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PubMed Journals Articles About "Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood" RSS

18:40 EST 13th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Influence Population Size Density Proximity Talent Clubs Likelihood articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Influence population size density proximity talent clubs likelihood" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 27,000+

Why are demographic Allee effects so rarely seen in social animals?

1.Allee effects in group-living species are common, but little is known about the way in which Allee effects at the group-level scale up to influence population dynamics. Most notably, it remains unclear whether component Allee effects within groups (where some component of fitness in small groups decreases with decreasing group size) will translate into a population-level demographic Allee effect (where per capita fitness in small populations decreases with decreasing overall population size). 2.The Africa...


Impact of proximity of healthier versus less healthy foods on intake: A lab-based experiment.

Placing food further away from people decreases likelihood of consumption ("Proximity Effect"). However, it is unclear how proximity affects consumption when both healthier and less healthy foods are available and cognitive resource for self-control is limited.

The effect of harvesting on the spatial synchrony of population fluctuations.

Harvesting in space affects, in general, the spatial scale of the synchrony in the population fluctuations, which determines the size of the areas subjected to simultaneous quasi-extinction risk. Here we show that harvesting reduces the population synchrony scale if it depends more strongly on population fluctuations than the density dependence of the growth rate in the absence of harvesting. We show that constant and proportional harvesting always increases the spatial scale, using a theta-logistic model f...


Sample size calculations for comparing two groups of count data.

A sample size formula for comparing two groups of count data is derived using the method of moments by matching the first and second moments of the distribution of the count data, and it does not need any further distributional assumption. Compared to sample size formulas derived using a likelihood-based approach or using simulations, the proposed sample size formula applies to count data following any distribution in addition to the negative binomial distribution. The proposed sample size formula can be us...

Response of to flood pulse variation in the central Amazon.

The influence of the flood pulse on fish populations has been posited, but infrequently tested or quantified. Here, we tested the effect of habitat on population size, using as a case study species. Floodplain habitat was based on the littoral zone area occupied by to feed. The magnitude of this habitat in each hydrological year, the moving littoral (ML), was expressed as the sum of daily littoral areas during the advancing flood pulse, using satellite-based passive microwave data. Annual population size ...

Male body size predicts reproductive success but not within-clutch paternity patterns in gopher tortoises (Gopherus polyphemus).

In many vertebrates, body size is an important driver of variation in male reproductive success. Larger, more fit individuals are more likely to dominate mating opportunities, skewing siring success and resulting in lower effective population sizes and genetic diversity. The mating system of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) has been characterized as both female-defense and scramble-competition polygyny. Mating systems are typically not fixed and can be influenced by factors such as population densi...

Density-dependent dispersal strategies in a cooperative breeder.

Dispersal is a key ecological process that influences the dynamics of spatially and socially structured populations and consists of three stages - emigration, transience, and settlement - and each stage is influenced by different social, individual, and environmental factors. Despite our appreciation of the complexity of the process, we lack a firm empirical understanding of the mechanisms underlying the different stages. Here, using data from 65 GPS-collared dispersing female coalitions of the cooperativel...

Intra- and interspecific densities shape life-history traits in a salmonid population.

Population dynamics can be regulated through intra- and interspecific density dependence. In species with close ecological requirements, interspecific competition for resources may add to intraspecific density, or even exceed its effect; it may impact single or multiple traits. However, the relative impact of intra- and interspecific densities on demographic parameters has been rarely empirically assessed. We analyzed 18 years of capture-mark-recapture data from brown trout (Salmo trutta) coexisting with A...

Revisiting GUD: An empirical test of the size-dependency of patch departure behaviour.

Behaviour related to patch resource exploitation is a major determinant of individual fitness. Assuming the size-dependency of patch departure behaviour, model-based approaches have shown size-mediated coexistence in systems of competing species. However, experimental evidence for the influence of body size on patch use behaviour is scarce. In this study, we explore whether allometric principles provide an underlying framework for interspecific patterns of resource use. To this end, we propose a meso-cosm a...

Model development and prediction of particle size distribution, density and friability of a comilling operation in a continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

The comilling process plays an important role in solid oral dosage manufacturing. In this process, the granulated products are comminuted to the required size distribution through collisions created from a rotating impeller. In addition to predicting particle size distribution, there is a need to predict other critical quality attributes (CQAs) such as bulk density and tapped density, as these impact tablet compaction behavior. A comprehensive modeling approach to predict the CQAs is needed to aid continuou...

Neighbourhood child population density as a proxy measure for exposure to respiratory infections in the first year of life: A validation study.

Assessing exposure to infections in early childhood is of interest in many epidemiological investigations. Because exposure to infections is difficult to measure directly, epidemiological studies have used surrogate measures available from routine data such as birth order and population density. However, the association between population density and exposure to infections is unclear. We assessed whether neighbourhood child population density is associated with respiratory infections in infants.

Promotion of healthy eating in clubs with junior teams in Australia: A cross-sectional study of club representatives and parents.

To: i) describe the prevalence of policies and practices promoting healthy eating implemented by sports clubs with junior teams; ii) examine differences in such practices across geographic and operational characteristics of clubs; and iii) describe the attitudes of club representatives and parents regarding the acceptability of sports clubs implementing policies and practices to promote healthy eating.

Urban population density and mortality in a compact Dutch city: 23-year follow-up of the Dutch GLOBE study.

We investigated the association and underlying pathways between urban population density and mortality in a compact mid-sized university city in the Netherlands. Baseline data from the GLOBE cohort study (N = 10,120 residents of Eindhoven) were linked to mortality after 23 years of follow up and analyzed in multilevel models. Higher population density was modestly related to increased mortality, independently of baseline socioeconomic position and health. Higher population density was related to more ac...

Tree lizard (Urosaurus ornatus) growth decreases with population density, but increases with habitat quality.

Habitat selection models can explain spatial patterns in the relative abundance of animals in different habitats based on the assumption that fitness declines as density in a habitat increases. Ectotherms, such as lizards, may not follow predictions of density-dependent habitat selection models because temperature, which is unaffected by density, strongly influences their habitat selection. If competition for limited resources decreases fitness, then crowding should cause a decrease in body size and growth ...

Influence of habitat suitability and sex-related detectability on density and population size estimates of habitat-specialist warblers.

Knowledge about the population size and trends of common bird species is crucial for setting conservation priorities and management actions. Multi-species large-scale monitoring schemes have often provided such estimates relying on extrapolation of relative abundances in particular habitats to large-scale areas. Here we show an alternative to inference-rich predictive models, proposing methods to deal with caveats of population size estimations in habitat-specialist species, reed warblers (Acrocephalus scir...

Harm from Known Others' Drinking by Relationship Proximity to the Harmful Drinker and Gender: A Meta-Analysis Across 10 Countries.

Drinking is a common activity with friends or at home but is associated with harms within both close and extended relationships. This study investigates associations between having a close proximity relationship with a harmful drinker and likelihood of experiencing harms from known others' drinking for men and women in 10 countries.

Coalescence times for three genes provide sufficient information to distinguish population structure from population size changes.

The increasing amount of genomic data currently available is expanding the horizons of population genetics inference. A wide range of methods have been published allowing to detect and date major changes in population size during the history of species. At the same time, there has been an increasing recognition that population structure can generate genetic data similar to those generated under models of population size change. Recently, Mazet et al. (Heredity 116(4):362-371, 2016) introduced the idea that,...

Non-parametric estimation of population size changes from the site frequency spectrum.

Changes in population size is a useful quantity for understanding the evolutionary history of a species. Genetic variation within a species can be summarized by the site frequency spectrum (SFS). For a sample of size n, the SFS is a vector of length n - 1 where entry i is the number of sites where the mutant base appears i times and the ancestral base appears n - i times. We present a new method, CubSFS, for estimating the changes in population size of a panmictic population from an observed SFS. First, we ...

Population bottlenecks in multicomponent viruses: first forays into the uncharted territory of genome-formula drift.

Multicomponent viral systems face specific challenges when enduring population bottlenecks. These systems can lose coding information due to the lack of co-encapsidation of all the genetic information, at least in a proportion of the capsids in a population. Moreover, bottlenecks can also impact one of the main potential advantages of multicomponent systems: the regulation of gene expression through changes in gene copy frequencies at the population level. How these systems cope with population bottlenecks ...

Simplified procedure for efficient and unbiased population size estimation.

Population size estimation is relevant to social and ecological sciences. Exhaustive manual counting, the density method and automated computer vision are some of the estimation methods that are currently used. Some of these methods may work in concrete cases but they do not provide a fast, efficient and unbiased estimation in general. Recently, the CountEm method, based on systematic sampling with a grid of quadrats, was proposed. It offers an unbiased estimation that can be applied to any population. Howe...

Matrix Models of Hierarchical Demography: Linking Group- and Population-Level Dynamics in Cooperative Breeders.

For highly social species, population dynamics depend on hierarchical demography that links local processes, group dynamics, and population growth. Here, we describe a stage-structured matrix model of hierarchical demography, which provides a framework for understanding social influences on population change. Our approach accounts for dispersal and affords insight into population dynamics at multiple scales. The method has close parallels to integral projection models but focuses on a discrete characteristi...

Adult Influence on Juvenile Phenotypes by Stage-Specific Pheromone Production.

Many animal and plant species respond to population density by phenotypic plasticity. To investigate if specific age classes and/or cross-generational signaling affect density-dependent plasticity, we developed a dye-based method to differentiate co-existing nematode populations. We applied this method to Pristionchus pacificus, which develops a predatory mouth form to exploit alternative resources and kill competitors in response to high population densities. Remarkably, adult, but not juvenile, crowding i...

High throughput nonparametric probability density estimation.

In high throughput applications, such as those found in bioinformatics and finance, it is important to determine accurate probability distribution functions despite only minimal information about data characteristics, and without using human subjectivity. Such an automated process for univariate data is implemented to achieve this goal by merging the maximum entropy method with single order statistics and maximum likelihood. The only required properties of the random variables are that they are continuous a...

Grade of Cataract and Its Influence on Measurement of Macular Pigment Optical Density Using Autofluorescence Imaging.

To evaluate the influence of cataracts on measuring macular pigment optical density (MPOD) using a dual-wavelength confocal scanning autofluorescence imaging technique and to establish methods to compensate for the influence of cataracts.

A preliminary audit of medical and aid provision in English Rugby union clubs: compliance with Regulation 9.

Governing bodies are largely responsible for the monitoring and management of risks associated with a safe playing environment, yet adherence to regulations is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate and evaluate the current status of medical personnel, facilities, and equipment in Rugby Union clubs at regional level in England.


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