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PubMed Journals Articles About "Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood" RSS

08:17 EDT 23rd June 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Influence population size density proximity talent clubs likelihood" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 27,000+

Influence of population size, density, and proximity to talent clubs on the likelihood of becoming elite youth athlete.

Previous studies have found significant differences in the likelihood of becoming an elite athlete depending on community population sizes and densities, an effect known as the place of early development, or birthplace effect. However, the results have not been consistent between sports or European countries. Since both professional and voluntary clubs are vital to the talent development systems in Europe, the proximity of an athlete's place of early development to the location of talent clubs may be an imp...


Predation and Nutrients drive Population Declines in Breeding Waders.

Allee effects are defined as a decline in per capita fitness at low population density. We hypothesized that predation reduces population size of breeding waders and thereby the efficiency of predator deterrence, while total nitrogen through its effects on primary and secondary productivity increases population size. Therefore, nest predation could have negative consequences for population size because nest failure generally results in breeding dispersal and hence reduced local population density. To test t...

Monte Carlo local likelihood approximation.

We propose the Monte Carlo local likelihood (MCLL) method for approximating maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). MCLL initially treats model parameters as random variables, sampling them from the posterior distribution as in a Bayesian model. The likelihood function is then approximated up to a constant by fitting a density to the posterior samples and dividing the approximate posterior density by the prior. In the MCLL algorithm, the posterior density is estimated using local likelihood density estimation,...


Density and population viability of coastal marten: a rare and geographically isolated small carnivore.

Pacific martens () in coastal forests of Oregon and northern California in the United States are rare and geographically isolated, prompting a petition for listing under the Endangered Species Act. If listed, regulations have the potential to influence land-use decisions on public and private lands, but no estimates of population size, density, or viability of remnant marten populations are available for evaluating their conservation status. We used GPS and VHF telemetry and spatial mark-resight to estimate...

The effect of harvesting on the spatial synchrony of population fluctuations.

Harvesting in space affects, in general, the spatial scale of the synchrony in the population fluctuations, which determines the size of the areas subjected to simultaneous quasi-extinction risk. Here we show that harvesting reduces the population synchrony scale if it depends more strongly on population fluctuations than the density dependence of the growth rate in the absence of harvesting. We show that constant and proportional harvesting always increases the spatial scale, using a theta-logistic model f...

Experimental evidence that density dependence strongly influences plant invasions through fragmented landscapes.

Populations of range expanding species encounter patches of both favorable and unfavorable habitat as they spread across landscapes. Theory shows that increasing patchiness slows the spread of populations modeled with continuously varying population density when dispersal is not influence by the environment or individual behavior. However, as is found in uniformly favorable landscapes, spread remains driven by fecundity and dispersal from low density individuals at the invasion front. In contrast, when mode...

Research on the development efficiency of regional high-end talent in China: A complex network approach.

In this paper, based on the panel data of 31 provinces and cities in China from 1991 to 2016, the regional development efficiency matrix of high-end talent is obtained by DEA method, and the matrix is converted into a continuous change of complex networks through the construction of sliding window. Using a series of continuous changes in the complex network topology statistics, the characteristics of regional high-end talent development efficiency system are analyzed. And the results show that the average d...

Density Dependence and Growth Rate: Evolutionary Effects on Resistance Development to Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis).

It has long been recognized that pest population dynamics can affect the durability of a pesticide, but dose remains the primary component of insect resistance management (IRM). For transgenic pesticidal traits such as Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae)), dose (measured as the mortality of susceptibles caused by a toxin) is a relatively fixed characteristic and often falls below the standard definition of high dose. Hence, it is important to understand how pest population dynamics...

Drivers of Diversification in Individual Life Courses.

Heterogeneity in life courses among individuals of a population influences the speed of adaptive evolutionary processes, but it is less clear how biotic and abiotic environmental fluctuations influence such heterogeneity. We investigate principal drivers of variability in sequence of stages during an individual's life in a stage-structured population. We quantify heterogeneity by measuring population entropy of a Markov chain, which computes the rate of diversification of individual life courses. Using indi...

Temperature-dependent body size effects determine population responses to climate warming.

Current understanding of animal population responses to rising temperatures is based on the assumption that biological rates such as metabolism, which governs fundamental ecological processes, scale independently with body size and temperature, despite empirical evidence for interactive effects. Here, we investigate the consequences of interactive temperature- and size scaling of vital rates for the dynamics of populations experiencing warming using a stage-structured consumer-resource model. We show that i...

Place matters: A longitudinal analysis measuring the association between neighbourhood walkability and walking by age group and population center size in Canada.

This study examined the influence of walkability on walking behaviour and assessed whether associations varied according to life-stage and population center (PC) size. Walkability scores were obtained for the six-digit postal codes of residential neighbourhoods of 11,200 Canadians, who participated in biennial assessments of the National Population Health Survey from 1994 to 2010. Participants were stratified by age-group. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to estimate the influence of cumul...

Consistent individual differences and population plasticity in network-derived sociality: An experimental manipulation of density in a gregarious ungulate.

In many taxa, individual social traits appear to be consistent across time and context, thus meeting the criteria for animal personality. How these differences are maintained in response to changes in population density is unknown, particularly in large mammals, such as ungulates. Using a behavioral reaction norm (BRN) framework, we examined how among- and within-individual variation in social connectedness, measured using social network analyses, change as a function of population density. We studied a cap...

Stochastic Evolutionary Demography under a Fluctuating Optimum Phenotype.

Many natural populations exhibit temporal fluctuations in abundance that are consistent with external forcing by a randomly changing environment. As fitness emerges from an interaction between the phenotype and the environment, such demographic fluctuations probably include a substantial contribution from fluctuating phenotypic selection. We study the stochastic population dynamics of a population exposed to random (plus possibly directional) changes in the optimum phenotype for a quantitative trait that ev...

Influence of Effective Population Size on Genes under Varying Levels of Selection Pressure.

The ratio of diversities at amino acid changing (nonsynonymous) and neutral (synonymous) sites (ω = πN/πS) is routinely used to measure the intensity of selection pressure. It is well known that this ratio is influenced by the effective population size (Ne) and selection coefficient (s). Here, we examined the effects of effective population size on ω by comparing protein-coding genes from Mus musculus castaneus and Mus musculus musculus-two mouse subspecies with different Ne. Our results revealed a po...

The Influence of Place of Residence, Gender and Age Influence on Food Group Choices in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study.

Socioeconomic factors (SEF) can exert a great impact on food choices. However, limited data are available from the Spanish population. Our aim was to describe the influence of place of residence and habitat size on food group intakes. Data were obtained from the ANIBES study. A 3-day dietary record provided information on food and beverage consumption. Data analysis compared gender, age, Nielsen geographic areas, and habitat population size (urban, semi-urban, and rural). Place of residence did not appear t...

Dispersal and population state of an endangered island lizard following a conservation translocation.

Population size is widely used as a unit of ecological analysis, yet to estimate population size requires accounting for observed and latent heterogeneity influencing dispersion of individuals across landscapes. In newly established populations, such as when animals are translocated for conservation, dispersal and availability of resources influence patterns of abundance. We developed a process to estimate population size using N-mixture models and spatial models for newly established and dispersing populat...

Non-parametric estimation of population size changes from the site frequency spectrum.

Changes in population size is a useful quantity for understanding the evolutionary history of a species. Genetic variation within a species can be summarized by the site frequency spectrum (SFS). For a sample of size n, the SFS is a vector of length n - 1 where entry i is the number of sites where the mutant base appears i times and the ancestral base appears n - i times. We present a new method, CubSFS, for estimating the changes in population size of a panmictic population from an observed SFS. First, we ...

Restoration of Eastern oyster populations with positive density dependence.

Positive density dependence (i.e. Allee effects) can create a threshold of population states below which extinction of the population occurs. The existence of this threshold, which can often be a complex, multi-dimensional surface, rather than a single point, is of particular importance in degraded populations for which there is a desire for successful restoration. Here, we incorporated positive density dependence into a closed, size- and age-structured integral projection model parameterized with empirical...

Nonlinear population dynamics in a bounded habitat.

A key issue in ecology is whether a population will survive long term or go extinct. This is the question we address in this paper for a population in a bounded habitat. We will restrict our study to the case of a single species in a one-dimensional habitat of length L. The evolution of the population density distribution ρ(x, t), where x is the position and t the time, is governed by elementary processes such as growth and dispersal, which, in standard models, are typically described by a constant per cap...

Proximity labeling: spatially resolved proteomic mapping for neurobiology.

Understanding signaling pathways in neuroscience requires high-resolution maps of the underlying protein networks. Proximity-dependent biotinylation with engineered enzymes, in combination with mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics, has emerged as a powerful method to dissect molecular interactions and the localizations of endogenous proteins. Recent applications to neuroscience have provided insights into the composition of sub-synaptic structures, including the synaptic cleft and inhibitory post...

Association between glutamate transporter gene polymorphisms and obsessive-compulsive disorder/trait empathy in a Korean population.

Accumulating evidence suggests that the glutamatergic system plays a major role in the pathophysiology of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and empathic processing. Particularly, genetic influence of glutamate transporter gene (SLC1A1) on OCD has been frequently replicated in previous studies, but several studies did not replicate the result. Therefore, we aimed to replicate the associations between the SLC1A1 and OCD in a Korean population. In addition, we investigated the influence of SLC1A1 on trait em...

When increasing population density can promote the evolution of metabolic cooperation.

Microbial cooperation drives ecological and epidemiological processes and is affected by the ecology and demography of populations. Population density influences the selection for cooperation, with spatial structure and the type of social dilemma, namely public-goods production or self-restraint, shaping the outcome. While existing theories predict that in spatially structured environments increasing population density can select either for or against cooperation, experimental studies with both public-goods...

High throughput nonparametric probability density estimation.

In high throughput applications, such as those found in bioinformatics and finance, it is important to determine accurate probability distribution functions despite only minimal information about data characteristics, and without using human subjectivity. Such an automated process for univariate data is implemented to achieve this goal by merging the maximum entropy method with single order statistics and maximum likelihood. The only required properties of the random variables are that they are continuous a...

Assessment of signature handwriting evidence via score-based likelihood ratio based on comparative measurement of relevant dynamic features.

This paper extends on previous research on the extraction and statistical analysis on relevant dynamic features (width, grayscale and radian combined with writing sequence information) in forensic handwriting examinations. In this paper, a larger signature database was gathered, including genuine signatures, freehand imitation signatures, random forgeries and tracing imitation signatures, which are often encountered in casework. After applying Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of the variables describing t...

Knowledge and Concern about STIs/HIV and Sociodemographic Variables Associated with Getting Tested for HIV Among the General Population in Spain.

HIV testing is important in terms of prevention and treatment. However, HIV testing rates in the Spanish general population remains low. Therefore, HIV testing promotion constitutes a key issue. A high level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS is associated with having been tested for HIV. The general aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of people who had ever been tested for HIV in Spain. The sample consisted of 1,106 participants from the general population - 60.0% females and 40.0% males - aged betw...


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