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14:33 EST 19th January 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Insecticidal paint Larvicide Ivermectin Malaria" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 617

Safety, pharmacokinetics, and mosquito-lethal effects of ivermectin in combination with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and primaquine in healthy adult Thai subjects.

Mass administration of antimalarial drugs and ivermectin are being considered as potential accelerators of malaria elimination. The safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and mosquito-lethal effects of combinations of ivermectin, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, and primaquine were evaluated. Co-administration of ivermectin and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, resulted in increased ivermectin concentrations with corresponding increases in mosquito-lethal effect across all subjects. Exposure to piperaquine was...

Spatiotemporal clustering of malaria in southern-central Ethiopia: A community-based cohort study.

Understanding the spatiotemporal clustering of malaria transmission would help target interventions in settings of low malaria transmission. The aim of this study was to assess whether malaria infections were clustered in areas with long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) alone, indoor residual spraying (IRS) alone, or a combination of LLINs and IRS interventions, and to determine the risk factors for the observed malaria clustering in southern-central Ethiopia.

Field Efficacy of VectoMax FG and VectoLex CG Biological Larvicides for Malaria Vector Control in Northwestern Brazil.

Despite historical and contemporary evidence of its effectiveness, larval source management with insecticides remains little used by most malaria control programs worldwide. Here we show that environmentally safe biological larvicides under field conditions can significantly reduce anopheline larval density in fish farming ponds that have became major larval habitats across the Amazon Basin. Importantly, the primary local malaria vector, Anopheles darlingi Root (Diptera: Culicidae), feeds and rests predomin...

Evaluation of an alpha-cypermethrin + PBO mixture long-lasting insecticidal net VEERALIN® LN against pyrethroid resistant Anopheles gambiae s.s.: an experimental hut trial in M'bé, central Côte d'Ivoire.

Long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) are the primary method of malaria prevention. However, the widespread resistance to pyrethroids among major malaria vector species represents a significant threat to the continued efficacy of pyrethroid LLIN. Piperonyl butoxide (PBO) is a synergist that inhibits the activity of metabolic enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family known to detoxify insecticides including pyrethroids. Synergist LLIN incorporating PBO and a pyrethroid may provide improved control compared to p...

Comparison Between Insecticidal Activity of Lantana camara Extract and its Synthesized Nanoparticles Against Anopheline mosquitoes.

Malaria is still a severe health problem especially in developing countries which occur and young children are the most affected. The present study was designed to compare the insecticidal potential of Lantana camara leaves extract alone and its synthesized nanoparticles against Anopheles multicolor.

The effects of insecticides on two splice variants of the glutamate-gated chloride channel receptor of the major malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae.

Between half to one million people die annually from malaria. Anopheles gambiae mosquitos are major malaria vectors. Unfortunately, resistance to currently used A. gambiae control agents has emerged, creating a demand for novel control measures. The pentameric glutamate-gated chloride channel receptors (GluClRs) expressed in the muscle and nerve cells of these organisms are a potentially important biological target for malaria control. The pharmacological properties of Anophiline GluClRs are, however, large...

Measuring malaria morbidity in an area of seasonal transmission: Pyrogenic parasitemia thresholds based on a 20-year follow-up study.

Asymptomatic carriage of P. falciparum is frequent in areas endemic for malaria and individual diagnosis of clinical malaria attacks is still difficult. We investigated the impact of changes in malaria endemicity on the diagnostic criteria for malaria attacks in an area of seasonal malaria transmission.

Ivermectin as an adjuvant to anti-epileptic treatment in persons with onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy: A randomized proof-of-concept clinical trial.

Recent findings from onchocerciasis-endemic foci uphold that increasing ivermectin coverage reduces the epilepsy incidence, and anecdotal evidence suggests seizure frequency reduction in persons with onchocerciasis-associated epilepsy, when treated with ivermectin. We conducted a randomized clinical trial to assess whether ivermectin treatment decreases seizure frequency.

Formulation Studies of Solid Self-Emulsifying Drug Delivery System of Ivermectin.

The suggested dose of ivermectin is 300 μG/kg/day for onchocerciasis but it has low water solubility and poor oral bioavailability.

Ivermectin decreases triglyceride accumulation by inhibiting differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

Ivermectin, a member of the avermectins, is one of the most used anti-parasitic agents, and acts by binding to glutamate-gated chloride channels in invertebrate nerve cells. There is limited information, however, on the effects of ivermectin in non-neural cell, such as adipocytes. The present work aimed to investigate the role of ivermectin in adipogenesis using 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Ivermectin inhibited the differentiation of preadipocytes and triglyceride (TG) accumulation. In particular, the treatment of...

Trends in reported malaria cases and the effects of malaria control in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Considerable upscaling of malaria control efforts have taken place over the last 15 years in the Democratic Republic of Congo, the country with the second highest malaria case load after Nigeria. Malaria control interventions have been strengthened in line with the Millenium Development Goals. We analysed the effects of these interventions on malaria cases at health facility level, using a retrospective trend analysis of malaria cases between 2005 and 2014. Data were collected from outpatient and laboratory...

Retrospective Comparison of 2 Management Strategies for Perioperative Malaria Episodes in Pediatric Patients in a Limited-Resource Setting.

Malaria is a common problem throughout the world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where 90% of all deaths in the world from malaria occur. While many studies on malaria are available in the medical literature, few publications have addressed the problems of managing malaria during surgery and anesthesia. At a newly opened hospital in Niger, we initiated further studies to evaluate our process of managing malaria when we had a number of problems in our first group of pediatric patients having elective cl...

Knowledge, attitude and practice towards malaria among symptomatic patients attending Tumbi Referral Hospital: A cross-sectional study.

Despite significant improvement in prevention and control over the past decades malaria remains a significant public health concern in Tanzania with 93% of the population being at risk. To prevent malaria infection and promote malaria free zones, understanding the community's knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward malaria control are essential. This study therefore aimed at determining the levels of understanding, and attitudes, as well as socio-cultural aspects of malaria prevention and treatment-seeki...

Transition from endemic behavior to eradication of malaria due to combined drug therapies: an agent-model approach.

We introduce an agent-based model describing a susceptible-infectious-susceptible (SIS) system of humans and mosquitoes to predict malaria epidemiological scenarios in realistic biological conditions. Emphasis is given to the transition from endemic behavior to eradication of malaria transmission induced by combined drug therapies acting on both the gametocytemia reduction and on the selective mosquito mortality during parasite development in the mosquito. Our mathematical framework enables to uncover the c...

Critical Roles of Endogenous Glucocorticoids for Disease Tolerance in Malaria.

During malaria, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is activated and glucocorticoid (GC) levels are increased, but their essential roles have been largely overlooked. GCs are decisive for systemic regulation of vital processes such as immune responses, vascular function, and metabolism, which are crucial in malaria. Here, we introduce GCs in general, followed by their versatile roles for disease tolerance in malaria. A complementary comparison is provided with their role in sepsis. Finally, potent...

Preventing relapses of airborne allergic contact dermatitis to isothiazolinones in wall paint by painting over with an isothiazolinone-free paint.

Comparison of repeated doses of ivermectin versus ivermectin plus albendazole for treatment of onchocerciasis - a randomized open-label clinical trial.

Improved treatment for onchocerciasis is needed to accelerate onchocerciasis elimination in Africa. Aiming to better exploit registered drugs, this study was undertaken to determine whether annual or semiannual treatment with ivermectin (IVM; 200µg/kg) plus albendazole (ALB; 800mg single dose) is superior to IVM alone.

Display of malaria transmission-blocking antigens on chimeric duck hepatitis B virus-derived virus-like particles produced in Hansenula polymorpha.

Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is one of the major threats to human health globally. Despite huge efforts in malaria control and eradication, highly effective vaccines are urgently needed, including vaccines that can block malaria transmission. Chimeric virus-like particles (VLP) have emerged as a promising strategy to develop new malaria vaccine candidates.

Vectorial Transmission of Malaria in Major Districts of Côte d'Ivoire.

To better understand the influence of periodic mass distribution of Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) on malaria transmission, a 1-yr entomological survey was conducted in three major districts of Côte d'Ivoire. Mosquitoes were sampled by Human Landing Catches (HLC) in urban and rural areas of San Pedro and Abidjan (coastal), and in Yamoussoukro (central). Mosquitoes were identified morphologically and by molecular methods. The Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite (CSP) indices were measured by ELIS...

Determining the cutoff of rainfall for Plasmodium falciparum malaria outbreaks in India.

Malaria outbreaks due to Plasmodium falciparum have been reported from various parts of India. Rainfall is considered as one of the major determinants for malaria outbreaks, however, an estimate of rainfall threshold for malaria is not known. Owing to the vast geographic area, the present study was planned to determine the amount of rainfall required for malaria outbreaks and the lag period between outbreak and rainfall in different Indian climatic regions.

Trends in malaria prevalence and health related socioeconomic inequality in rural western Kenya: results from repeated household malaria cross-sectional surveys from 2006 to 2013.

The objective of this analysis was to examine trends in malaria parasite prevalence and related socioeconomic inequalities in malaria indicators from 2006 to 2013 during a period of intensification of malaria control interventions in Siaya County, western Kenya.

Revisiting gametocyte biology in malaria parasites.

Gametocytes are the only form of the malaria parasite that is transmissible to the mosquito vector. They are present at low levels in blood circulation and significant knowledge gaps exist in their biology. Recent reductions in the global malaria burden have brought the possibility of elimination and eradication, with renewed focus on malaria transmission biology as a basis for interventions. This review discusses recent insights into gametocyte biology in the major human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falcip...

Revealing the distribution of metal carboxylates in oil paint from the micro- to nanoscale.

Oil paints comprise pigments, drying oils and additives that together confer desirable properties, but can react to form metal carboxylates (soaps) that may damage artworks over time. To obtain information on soap formation and aggregation, we introduce a new tapping-mode measurement paradigm for the photothermal induced resonance (PTIR) technique that enables nanoscale IR spectroscopy and imaging on highly heterogenous and rough paint thin sections. PTIR is used in combination with µ-computed tomography a...

Combined use of ivermectin, dimethyl sulfoxide, mineral oil and nematophagous fungi to control Rhabditis spp.

Rhabditis spp., is a nematode known to cause otitis externa, an infection difficult to control, in cattle reared within tropical regions. The objective of this study was to assess the combined use of ivermectin 1%, dimethyl sulfoxide 1% and mineral oil 100% containing nematophagous fungi of both Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001) and Monacrosporium thaumasium (NF34) species to control in vitro Rhabditis spp. Thus, 12 experimental groups were designed with eight replicates each: G1 (nematodes + AC001); G2 (ne...

Mosquito exposure and malaria morbidity; a micro-level analysis of household mosquito populations and malaria in a population-based longitudinal cohort in western Kenya.

Malaria morbidity is highly overdispersed in the population. Fine-scale differences in mosquito exposure may partially explain this heterogeneity. However, exposure variability has not been related to individual malaria outcomes.

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