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PubMed Journals Articles About "Involuntary Down Control Search Irrelevant Features Visual Working" RSS

16:07 EDT 15th October 2018 | BioPortfolio

Involuntary Down Control Search Irrelevant Features Visual Working PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Involuntary Down Control Search Irrelevant Features Visual Working articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Involuntary down control search irrelevant features Visual working" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 26,000+

Negative cues lead to more inefficient search than positive cues even at later stages of visual search.

Observers can focus their attention on task-relevant items in visual search when they have prior knowledge about the target's properties (i.e., positive cues). However, little is known about how negative cues, which specify the features of task-irrelevant items, can be used to guide attention away from distractors and how their effects differ from those of positive cues. It has been proposed that when a distractor color is cued, people would first select the to-be-ignored items early in search and then inhi...


Visual mental imagery influences attentional guidance in a visual-search task.

Visual mental imagery resembles visual working memory (VWM). Because both visual mental imagery and VWM involve the representation and manipulation of visual information, it was hypothesized that they would exert similar effects on visual attention. Several previous studies have demonstrated that working-memory representations guide attention toward a memory-matching task-irrelevant stimulus during visual-search tasks. Therefore, mental imagery may also guide attention toward imagery-matching stimuli. In th...

Visual Working Memory Load Disrupts Template-guided Attentional Selection during Visual Search.

Mental representations of target features (attentional templates) control the selection of candidate target objects in visual search. The question where templates are maintained remains controversial. We employed the N2pc component as an electrophysiological marker of template-guided target selection to investigate whether and under which conditions templates are held in visual working memory (vWM). In two experiments, participants memorized one or four shapes (low vs. high vWM load) before either being tes...


It takes two to tango: Suppression of task-irrelevant features requires (spatial) competition.

In a recent electrophysiological study, we reported on global facilitation but local suppression of color stimuli in feature-based attention in human early visual cortex. Subjects attended to one of two centrally located superimposed red/blue random dot kinematograms (RDKs). Task-irrelevant single RDKs in the same colors were presented in the left and right periphery, respectively. Suppression of the to-be-ignored color was only present in the centrally located RDK but not in the one with the same color in ...

Contralateral delay activity does not reflect behavioral feature load in visual working memory.

An ongoing debate in visual working memory research is concentrated on whether visual working memory capacity is determined solely by the number of objects to be memorized, or additionally by the number of relevant features contained within objects. Using a novel change detection task that contained multi-feature objects we examined the effect of both object number and feature number on visual working memory capacity, change detection sensitivity, and posterior slow wave event-related brain potential (ERP) ...

Differential brain mechanisms for processing distracting information in task-relevant and -irrelevant dimensions in visual search.

A crucial function of our goal-directed behavior is to select task-relevant targets among distractor stimuli, some of which may share properties with the target and thus compete for attentional selection. Here, by applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to a visual search task in which a target was embedded in an array of distractors that were homogeneous or heterogeneous along the task-relevant (orientation or form) and/or task-irrelevant (color) dimensions, we demonstrate that for both (orie...

Object-based target templates guide attention during visual search.

During visual search, attention is believed to be controlled in a strictly feature-based fashion, without any guidance by object-based target representations. To challenge this received view, we measured electrophysiological markers of attentional selection (N2pc component) and working memory (sustained posterior contralateral negativity; SPCN) in search tasks where two possible targets were defined by feature conjunctions (e.g., blue circles and green squares). Critically, some search displays also contain...

Behavioral decoding of working memory items inside and outside the focus of attention.

How we attend to our thoughts affects how we attend to our environment. Holding information in working memory can automatically bias visual attention toward matching information. By observing attentional biases on reaction times to visual search during a memory delay, it is possible to reconstruct the source of that bias using machine learning techniques and thereby behaviorally decode the content of working memory. Can this be done when more than one item is held in working memory? There is some evidence t...

Bottom-up attention capture with distractor and target singletons defined in the same (color) dimension is not a matter of feature uncertainty.

In visual search, attention capture by an irrelevant color-singleton distractor in another feature dimension than the target is dependent on whether or not the distractor changes its feature: Capture is present if the irrelevant color distractor can take on different features across trials, but absent if the distractor takes on only one feature throughout all trials. This influence could be due to down-weighting of the entire color map. Here we tested whether a similar effect could also be brought about by ...

Oculomotor behavior during non-visual tasks: The role of visual saliency.

During visual exploration or free-view, gaze positioning is largely determined by the tendency to maximize visual saliency: more salient locations are more likely to be fixated. However, when visual input is completely irrelevant for performance, such as with non-visual tasks, this saliency maximization strategy may be less advantageous and potentially even disruptive for task-performance. Here, we examined whether visual saliency remains a strong driving force in determining gaze positions even in non-visu...

Visual Search in Amblyopia: Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements and Suboptimal Sampling Strategies.

Microsaccades shift the image on the fovea and counteract visual fading. They are also thought to serve as an optimal sampling strategy while viewing complex visual scenes. The goal of our study was to assess visual search in amblyopic children.

The perceptual enhancement by spatial attention is impaired during the attentional blink.

A salient, but task-irrelevant stimulus has long been known to capture attention in an automatic, involuntary manner. However, the automaticity of involuntary attention has recently been challenged. While some studies showed that the effect of involuntary attention depended on top-down attentional resources, other studies did not. To reconcile this conflict, we suggest to consider that attentional effect is not homogenous. Specifically, we hypothesized that the dependence of involuntary attention on top-dow...

Modulation of motor cortex activity in a visual working memory task of hand images.

Recent studies suggest that brain regions engaged in perception are also recruited during the consolidation interval of the percept in working memory (WM). Evidence for this comes from studies showing that maintaining arbitrary visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli in WM elicits recruitment of the corresponding sensory cortices. Here we investigate if encoding and WM maintenance of visually perceived body-related stimuli engage just visual regions, or additional sensorimotor regions that are classically ass...

Coaching positively influences the effects of working memory training on visual working memory as well as mathematical ability.

The goal of the present study was to test whether the amount of coaching influenced the results of working memory training on both visual and verbal working memory. Additionally, the effects of the working memory training on the amount of progress after specific training in mathematics were evaluated. In this study, 23 children between 9 and 12 years of age with both attentional and mathematical difficulties participated in a working memory training program with a high amount of coaching, while another 25 c...

Impaired visual, working, and verbal memory in first-episode, drug-naive patients with major depressive disorder in a Chinese population.

Cognitive impairment has been observed in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it remains unclear whether the deficits in specific cognitive domains are present in first-episode, drug-naïve patients or medicated patients. In the present study, using the CogState battery (CSB) Chinese language version, we evaluated the visual, working, and verbal memory in first-episode drug-naive patients and medicated patients with MDD in a Chinese population. We measured the cognitive function in first...

Gestalt similarity groupings are not constructed in parallel.

Our visual system organizes spatially distinct areas with similar features into perceptual groups. To better understand the underlying mechanism of grouping, one route is to study its capacity and temporal progression. Intuitively, that capacity seems unlimited, and the temporal progression feels immediate. In contrast, here we show that in a visual search task that requires similarity grouping, search performance is consistent with serial processing of those groups. This was true across several experiments...

Correction: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) facilitates overall visual search response times but does not interact with visual search task factors.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0194640.].

Competition for the focus of attention in visual working memory: perceptual recency versus executive control.

Previous research on memory for a short sequence of visual stimuli indicates that access to the focus of attention (FoA) can be achieved in either of two ways. The first is automatic and is indexed by the recency effect, the enhanced retention of the final item. The second is strategic and based on instructions to prioritize items differentially, a process that draws on executive capacity and boosts retention of information deemed important. In both cases, the increased level of retention can be selectively...

Visual search for verbal material in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

This study aimed at investigating attentional mechanisms in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) by analysing how visual search processes are modulated by normal and obsession-related distracting information in OCD patients and whether these modulations differ from those observed in healthy people. OCD patients were asked to search for a target word within distractor words that could be orthographically similar to the target, semantically related to the target, semantically related to the most typical obsess...

Measuring the time course of selection during visual search.

In visual search tasks, observers can guide their attention towards items in the visual field that share features with the target item. In this series of studies, we examined the time course of guidance toward a subset of items that have the same color as the target item. Landolt Cs were placed on 16 colored disks. Fifteen distractor Cs had gaps facing up or down while one target C had a gap facing left or right. Observers searched for the target C and reported which side contained the gap as quickly as pos...

Multiple attentional control settings at distinct locations without the confounding of repetition priming.

An attentional control setting (ACS), which is based on the task goal, induces involuntary attentional capture by a stimulus possessing a target-defining feature. It is unclear whether ACSs are maintained for multiple targets defined as conjunctions of a color and location. In the present study we examined the possibility of local ACSs for dual targets defined as combinations of color and location, using different paradigms: visual search in Experiment 1, and spatial cueing in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1,...

The influence of relevant and irrelevant stereoscopic depth cues: Depth information does not always capture attention.

Previous research reported ambiguous findings regarding the relationship of visuospatial attention and (stereoscopic) depth information. Some studies indicate that attention can be focused on a distinct depth plane, while other investigations revealed attentional capture from irrelevant items located in other, unattended depth planes. To evaluate whether task relevance of depth information modulates the deployment of attentional resources across depth planes, the additional singleton paradigm was adapted: S...

Visual working memory supports perceptual stability across saccadic eye movements.

Vision is suppressed during saccadic eye movements. To create a stable perception of the visual world we must compensate for the gaps in visual input caused by this suppression. Some theories of perceptual stability, such as the Saccade Target Object Theory (McConkie & Currie, 1996), propose that stability relies on object correspondence across saccades. According to these views, the visual system encodes features of the saccade target into visual working memory (VWM) before a saccade is made. After the sac...

Improvements to visual working memory performance with practice and feedback.

Visual working memory capacity is estimated to be around 3-4 items, but on some trials participants fail to correctly report even a single item from the memory array. Such failures of working memory performance are surprisingly common, and participants have poor self-awareness of them. Previous work has shown that behavioral feedback can reduce the frequency of working memory failures, but the benefits of feedback disappeared immediately after it was taken away. Here, we tested whether extended practice wit...

Weakness of Visual Working Memory in Autism.

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are often supported in daily life by visual presentations such as picture cards or illustrations. Therefore, they are considered to have visual strength. However, whether people with ASD are cognitively superior in visual processing and what causes the difference between visual and other sensory processing remain unknown. Thus, we compared visual and auditory processing from an aspect of memory in people with ASD and controls. We conducted the Wechsler Memory ...


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