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Different oculomotor abnormalities have been reported to occur in premanifest Huntington's disease. The aim of this study is to investigate which oculomotor items of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) are affected in premanifest individuals compared to healthy controls, and if CAG repeat length and age are correlated with oculomotor abnormalities in premanifest Huntington's disease gene carriers.
In Huntington's disease, 60% of the variance in onset age is not explained by the huntingtin gene mutation. Huntington's disease onset was earlier in caffeine users.
Lowering the levels of disease-causing proteins is an attractive treatment strategy for neurodegenerative disorders, among which Huntington's disease is an appealing disease for testing this strategy because of its monogenetic nature. Huntington's disease is mainly caused by cytotoxicity of the mutant HTT protein with an expanded polyglutamine repeat tract. Lowering the soluble mutant HTT may reduce its downstream toxicity and provide potential treatment for Huntington's disease. This is hard to achieve by ...
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, but evidence also suggests neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis. The immune mechanisms involved and the timing of their activation need further clarification.
Cognitive impairment is one of the main features of Huntington's disease and is present across the disease spectrum. As part of the International Parkinson's Disease and Movement Disorder Society-sponsored project to review all clinical rating scales used in Huntington's disease, a systematic review of the literature was performed to identify cognitive scales used in Huntington's disease and make recommendations for their use. A total of 17 cognitive scales were identified and evaluated. None of the scales ...
Chorea is the hallmark motor feature of Huntington disease (HD) and can negatively impact daily functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).
The compromise of quality of life in Huntington's disease is a major issue, both for individuals with the disease as well as for their caregivers. The International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society commissioned a review of the use and clinimetric validation status of measures used in Huntington's disease to assess aspects related with quality of life and to make recommendations on their use following standardized criteria. We included both patient-centered measures (patient health-related quality-of-...
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative condition caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the gene encoding huntingtin (HTT). Optimizing peripheral quantification of huntingtin throughout the course of HD is valuable not only to illuminate the natural history and pathogenesis of disease, but also to detect peripheral effects of drugs in clinical trial.
Deficits in posture and gait are known to contribute to the complex motor phenotype of Huntington disease (HD). Objective and quantitative measures of posture and gait provided by posturography and GAITRite assessments may supplement categorical rating scales such as the UHDRS-TMS and increase power and sensitivity of clinical trials.
Huntington's disease (HD) gene expansion carriers are at an increased risk of suicide, but so far, no studies have investigated the full spectrum of suicidality, including suicidal ideation, suicidal behavior and self-injurious behavior.
Huntington disease (HD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine sequence in a gene encoding the huntingtin (Htt) protein, which is expressed in almost all cells of the body. In addition to small animal models, new therapeutic approaches (including gene therapy) require large animal models as their large brains are a more realistic model for translational research.
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor dysfunction, cognitive decline, and psychiatric disturbances. Studies have shown retinal abnormalities in patients and mouse models with HD; however, to our knowledge, no prior research papers evaluated retinal structure and function in a presymptomatic patient with HD. The aim of this report is to present a case of retinal dysfunction in a presymptomatic patient with HD.
Organotypic brain slice cultures have been recently used to study neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease (HD). They preserve brain three-dimensional architecture, synaptic connectivity and brain cells microenvironment. Here, we developed an innovative model of Huntington's disease from coronal rat brain slices, that include all the areas involved in the pathology. HD-like neurodegeneration was obtained in only one week, in a single step, during organotypic slice pre...
There have been ongoing clinical trials of therapeutic agents in Huntington's disease (HD) which requires development of reliable biomarkers of disease progression. There have been studies in the literature with conflicting results on the involvement of retina in HD, and up to date there is not a study evaluating the single retinal layers in HD. We aimed to evaluate the specific retinal changes in HD and their usability as potential disease progression markers.
Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic, rare and progressive neurodegenerative disorder that causes motor and cognitive impairment in midlife patients. Although retinal damage was observed in animal HD models and in patients with other neurodegenerative diseases, we still need confirmation of impairment in HD patients. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive methodology that analyzes the retinal nerve fiber layers (RNFL) and could reflect processes of neurodegeneration.
Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) is expressed in the mouse striatum; however, it is not clear the NT-3 role in striatal physiology. The expression levels of mRNAs and immune localization of the NT-3 protein and its receptor TrkC are altered in the striatum following damage induced by an in vivo treatment with 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), a mitochondrial toxin used to mimic the histopathological hallmarks of Huntington's disease (HD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of NT-3 on corticostriatal synaptic t...
Symptom progression in Huntington disease (HD) is associated with cognitive decline which may interfere with the self-report of symptoms. Unfortunately, data to support or refute the psychometric reliability of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) as HD progresses are limited. This is problematic given that PROs are increasingly recognized as important measures of efficacy for new treatments.
In visuo-constructional tasks, patients may reproduce drawings near-to or superimposed on a model, showing the so-called "Closing-in" (CI), often ascribed to a defect in inhibitory control. CI has been described in neurological conditions, but no studies have explored CI in Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disorder often involving the frontal cortical-subcortical circuits. We searched for the occurrence of CI in HD patients and systematically investigated its correlates to find a clinical mark...
Cognitive functioning impacts health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for individuals with Huntington disease (HD). The Neuro-QoL includes two patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures of cognition-Executive Function (EF) and General Concerns (GC). These measures have not previously been validated for use in HD. The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Neuro-QoL Cognitive Function measures for use in HD.
Huntington Disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by motor, cognitive and behavioral features caused by a CAG expansion in the HTT gene beyond 35 repeats. The juvenile form (JHD) may begin before the age of 20years and is associated with expanded alleles as long as 60 or more CAG repeats. In this study, induced pluripotent stem cells were generated from skin fibroblasts of a 8-year-old child carrying a large size mutation of 84 CAG repeats in the HTT gene. HD appeared at age 3 with mix...
Huntington's disease (HD) is an incurable, autosomal dominant, hereditary neurodegenerative disorder that typically manifests itself in midlife. This pathology is linked to the deregulation of multiple, as yet unknown, cellular processes starting before HD onset. A human iPS cell line was generated from skin fibroblasts of a subject at the presymptomatic life stage, carrying a polyglutamine expansion in HTT gene codifying Huntingtin protein. The iPSC line contained the expected CAG expansion, expressed the ...
Juvenile Onset Huntington's Disease (JOHD) is a rare variant of HD withage of onset ≤20 years, accounting for 3-10% of all HD patients. The rarity occurrence of JOHD cases, who severely progress towards mental and physical disability with atypical clinical manifestations compared to classical HD, are responsible of general lack of knowledge about this variant. We obtained a fully reprogrammed iPS cell line from fibroblasts of a JOHD patient carrying 65 CAG repeats and age at onset at age 15. At the biop...