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PubMed Journals Articles About "Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood" RSS

05:10 EST 18th January 2018 | BioPortfolio

Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Influence population size density proximity talent clubs likelihood" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 28,000+

Influence of population size, density, and proximity to talent clubs on the likelihood of becoming elite youth athlete.

Previous studies have found significant differences in the likelihood of becoming an elite athlete depending on community population sizes and densities, an effect known as the place of early development, or birthplace effect. However, the results have not been consistent between sports or European countries. Since both professional and voluntary clubs are vital to the talent development systems in Europe, the proximity of an athlete's place of early development to the location of talent clubs may be an imp...


Searching for the elusive gift: advances in talent identification in sport.

The incentives for sport organizations to identify talented athletes from a young age continue to grow, yet effective talent identification remains a challenging task. This opinion paper examines recent advances in talent identification, focusing in particular on the emergence of new approaches that may offer promise to identify talent (e.g., small-sided games, genetic testing, and advanced statistical analyses). We appraise new multi-disciplinary and large-scale population studies of talent identification,...

Monte Carlo local likelihood approximation.

We propose the Monte Carlo local likelihood (MCLL) method for approximating maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). MCLL initially treats model parameters as random variables, sampling them from the posterior distribution as in a Bayesian model. The likelihood function is then approximated up to a constant by fitting a density to the posterior samples and dividing the approximate posterior density by the prior. In the MCLL algorithm, the posterior density is estimated using local likelihood density estimation,...


Phytoplankton size-scaling of net-energy flux across light and biomass gradients.

Many studies examine how body size mediates energy use, but few examine how size simultaneously regulates energy acquisition. Furthermore, rarely energy fluxes are examined while accounting for the role of biotic and abiotic factors in which they are nested. These limitations contribute to an incomplete understanding of how size affects the transfer of energy through individuals, populations, and communities. Here we characterized photosynthesis-irradiance (P-I) curves and per-cell net-energy use for 21 phy...

Population structure of the monogenean, Paramazocraes thrissocles (Mazocraeidae) on the gills of clupeoid fish, Thryssa mystax of Visakhapatnam coast, Bay of Bengal.

An investigation was undertaken on the population biology of the mazocraeid monogenean Paramazocreas thrissocles occurring on the gills of the engraulid fish Thryssa mystax at Visakhapatnam coast , Bay of Bengal. The influence of season and host size on the parasite population density and the dispersion pattern of the parasite in the host population were analysed. A distinct seasonal pattern in the prevalence and intensity to infection is noted with higher parasite loads prevailing during warmer summer mont...

The life-saving effect of hospital proximity.

We provide a new assessment of the effect of hospital proximity in an emergency situation-road-traffic accidents-exploiting the exogenous variation in the proximity to cities that are legally allowed to have a hospital on the basis of their population size. Our instrumental variable results show that a one-standard-deviation increase in the distance to the nearest hospital (5 km) raises the fatality rate by 13.84% at the sample average. This figure is equal to 0.92 additional deaths per 100 accidents. We ...

SUV-quantification of physiological lung tissue in an integrated PET/MR-system: Impact of lung density and bone tissue.

The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of lung density changes as well as bone proximity on the attenuation correction of lung standardized uptake values (SUVs).

Effective size in density-dependent two-sex populations: the effect of mating systems.

Density dependence in vital rates is a key feature affecting temporal fluctuations of natural populations. This has important implications for the rate of random genetic drift. Mating systems also greatly affect effective population sizes, but knowledge of how mating system and density regulation interact to affect random genetic drift is poor. Using theoretical models and simulations, we compare Ne in short-lived, density dependent animal populations with different mating systems. We study the impact of a ...

Spanish version of the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire for sport: Cultural adaptation and initial validation.

This study aimed to translate the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire into Spanish and provide an initial validation. A recommended methodology for translation and cultural adaptation of questionnaires was applied. Once this had been completed, three hundred and thirty-two young athletes completed the Talent Development Environment Questionnaire. The results revealed that the five factor solution Talent Development Environment Questionnaire was confirmed. With the exclusion of one item due to low f...

Effects of scale of movement, detection probability, and true population density on common methods of estimating population density.

Knowledge of population density is necessary for effective management and conservation of wildlife, yet rarely are estimators compared in their robustness to effects of ecological and observational processes, which can greatly influence accuracy and precision of density estimates. In this study, we simulate biological and observational processes using empirical data to assess effects of animal scale of movement, true population density, and probability of detection on common density estimators. We also appl...

Research on the development efficiency of regional high-end talent in China: A complex network approach.

In this paper, based on the panel data of 31 provinces and cities in China from 1991 to 2016, the regional development efficiency matrix of high-end talent is obtained by DEA method, and the matrix is converted into a continuous change of complex networks through the construction of sliding window. Using a series of continuous changes in the complex network topology statistics, the characteristics of regional high-end talent development efficiency system are analyzed. And the results show that the average d...

You Wouldn't Sober, You Shouldn't Drunk: A Behavioural Change Approach to Changing Attitudes and Responses to Unwanted Sexual Attention in Pubs and Clubs.

The objective was to evaluate a campaign designed to influence social norms and re-establish boundaries around the issue of unwanted sexual attention in pubs and clubs. In particular, the campaign aimed to raise awareness, and reduce the acceptability, of unwanted sexual attention when drunk.

Density Dependence and Growth Rate: Evolutionary Effects on Resistance Development to Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis).

It has long been recognized that pest population dynamics can affect the durability of a pesticide, but dose remains the primary component of insect resistance management (IRM). For transgenic pesticidal traits such as Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae)), dose (measured as the mortality of susceptibles caused by a toxin) is a relatively fixed characteristic and often falls below the standard definition of high dose. Hence, it is important to understand how pest population dynamics...

The impact of holiday clubs on household food insecurity-A pilot study.

This research investigates whether holiday clubs have the potential to reduce food insecurity among households in the United Kingdom. We survey parents (n = 38) of children attending seven different holiday clubs to estimate the percentage of children in those programmes who come from food insecure households. Results suggest that 42% (16 out of 38 respondents) of children come from households defined as "food insecure" and 24% (9 out of 38 respondents) come from households that are "food insecure with hu...

Drivers of Diversification in Individual Life Courses.

Heterogeneity in life courses among individuals of a population influences the speed of adaptive evolutionary processes, but it is less clear how biotic and abiotic environmental fluctuations influence such heterogeneity. We investigate principal drivers of variability in sequence of stages during an individual's life in a stage-structured population. We quantify heterogeneity by measuring population entropy of a Markov chain, which computes the rate of diversification of individual life courses. Using indi...

Temperature-dependent body size effects determine population responses to climate warming.

Current understanding of animal population responses to rising temperatures is based on the assumption that biological rates such as metabolism, which governs fundamental ecological processes, scale independently with body size and temperature, despite empirical evidence for interactive effects. Here, we investigate the consequences of interactive temperature- and size scaling of vital rates for the dynamics of populations experiencing warming using a stage-structured consumer-resource model. We show that i...

Place matters: A longitudinal analysis measuring the association between neighbourhood walkability and walking by age group and population center size in Canada.

This study examined the influence of walkability on walking behaviour and assessed whether associations varied according to life-stage and population center (PC) size. Walkability scores were obtained for the six-digit postal codes of residential neighbourhoods of 11,200 Canadians, who participated in biennial assessments of the National Population Health Survey from 1994 to 2010. Participants were stratified by age-group. Mixed-effects logistic regression models were used to estimate the influence of cumul...

Response of a tropical tree to non-timber forest products harvest and reduction in habitat size.

Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are widely harvested by local people for their livelihood. Harvest often takes place in human disturbed ecosystems. However, our understanding of NTFPs harvesting impacts in fragmented habitats is limited. We assessed the impacts of fruit harvest, and reduction in habitat size on the population structures of Pentadesma butyracea Sabine (Clusiaceae) across two contrasting ecological regions (dry vs. moist) in Benin. In each region, we selected three populations for each of ...

Contrasting effects of climate and population density over time and life stages in a long-lived seabird.

Although population responses to environmental variability have been extensively studied for many organisms, few studies have considered early-life stages owing to the inherent difficulties in tracking the fate of young individuals. However, young individuals are expected to be more sensitive to environmental stochasticity owing to their inexperience and lower competitive abilities. Thus, they are keys to understand demographic responses of an age-structured population to environmental variability.In this s...

Ethnic density and risk of mental ill health - The case of religious sectarianism in Northern Ireland: A population data linkage study.

An ethnic group that lives in a neighbourhood in which it is in the minority, termed 'lower ethnic density,' tends to report a higher incidence of mental ill-health. This population-based study investigated for the first time the existence of an own-group density effect among Catholic and Protestant communities in Northern Ireland. The entire Northern Ireland born Catholic and Protestant working age (n = 1, 004,060) enumerated population in the 2011 Census of Northern Ireland were included in the study via ...

A stochastic-field description of finite-size spiking neural networks.

Neural network dynamics are governed by the interaction of spiking neurons. Stochastic aspects of single-neuron dynamics propagate up to the network level and shape the dynamical and informational properties of the population. Mean-field models of population activity disregard the finite-size stochastic fluctuations of network dynamics and thus offer a deterministic description of the system. Here, we derive a stochastic partial differential equation (SPDE) describing the temporal evolution of the finite-si...

Stochastic Evolutionary Demography under a Fluctuating Optimum Phenotype.

Many natural populations exhibit temporal fluctuations in abundance that are consistent with external forcing by a randomly changing environment. As fitness emerges from an interaction between the phenotype and the environment, such demographic fluctuations probably include a substantial contribution from fluctuating phenotypic selection. We study the stochastic population dynamics of a population exposed to random (plus possibly directional) changes in the optimum phenotype for a quantitative trait that ev...

A new formulation of random genetic drift and its application to the evolution of cell populations.

Random genetic drift, or stochastic change in gene frequency, is a fundamental evolutionary force that is usually defined within the ideal Wright-Fisher (WF) population. However, as the theory is increasingly applied to populations that deviate strongly from the ideal model, a paradox of random drift has emerged. When drift is defined by the WF model, it becomes stronger as the population size, N, decreases. However, the intensity of competition decreases when N decreases and, hence, drift might become weak...

Association between glutamate transporter gene polymorphisms and obsessive-compulsive disorder/trait empathy in a Korean population.

Accumulating evidence suggests that the glutamatergic system plays a major role in the pathophysiology of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and empathic processing. Particularly, genetic influence of glutamate transporter gene (SLC1A1) on OCD has been frequently replicated in previous studies, but several studies did not replicate the result. Therefore, we aimed to replicate the associations between the SLC1A1 and OCD in a Korean population. In addition, we investigated the influence of SLC1A1 on trait em...

An evolutionary framework outlining the integration of individual social and spatial ecology.

1.Behaviour is the interface between an organism and its environment, and behavioural plasticity is important for organisms to cope with environmental change. Social behaviour is particularly important because sociality is a dynamic process, where environmental variation influences group dynamics and social plasticity can mediate resource acquisition. Heterogeneity in the ecological environment can therefore influence the social environment. The combination of the ecological and social environments may be i...


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