by the NLR family immune receptors. Mechanistic understanding of plant NLR function has relied on structural information from individual NLR domains and inferences from studies on animal NLRs. Recent reports of the cryo-EM structures of the Arabidopsis plant immune receptor ZAR1 in monomeric inactive and transition states, as well as the active oligomeric state or the "resistosome," have afforded a quantum leap in ou...


Beyond pathogens: microbiota interactions with the plant immune system.

Plant immune receptors perceive microbial molecules and initiate an array of biochemical responses that are effective against most invaders. The role of the plant immune system in detecting and controlling pathogenic microorganism has been well described. In contrast, much less is known about plant immunity in the context of the wealth of commensals that inhabit plants. Recent research indicates that, just like pathogens, commensals in the plant microbiome can suppress or evade host immune responses. Moreov...

Role of Co-stimulatory Molecules in T Helper Cell Differentiation.

CD4 T cells play a central role in orchestrating the immune response to a variety of pathogens but also regulate autoimmune responses, asthma, allergic responses, as well as tumor immunity. To cover this broad spectrum of responses, naïve CD4 T cells differentiate into one of several lineages of T helper cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and T, as defined by their cytokine pattern and function. The fate decision of T helper cell differentiation integrates signals delivered through the T cell receptor, cytok...

Estradiol-inducible AvrRps4 expression reveals distinct properties of TIR-NLR-mediated effector-triggered immunity.

Plant nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat receptor (NLR) proteins play important roles in recognition of pathogen-derived effectors. However, the mechanism by which plant NLRs activate immunity is still largely unknown. The paired Arabidopsis NLRs RRS1-R and RPS4, that confer recognition of bacterial effectors AvrRps4 and PopP2, are well studied, but how the RRS1/RPS4 complex activates early immediate downstream responses upon effector detection is still poorly understood. To study RRS1/RPS4 resp...

A host target of a bacterial cysteine protease virulence effector plays a key role in convergent evolution of plant innate immune system receptors.

Some virulence effectors secreted from pathogens target host proteins and induce biochemical modifications that are monitored by nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat (NLR) immune receptors. Arabidopsis RIN4 protein (AtRIN4: RPM1-interacting protein 4) homologs are present in diverse plant species and targeted by several bacterial type III effector proteins including the cysteine protease AvrRpt2. RIN4 is 'guarded' by several independently evolved NLRs from various plant species, including Arabidopsis ...

Air pollution and its effects on the immune system.

A well-functioning immune system is vital for a healthy body. Inadequate and excessive immune responses underlie diverse pathologies such as serious infections, metastatic malignancies and auto-immune conditions. Therefore, understanding the effects of ambient pollutants on the immune system is vital to understanding how pollution causes disease, and how that pathology could be abrogated. The immune system itself consists of multiple types of immune cell that act together to generate (or fail to generate) i...

Increased T cell plasticity with dysregulation of T follicular helper, T peripheral helper and T regulatory cell responses in children with JIA and Down syndrome-associated arthritis.

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common inflammatory arthritis in children, however an aggressive, erosive arthritis of little known immunological mechanism, occurs 20-times more frequently in children with Down syndrome. This study characterises T-and B-cell polyreactivity, T follicular helper (Tfh), T peripheral helper (Tph) and T regulatory (Treg) cell responses and synovial inflammation in Down syndrome-associated Arthritis (DA).

Divergent immune responses in behaviorally-inhibited vs. non-inhibited male rats.

Stable behavioral traits (temperament, personality) often predict health outcomes. Temperament-specific differences in immune function could explain temperament-specific health outcomes, however, we have limited information on whether immune function varies by personality. In the present study, we examined the relationship between a basic behavioral trait (behavioral-inhibition vs. non-inhibition) and two immune responses (innate inflammation and delayed-type hypersensitivity, DTH) in a rodent model. In hum...

Structural and biochemical studies of an NB-ARC domain from a plant NLR immune receptor.

Plant NLRs are modular immune receptors that trigger rapid cell death in response to attempted infection by pathogens. A highly conserved nucleotide-binding domain shared with APAF-1, various R-proteins and CED-4 (NB-ARC domain) is proposed to act as a molecular switch, cycling between ADP (repressed) and ATP (active) bound forms. Studies of plant NLR NB-ARC domains have revealed functional similarities to mammalian homologues, and provided insight into potential mechanisms of regulation. However, further a...

Never Walk Alone: Clathrin-Coated Vesicle (CCV) Components in Plant Immunity.

At the host-pathogen interface, the protein composition of the plasma membrane (PM) has important implications for how a plant cell perceives and responds to invading microbial pathogens. A plant's ability to modulate its PM composition is critical for regulating the strength, duration, and integration of immune responses. One mechanism by which plant cells reprogram their cell surface is vesicular trafficking, including secretion and endocytosis. These trafficking processes add or remove cargo proteins (su...

Reprogramming and remodeling: transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of salicylic acid-mediated plant defense.

As a plant hormone, salicylic acid (SA) plays essential roles in plant defense against biotrophic and hemibiotrophic pathogens. Significant progress has been made in understanding the SA biosynthesis pathways and SA-mediated defense signaling networks in the past two decades. Plant defense responses involve rapid and massive transcriptional reprogramming upon the recognition of pathogens. Plant transcription factors and their co-regulators are critical players in establishing a transcription regulatory netw...

Arabidopsis Response Regulator 6 (ARR6) modulates plant cell wall composition and disease resistance.

The cytokinin signaling pathway, which is mediated by Arabidopsis Response Regulators (ARRs) proteins, has been involved in the modulation of some disease resistance responses. Here, we describe novel functions of ARR6 in the control of plant disease resistance and cell wall composition. Plants impaired in ARR6 function (arr6) were more resistant and susceptible, respectively, to the necrotrophic fungus Plectosphaerella cucumerina and to the vascular bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum, whereas Arabidopsis pla...

Cancer-Specific Loss of p53 Leads to a Modulation of Myeloid and T Cell Responses.

Loss of p53 function contributes to the development of many cancers. While cell-autonomous consequences of p53 mutation have been studied extensively, the role of p53 in regulating the anti-tumor immune response is still poorly understood. Here, we show that loss of p53 in cancer cells modulates the tumor-immune landscape to circumvent immune destruction. Deletion of p53 promotes the recruitment and instruction of suppressive myeloid CD11b cells, in part through increased expression of CXCR3/CCR2-associ...

CXCR5 CD4 T cell subsets and their relationship to immune dysfunction in chronic hepatitis B associated liver cirrhosis.

Hepatitis B associated liver cirrhosis (HBC) leads to profound alterations of immune systems, especially disruptions of B cell immune responses. CXCR5+CD4+ T cells (including T follicular helper cells (Tfh) and T follicular regulatory cells (Tfr)) are responsible for the regulation of B cell functions. The aim of this study was to dissect the roles of CXCR5+CD4+ T cell subset in B cell disruption caused by HBC.

Adjuvanticity of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide liposomes on porcine circovirus type-II in mice.

Ganoderma lucidum has been widely used as a fungal, for promoting health and longevity in China and other Asian countries. Polysaccharide (PS) extracted from Ganoderma lucidum exhibits a variety of immunomodulatory activities and has the ability to induce strong immune responses. Liposomes (Lip) have been shown to be useful carriers of vaccine antigens and can be applied as a versatile delivery system for vaccine adjuvants. Here, PS and inactivated porcine circovirus type II (PCV-II) were encapsulated into ...

B Cells and T Follicular Helper Cells Mediate Response to Checkpoint Inhibitors in High Mutation Burden Mouse Models of Breast Cancer.

This study identifies mechanisms mediating responses to immune checkpoint inhibitors using mouse models of triple-negative breast cancer. By creating new mammary tumor models, we find that tumor mutation burden and specific immune cells are associated with response. Further, we developed a rich resource of single-cell RNA-seq and bulk mRNA-seq data of immunotherapy-treated and non-treated tumors from sensitive and resistant murine models. Using this, we uncover that immune checkpoint therapy induces T folli...

IL-17A-producing innate lymphoid cells promote skin inflammation by inducing IL-33- driven type 2 immune responses.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic, pruritic, inflammatory skin disease characterized by a type 2 cytokines secreted by T helper 2 (Th2) cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s). Despite a high degree of heterogeneity, AD is still explained by type 2 immunity, and the role of interleukin (IL)-17A, which is increased in acute, pediatric, or Asian patients with AD, remains poorly understood. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of IL-17A-producing ILC3s, which are unexplored immune cells, in the pat...

Structural Biology of NOD-Like Receptors.

The nucleotide-binding domain (NBD) and leucine-rich repeat (LRR) containing (NLR) proteins are a large family of intracellular immune receptors conserved in both animals and plants. Mammalian NLRs function as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to sense pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or host-derived danger associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). PAMP or DAMP perception activates NLRs which consequently recruit pro-caspase-1 directly or indirectly. These sequential events result in formation...

Development of a conserved chimeric vaccine based on helper T-cell and CTL epitopes for induction of strong immune response against Schistosoma mansoni using immunoinformatics approaches.

Currently, three recombinant antigens based vaccines are under clinical trials against Schistosomiasis, but there is no vaccine available for prophylaxis or therapeutic. This study was conducted to construct a multi-epitope based vaccine against Schistosoma mansoni via utilizing Sm14, Sm21.7, Sm23, Sm29, Smp80, Sm-CB and SM-TSP-2 antigens. Helper T lymphocyte (HTL), cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and IFN-γ epitopes were predicted. Furthermore, Pan HLA DR-binding epitope was added to the vaccine. Moreover, 50...

PD-1 blockade promotes immune memory following Plasmodium berghei ANKA reinfection.

The establishment of malaria immune memory is slow, incomplete, and short-lived. The mechanisms underpinning the generation and maintenance of anti-malarial immune memory remain unclear. This study evaluated the possible role of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) in the establishment of malaria immune memory. Following infection by Plasmodium berghei ANKA (Pb ANKA) we compared natural immunity, acquired immunity, and immune memory between WT and mice lacking PD-1 via monoclonal antibody treatment. We found that...

A permethrin metabolite is associated with adaptive immune responses in Gulf War Illness.

Gulf War Illness (GWI), affecting 30% of veterans from the 1991 Gulf War (GW), is a multi-symptom illness with features similar to those of patients with autoimmune diseases. The objective of the current work is to determine if exposure to GW-related pesticides, such as permethrin (PER), activates peripheral and central nervous system (CNS) adaptive immune responses. In the current study, we focused on a PER metabolite, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), as this is a common metabolite previously shown to form a...

Pregnancy Status Alters IL-21-mediated Effects on Murine B Lymphocytes.

A favorable outcome of pregnancy depends greatly on an adequate balance of immune protection and fetal tolerance at the fetomaternal interface. IL-21 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine associated to altered immune responses in auto-immune diseases. IL-21 has pleiotropic functions, including induction of Th17 T cells, inhibition of Treg development, and modulation antibody responses of B lymphocytes. Genetic polymorphisms of IL21 have been associated to poor pregnancy outcomes. However, the mechanism of IL-21 ac...

Janus or Hydra: The Many Faces of T Helper Cells in the Human Tumour Microenvironment.

CD4+ T helper (T) cells are key regulators in the tumour immune microenvironment (TIME), mediating the adaptive immunological response towards cancer, mainly through the activation of cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. After antigen recognition and proper co-stimulation, naïve T cells are activated, undergo clonal expansion, and release cytokines that will define the differentiation of a specific effector T cell subtype. These different subtypes have different functions, which can mediate both anti- and pro-tumour im...


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