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PubMed Journals Articles About "Involuntary Down Control Search Irrelevant Features Visual Working" RSS

11:43 EST 13th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

Involuntary Down Control Search Irrelevant Features Visual Working PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Involuntary Down Control Search Irrelevant Features Visual Working articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Involuntary down control search irrelevant features Visual working" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 27,000+

Negative cues lead to more inefficient search than positive cues even at later stages of visual search.

Observers can focus their attention on task-relevant items in visual search when they have prior knowledge about the target's properties (i.e., positive cues). However, little is known about how negative cues, which specify the features of task-irrelevant items, can be used to guide attention away from distractors and how their effects differ from those of positive cues. It has been proposed that when a distractor color is cued, people would first select the to-be-ignored items early in search and then inhi...


Visual Working Memory Load Disrupts Template-guided Attentional Selection during Visual Search.

Mental representations of target features (attentional templates) control the selection of candidate target objects in visual search. The question where templates are maintained remains controversial. We employed the N2pc component as an electrophysiological marker of template-guided target selection to investigate whether and under which conditions templates are held in visual working memory (vWM). In two experiments, participants memorized one or four shapes (low vs. high vWM load) before either being tes...

It takes two to tango: Suppression of task-irrelevant features requires (spatial) competition.

In a recent electrophysiological study, we reported on global facilitation but local suppression of color stimuli in feature-based attention in human early visual cortex. Subjects attended to one of two centrally located superimposed red/blue random dot kinematograms (RDKs). Task-irrelevant single RDKs in the same colors were presented in the left and right periphery, respectively. Suppression of the to-be-ignored color was only present in the centrally located RDK but not in the one with the same color in ...


Contralateral delay activity does not reflect behavioral feature load in visual working memory.

An ongoing debate in visual working memory research is concentrated on whether visual working memory capacity is determined solely by the number of objects to be memorized, or additionally by the number of relevant features contained within objects. Using a novel change detection task that contained multi-feature objects we examined the effect of both object number and feature number on visual working memory capacity, change detection sensitivity, and posterior slow wave event-related brain potential (ERP) ...

Differential brain mechanisms for processing distracting information in task-relevant and -irrelevant dimensions in visual search.

A crucial function of our goal-directed behavior is to select task-relevant targets among distractor stimuli, some of which may share properties with the target and thus compete for attentional selection. Here, by applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to a visual search task in which a target was embedded in an array of distractors that were homogeneous or heterogeneous along the task-relevant (orientation or form) and/or task-irrelevant (color) dimensions, we demonstrate that for both (orie...

Object-based target templates guide attention during visual search.

During visual search, attention is believed to be controlled in a strictly feature-based fashion, without any guidance by object-based target representations. To challenge this received view, we measured electrophysiological markers of attentional selection (N2pc component) and working memory (sustained posterior contralateral negativity; SPCN) in search tasks where two possible targets were defined by feature conjunctions (e.g., blue circles and green squares). Critically, some search displays also contain...

Brain and Cognitive Mechanisms of Top-Down Attentional Control in a Multisensory World: Benefits of Electrical Neuroimaging.

In real-world environments, information is typically multisensory, and objects are a primary unit of information processing. Object recognition and action necessitate attentional selection of task-relevant from among task-irrelevant objects. However, the brain and cognitive mechanisms governing these processes remain not well understood. Here, we demonstrate that attentional selection of visual objects is controlled by integrated top-down audiovisual object representations ("attentional templates") while re...

Bottom-up attention capture with distractor and target singletons defined in the same (color) dimension is not a matter of feature uncertainty.

In visual search, attention capture by an irrelevant color-singleton distractor in another feature dimension than the target is dependent on whether or not the distractor changes its feature: Capture is present if the irrelevant color distractor can take on different features across trials, but absent if the distractor takes on only one feature throughout all trials. This influence could be due to down-weighting of the entire color map. Here we tested whether a similar effect could also be brought about by ...

Oculomotor behavior during non-visual tasks: The role of visual saliency.

During visual exploration or free-view, gaze positioning is largely determined by the tendency to maximize visual saliency: more salient locations are more likely to be fixated. However, when visual input is completely irrelevant for performance, such as with non-visual tasks, this saliency maximization strategy may be less advantageous and potentially even disruptive for task-performance. Here, we examined whether visual saliency remains a strong driving force in determining gaze positions even in non-visu...

Visual Search in Amblyopia: Abnormal Fixational Eye Movements and Suboptimal Sampling Strategies.

Microsaccades shift the image on the fovea and counteract visual fading. They are also thought to serve as an optimal sampling strategy while viewing complex visual scenes. The goal of our study was to assess visual search in amblyopic children.

Occluded information is restored at preview but not during visual search.

Objects often appear with some amount of occlusion. We fill in missing information using local shape features even before attending to those objects-a process called amodal completion. Here we explore the possibility that knowledge about common realistic objects can be used to "restore" missing information even in cases where amodal completion is not expected. We systematically varied whether visual search targets were occluded or not, both at preview and in search displays. Button-press responses were long...

The perceptual enhancement by spatial attention is impaired during the attentional blink.

A salient, but task-irrelevant stimulus has long been known to capture attention in an automatic, involuntary manner. However, the automaticity of involuntary attention has recently been challenged. While some studies showed that the effect of involuntary attention depended on top-down attentional resources, other studies did not. To reconcile this conflict, we suggest to consider that attentional effect is not homogenous. Specifically, we hypothesized that the dependence of involuntary attention on top-dow...

Trait anxiety is associated with a decreased visual working memory capacity for faces.

Recent work has suggested that anxiety restricts working memory capacity, which may underlie a wide range of cognitive symptoms in anxiety. However, previous literature on the anxiety-visual working memory association yielded mixed results, with some studies demonstrating an anxiety-related increase in visual working memory capacity. In an attempt to gain a more thorough understanding of the relationship between anxiety and visual working memory maintenance function, the current study examined the influence...

Spatial correlation between localized decreases in exploratory visual search performance and areas of glaucomatous visual field loss.

Visual search is a critical skill for several daily tasks and may be compromised in patients with impaired vision. The objective of this study was to study the relationships between exploratory visual search performance (EVSP) visual field (VF) sensitivity in patients with glaucoma.

High Level of Trait Anxiety Leads to Salience-Driven Distraction and Compensation.

Individuals with high levels of anxiety are hypothesized to have impaired executive control functions that would otherwise enable efficient filtering of irrelevant information. Pinpointing specific deficits is difficult, however, because anxious individuals may compensate for deficient control functions by allocating greater effort. Here, we used event-related-potential indices of attentional selection (the N2pc) and suppression (the P) to determine whether high trait anxiety is associated with a deficit in...

Modulation of motor cortex activity in a visual working memory task of hand images.

Recent studies suggest that brain regions engaged in perception are also recruited during the consolidation interval of the percept in working memory (WM). Evidence for this comes from studies showing that maintaining arbitrary visual, auditory, and tactile stimuli in WM elicits recruitment of the corresponding sensory cortices. Here we investigate if encoding and WM maintenance of visually perceived body-related stimuli engage just visual regions, or additional sensorimotor regions that are classically ass...

Gestalt similarity groupings are not constructed in parallel.

Our visual system organizes spatially distinct areas with similar features into perceptual groups. To better understand the underlying mechanism of grouping, one route is to study its capacity and temporal progression. Intuitively, that capacity seems unlimited, and the temporal progression feels immediate. In contrast, here we show that in a visual search task that requires similarity grouping, search performance is consistent with serial processing of those groups. This was true across several experiments...

Correction: Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) facilitates overall visual search response times but does not interact with visual search task factors.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0194640.].

Measuring the time course of selection during visual search.

In visual search tasks, observers can guide their attention towards items in the visual field that share features with the target item. In this series of studies, we examined the time course of guidance toward a subset of items that have the same color as the target item. Landolt Cs were placed on 16 colored disks. Fifteen distractor Cs had gaps facing up or down while one target C had a gap facing left or right. Observers searched for the target C and reported which side contained the gap as quickly as pos...

Multiple attentional control settings at distinct locations without the confounding of repetition priming.

An attentional control setting (ACS), which is based on the task goal, induces involuntary attentional capture by a stimulus possessing a target-defining feature. It is unclear whether ACSs are maintained for multiple targets defined as conjunctions of a color and location. In the present study we examined the possibility of local ACSs for dual targets defined as combinations of color and location, using different paradigms: visual search in Experiment 1, and spatial cueing in Experiment 2. In Experiment 1,...

Visual working memory supports perceptual stability across saccadic eye movements.

Vision is suppressed during saccadic eye movements. To create a stable perception of the visual world we must compensate for the gaps in visual input caused by this suppression. Some theories of perceptual stability, such as the Saccade Target Object Theory (McConkie & Currie, 1996), propose that stability relies on object correspondence across saccades. According to these views, the visual system encodes features of the saccade target into visual working memory (VWM) before a saccade is made. After the sac...

The influence of relevant and irrelevant stereoscopic depth cues: Depth information does not always capture attention.

Previous research reported ambiguous findings regarding the relationship of visuospatial attention and (stereoscopic) depth information. Some studies indicate that attention can be focused on a distinct depth plane, while other investigations revealed attentional capture from irrelevant items located in other, unattended depth planes. To evaluate whether task relevance of depth information modulates the deployment of attentional resources across depth planes, the additional singleton paradigm was adapted: S...

Improvements to visual working memory performance with practice and feedback.

Visual working memory capacity is estimated to be around 3-4 items, but on some trials participants fail to correctly report even a single item from the memory array. Such failures of working memory performance are surprisingly common, and participants have poor self-awareness of them. Previous work has shown that behavioral feedback can reduce the frequency of working memory failures, but the benefits of feedback disappeared immediately after it was taken away. Here, we tested whether extended practice wit...

Weakness of Visual Working Memory in Autism.

Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are often supported in daily life by visual presentations such as picture cards or illustrations. Therefore, they are considered to have visual strength. However, whether people with ASD are cognitively superior in visual processing and what causes the difference between visual and other sensory processing remain unknown. Thus, we compared visual and auditory processing from an aspect of memory in people with ASD and controls. We conducted the Wechsler Memory ...

Formation of abstract task representations: Exploring dosage and mechanisms of working memory training effects.

Working memory is strongly involved in human reasoning, abstract thinking and decision making. Past studies have shown that working memory training generalizes to untrained working memory tasks with similar structure (near-transfer effect). Here, we focused on two questions: First, we ask how much training might be required in order to find a reliable near-transfer effect? Second, we ask which choice- mechanism might underlie training benefits? Participants were allocated to one of three groups: working-mem...


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