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Huntington's disease is a rare, neurodegenerative disease caused by an expanded CAG repeat mutation in the huntingtin gene. Compared with adult-onset Huntington's disease, juvenile Huntington's disease (onset ≤20 years) is even rarer and has not been studied extensively. We aimed to further characterise juvenile Huntington's disease by examining the effect of CAG repeat size on disease presentation, progression, and survival.
Huntington disease (HD) is associated with increased risk of suicide.
Lowering the levels of disease-causing proteins is an attractive treatment strategy for neurodegenerative disorders, among which Huntington's disease is an appealing disease for testing this strategy because of its monogenetic nature. Huntington's disease is mainly caused by cytotoxicity of the mutant HTT protein with an expanded polyglutamine repeat tract. Lowering the soluble mutant HTT may reduce its downstream toxicity and provide potential treatment for Huntington's disease. This is hard to achieve by ...
Imaging biomarkers for neurodegenerative disorders are primarily developed with the goal to aid diagnosis, to monitor disease progression, and to assess the efficacy of disease-modifying therapies in support to clinical outcomes that may either show limited sensitivity or need extended time for their evaluation. This article will review the most recent concepts and findings in the field of neuroimaging applied to Huntington's disease and Huntington-like syndromes. Emphasis will be given to the discussion of...
Huntington's disease (HD) presents with motor, cognitive, and behavioral symptoms that impair functional capacity and the ability to maintain employment. The relative contribution of cognitive decline to work disability remains controversial.
In clinical practice, several strategies and pharmacological options are available to treat neuropsychiatric symptoms of Huntington disease (HD). However, there is currently insufficient data for evidence-based guidelines on the management of these common symptoms.
As the disease progresses, patients with Huntington's disease (HD), an inherited neurodegenerative disorder, become less independent in their daily life activities and have to consider if they can still drive a car. For most patients, the decision to quit driving is difficult and affects their independence and social activities.
Chorea is the hallmark motor feature of Huntington disease (HD) and can negatively impact daily functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).
The compromise of quality of life in Huntington's disease is a major issue, both for individuals with the disease as well as for their caregivers. The International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society commissioned a review of the use and clinimetric validation status of measures used in Huntington's disease to assess aspects related with quality of life and to make recommendations on their use following standardized criteria. We included both patient-centered measures (patient health-related quality-of-...
Huntington's disease (HD) is characterized by early involvement of the striatum. It affects the pace of repetitive motor activity, as motor timing depends on basal ganglia activity. However, data are lacking on the impact of this process on auditory time perception in motor non-affected gene carriers.
Deficits in posture and gait are known to contribute to the complex motor phenotype of Huntington disease (HD). Objective and quantitative measures of posture and gait provided by posturography and GAITRite assessments may supplement categorical rating scales such as the UHDRS-TMS and increase power and sensitivity of clinical trials.
In clinical practice, patients with Huntington's disease (HD) often decide to solely drive in their own familiar neighborhoods and not on a motorway or in an unknown area. The aim of the study was to identify differences in driving performance between HD gene carriers and healthy individuals in simulated urban and motorway environments.
Huntington disease (HD) is an incurable neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine sequence in a gene encoding the huntingtin (Htt) protein, which is expressed in almost all cells of the body. In addition to small animal models, new therapeutic approaches (including gene therapy) require large animal models as their large brains are a more realistic model for translational research.
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor dysfunction, cognitive decline, and psychiatric disturbances. Studies have shown retinal abnormalities in patients and mouse models with HD; however, to our knowledge, no prior research papers evaluated retinal structure and function in a presymptomatic patient with HD. The aim of this report is to present a case of retinal dysfunction in a presymptomatic patient with HD.
The lysosome-mediated degradation pathway known as macroautophagy is the most versatile means through which cells can eliminate and recycle unwanted materials. Through both selective and non-selective means, macroautophagy can degrade a wide range of cargoes from bulk cytosol to organelles and aggregated proteins. Although studies of disorders such as Parkinson's disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis suggest that autophagic and lysosomal dysfunction directly contributes to disease, this had not been the...
Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic, rare and progressive neurodegenerative disorder that causes motor and cognitive impairment in midlife patients. Although retinal damage was observed in animal HD models and in patients with other neurodegenerative diseases, we still need confirmation of impairment in HD patients. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive methodology that analyzes the retinal nerve fiber layers (RNFL) and could reflect processes of neurodegeneration.
Symptom progression in Huntington disease (HD) is associated with cognitive decline which may interfere with the self-report of symptoms. Unfortunately, data to support or refute the psychometric reliability of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) as HD progresses are limited. This is problematic given that PROs are increasingly recognized as important measures of efficacy for new treatments.
In visuo-constructional tasks, patients may reproduce drawings near-to or superimposed on a model, showing the so-called "Closing-in" (CI), often ascribed to a defect in inhibitory control. CI has been described in neurological conditions, but no studies have explored CI in Huntington's disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disorder often involving the frontal cortical-subcortical circuits. We searched for the occurrence of CI in HD patients and systematically investigated its correlates to find a clinical mark...
Huntington's disease (HD) is a heritable neurodegenerative disorder, and there is no cure for HD to date. A type of fibroblast growth factor (FGF), FGF9, has been reported to play prosurvival roles in other neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. However, the effects of FGF9 on HD is still unknown. With many similarities in the cellular and pathological mechanisms that eventually cause cell death in neurodegenerative diseases, we hypothesize that FGF9 might provide n...
Juvenile Onset Huntington's Disease (JOHD) is a rare variant of HD withage of onset ≤20 years, accounting for 3-10% of all HD patients. The rarity occurrence of JOHD cases, who severely progress towards mental and physical disability with atypical clinical manifestations compared to classical HD, are responsible of general lack of knowledge about this variant. We obtained a fully reprogrammed iPS cell line from fibroblasts of a JOHD patient carrying 65 CAG repeats and age at onset at age 15. At the biop...
Huntington's disease (HD) is a monogenic, fully penetrant neurodegenerative disorder, providing an ideal model for understanding brain changes occurring in the years prior to disease onset. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies show widespread white matter disorganization in the early pre-manifest stages (pre-HD). However, while DTI has proved informative, it provides only limited information about underlying changes in tissue properties. Neurite Orientation Dispersion and Density Imaging (NODDI) is a nove...
Huntington's disease (HD) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder manifesting as progressive impairment of motor function, cognitive decline, psychiatric symptoms, and immunological and endocrine dysfunction. We explored the consistency of blood transcriptomic biomarkers in HD based on a novel Slovene patient cohort and expert review of previous studies. HumanHT-12 v4 BeadChip microarrays were performed on the whole blood samples of a cohort of 23 HD mutation carriers and 23 controls to identify differential...