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PubMed Journals Articles About "Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood" RSS

08:54 EDT 23rd September 2018 | BioPortfolio

Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Influence population size density proximity talent clubs likelihood" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 27,000+

Why are demographic Allee effects so rarely seen in social animals?

1.Allee effects in group-living species are common, but little is known about the way in which Allee effects at the group-level scale up to influence population dynamics. Most notably, it remains unclear whether component Allee effects within groups (where some component of fitness in small groups decreases with decreasing group size) will translate into a population-level demographic Allee effect (where per capita fitness in small populations decreases with decreasing overall population size). 2.The Africa...


Predation and Nutrients drive Population Declines in Breeding Waders.

Allee effects are defined as a decline in per capita fitness at low population density. We hypothesized that predation reduces population size of breeding waders and thereby the efficiency of predator deterrence, while total nitrogen through its effects on primary and secondary productivity increases population size. Therefore, nest predation could have negative consequences for population size because nest failure generally results in breeding dispersal and hence reduced local population density. To test t...

Density and population viability of coastal marten: a rare and geographically isolated small carnivore.

Pacific martens () in coastal forests of Oregon and northern California in the United States are rare and geographically isolated, prompting a petition for listing under the Endangered Species Act. If listed, regulations have the potential to influence land-use decisions on public and private lands, but no estimates of population size, density, or viability of remnant marten populations are available for evaluating their conservation status. We used GPS and VHF telemetry and spatial mark-resight to estimate...


The effect of harvesting on the spatial synchrony of population fluctuations.

Harvesting in space affects, in general, the spatial scale of the synchrony in the population fluctuations, which determines the size of the areas subjected to simultaneous quasi-extinction risk. Here we show that harvesting reduces the population synchrony scale if it depends more strongly on population fluctuations than the density dependence of the growth rate in the absence of harvesting. We show that constant and proportional harvesting always increases the spatial scale, using a theta-logistic model f...

Sample size calculations for comparing two groups of count data.

A sample size formula for comparing two groups of count data is derived using the method of moments by matching the first and second moments of the distribution of the count data, and it does not need any further distributional assumption. Compared to sample size formulas derived using a likelihood-based approach or using simulations, the proposed sample size formula applies to count data following any distribution in addition to the negative binomial distribution. The proposed sample size formula can be us...

Response of to flood pulse variation in the central Amazon.

The influence of the flood pulse on fish populations has been posited, but infrequently tested or quantified. Here, we tested the effect of habitat on population size, using as a case study species. Floodplain habitat was based on the littoral zone area occupied by to feed. The magnitude of this habitat in each hydrological year, the moving littoral (ML), was expressed as the sum of daily littoral areas during the advancing flood pulse, using satellite-based passive microwave data. Annual population size ...

Male body size predicts reproductive success but not within-clutch paternity patterns in gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus).

In many vertebrates, body size is an important driver of variation in male reproductive success. Larger, more fit individuals are more likely to dominate mating opportunities, skewing siring success and resulting in lower effective population sizes and genetic diversity. The mating system of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) has been characterized as both female-defense and scramble-competition polygyny. Mating systems are typically not fixed and can be influenced by factors such as population densi...

Density-dependent dispersal strategies in a cooperative breeder.

Dispersal is a key ecological process that influences the dynamics of spatially and socially structured populations and consists of three stages - emigration, transience, and settlement - and each stage is influenced by different social, individual, and environmental factors. Despite our appreciation of the complexity of the process, we lack a firm empirical understanding of the mechanisms underlying the different stages. Here, using data from 65 GPS-collared dispersing female coalitions of the cooperativel...

Intra- and interspecific densities shape life-history traits in a salmonid population.

Population dynamics can be regulated through intra- and interspecific density dependence. In species with close ecological requirements, interspecific competition for resources may add to intraspecific density, or even exceed its effect; it may impact single or multiple traits. However, the relative impact of intra- and interspecific densities on demographic parameters has been rarely empirically assessed. We analyzed 18 years of capture-mark-recapture data from brown trout (Salmo trutta) coexisting with A...

Model development and prediction of particle size distribution, density and friability of a comilling operation in a continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

The comilling process plays an important role in solid oral dosage manufacturing. In this process, the granulated products are comminuted to the required size distribution through collisions created from a rotating impeller. In addition to predicting particle size distribution, there is a need to predict other critical quality attributes (CQAs) such as bulk density and tapped density, as these impact tablet compaction behavior. A comprehensive modeling approach to predict the CQAs is needed to aid continuou...

Neighbourhood child population density as a proxy measure for exposure to respiratory infections in the first year of life: A validation study.

Assessing exposure to infections in early childhood is of interest in many epidemiological investigations. Because exposure to infections is difficult to measure directly, epidemiological studies have used surrogate measures available from routine data such as birth order and population density. However, the association between population density and exposure to infections is unclear. We assessed whether neighbourhood child population density is associated with respiratory infections in infants.

Urban population density and mortality in a compact Dutch city: 23-year follow-up of the Dutch GLOBE study.

We investigated the association and underlying pathways between urban population density and mortality in a compact mid-sized university city in the Netherlands. Baseline data from the GLOBE cohort study (N = 10,120 residents of Eindhoven) were linked to mortality after 23 years of follow up and analyzed in multilevel models. Higher population density was modestly related to increased mortality, independently of baseline socioeconomic position and health. Higher population density was related to more ac...

Tree lizard (Urosaurus ornatus) growth decreases with population density, but increases with habitat quality.

Habitat selection models can explain spatial patterns in the relative abundance of animals in different habitats based on the assumption that fitness declines as density in a habitat increases. Ectotherms, such as lizards, may not follow predictions of density-dependent habitat selection models because temperature, which is unaffected by density, strongly influences their habitat selection. If competition for limited resources decreases fitness, then crowding should cause a decrease in body size and growth ...

Consistent individual differences and population plasticity in network-derived sociality: An experimental manipulation of density in a gregarious ungulate.

In many taxa, individual social traits appear to be consistent across time and context, thus meeting the criteria for animal personality. How these differences are maintained in response to changes in population density is unknown, particularly in large mammals, such as ungulates. Using a behavioral reaction norm (BRN) framework, we examined how among- and within-individual variation in social connectedness, measured using social network analyses, change as a function of population density. We studied a cap...

Influence of Effective Population Size on Genes under Varying Levels of Selection Pressure.

The ratio of diversities at amino acid changing (nonsynonymous) and neutral (synonymous) sites (ω = πN/πS) is routinely used to measure the intensity of selection pressure. It is well known that this ratio is influenced by the effective population size (Ne) and selection coefficient (s). Here, we examined the effects of effective population size on ω by comparing protein-coding genes from Mus musculus castaneus and Mus musculus musculus-two mouse subspecies with different Ne. Our results revealed a po...

The Influence of Place of Residence, Gender and Age Influence on Food Group Choices in the Spanish Population: Findings from the ANIBES Study.

Socioeconomic factors (SEF) can exert a great impact on food choices. However, limited data are available from the Spanish population. Our aim was to describe the influence of place of residence and habitat size on food group intakes. Data were obtained from the ANIBES study. A 3-day dietary record provided information on food and beverage consumption. Data analysis compared gender, age, Nielsen geographic areas, and habitat population size (urban, semi-urban, and rural). Place of residence did not appear t...

Influence of habitat suitability and sex-related detectability on density and population size estimates of habitat-specialist warblers.

Knowledge about the population size and trends of common bird species is crucial for setting conservation priorities and management actions. Multi-species large-scale monitoring schemes have often provided such estimates relying on extrapolation of relative abundances in particular habitats to large-scale areas. Here we show an alternative to inference-rich predictive models, proposing methods to deal with caveats of population size estimations in habitat-specialist species, reed warblers (Acrocephalus scir...

Harm from Known Others' Drinking by Relationship Proximity to the Harmful Drinker and Gender: A Meta-Analysis Across 10 Countries.

Drinking is a common activity with friends or at home but is associated with harms within both close and extended relationships. This study investigates associations between having a close proximity relationship with a harmful drinker and likelihood of experiencing harms from known others' drinking for men and women in 10 countries.

Coalescence times for three genes provide sufficient information to distinguish population structure from population size changes.

The increasing amount of genomic data currently available is expanding the horizons of population genetics inference. A wide range of methods have been published allowing to detect and date major changes in population size during the history of species. At the same time, there has been an increasing recognition that population structure can generate genetic data similar to those generated under models of population size change. Recently, Mazet et al. (Heredity 116(4):362-371, 2016) introduced the idea that,...

Non-parametric estimation of population size changes from the site frequency spectrum.

Changes in population size is a useful quantity for understanding the evolutionary history of a species. Genetic variation within a species can be summarized by the site frequency spectrum (SFS). For a sample of size n, the SFS is a vector of length n - 1 where entry i is the number of sites where the mutant base appears i times and the ancestral base appears n - i times. We present a new method, CubSFS, for estimating the changes in population size of a panmictic population from an observed SFS. First, we ...

Restoration of Eastern oyster populations with positive density dependence.

Positive density dependence (i.e. Allee effects) can create a threshold of population states below which extinction of the population occurs. The existence of this threshold, which can often be a complex, multi-dimensional surface, rather than a single point, is of particular importance in degraded populations for which there is a desire for successful restoration. Here, we incorporated positive density dependence into a closed, size- and age-structured integral projection model parameterized with empirical...

Nonlinear population dynamics in a bounded habitat.

A key issue in ecology is whether a population will survive long term or go extinct. This is the question we address in this paper for a population in a bounded habitat. We will restrict our study to the case of a single species in a one-dimensional habitat of length L. The evolution of the population density distribution ρ(x, t), where x is the position and t the time, is governed by elementary processes such as growth and dispersal, which, in standard models, are typically described by a constant per cap...

Matrix Models of Hierarchical Demography: Linking Group- and Population-Level Dynamics in Cooperative Breeders.

For highly social species, population dynamics depend on hierarchical demography that links local processes, group dynamics, and population growth. Here, we describe a stage-structured matrix model of hierarchical demography, which provides a framework for understanding social influences on population change. Our approach accounts for dispersal and affords insight into population dynamics at multiple scales. The method has close parallels to integral projection models but focuses on a discrete characteristi...

High throughput nonparametric probability density estimation.

In high throughput applications, such as those found in bioinformatics and finance, it is important to determine accurate probability distribution functions despite only minimal information about data characteristics, and without using human subjectivity. Such an automated process for univariate data is implemented to achieve this goal by merging the maximum entropy method with single order statistics and maximum likelihood. The only required properties of the random variables are that they are continuous a...

Grade of Cataract and Its Influence on Measurement of Macular Pigment Optical Density Using Autofluorescence Imaging.

To evaluate the influence of cataracts on measuring macular pigment optical density (MPOD) using a dual-wavelength confocal scanning autofluorescence imaging technique and to establish methods to compensate for the influence of cataracts.


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