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Plant-microbe interactions are great model systems to study co-evolutionary dynamics across multiple timescales. However, mechanistic research on plant-microbe interactions has often been conducted with little consideration of evolutionary concepts and methods. Conversely, evolutionary research has rarely integrated the range of mechanisms and models from the molecular plant-microbe interactions field. In recent years, the incipient field of evolutionary molecular plant-microbe interactions (EvoMPMI) has em...
Plants and microbes are dependent on chemical signals as a means of inter-kingdom communication. There are two predicted paths for the evolution of these signals. Ritualization, the evolution of signals from cues, is the oft-assumed pathway for the evolution of plant-microbe communication systems. However, plant-microbe signaling may evolve from coercive interactions as well, a process known as sensory manipulation. Here, we aim to highlight the prevalence of coercive interactions and discuss sensory manipu...
Complex interactions between pathogenic bacteria, the microbiota, and the host can modify pathogen physiology and behavior. We describe two different experimental approaches to study microbe-microbe interactions in in vitro systems containing surface-associated microbial populations. One method is the application of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to determine the transcriptional changes in pathogenic bacteria in response to microbial interspecies interactions. The other method combines flow cell devices for bacte...
Since the microbiome has a significant impact on human health and disease, microbe-disease associations can be utilized as a valuable resource for understanding disease pathogenesis and promoting disease diagnosis and prognosis. Accordingly, it is necessary for researchers to achieve a comprehensive and deep understanding of the associations between microbes and diseases. Nevertheless, to date, little work has been achieved in implementing novel human microbe-disease association prediction models. In this p...
Preface of the special issue on plant-insect-microbe interactions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
To evaluate the reproducibility of serum testing for total thyroxine (T4) in three German laboratories.
An online survey of mycology laboratories in seven Asian countries was conducted to assess the status, competence, and services available. Country representatives from the Asia Fungal Working Group (AFWG) contacted as many laboratories performing mycology diagnosis as possible in their respective countries, requesting that the laboratory heads complete the online survey. In total, 241 laboratories responded, including 71 in China, 104 in India, 11 in Indonesia, 26 in the Philippines, four in Singapore, 18 i...
Immune responses and metabolic regulation are tightly coupled in animals, but the underlying mechanistic connections are not fully understood. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Lee et al. (2018) reveal how sustained ROS production in the gut depends on an upstream metabolic switch.
How does the immune system maintain a balance between preserving a beneficial microbiome and protecting against pathogens while also inducing effective, yet not damaging, responses? In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Charroux et al. (2018) reveal that, in Drosophila, this task is performed by three isoforms of PGRP-LB, a peptidoglycan-hydrolyzing amidase.
The replication vacuole of Legionella pneumophila makes contact with host mitochondria. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Escoll et al. (2017) dissect the mechanisms of this interaction, the effect of the T4SS effector MitF on mitochondrial function, and the resultant metabolic reprogramming of infected cells to benefit the bacteria.
Increasingly used for clinical purposes, genome and exome sequencing can generate clinically relevant information that is not directly related to the reason for testing (incidental or secondary findings). Debates about the ethical implications of secondary findings were sparked by the American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG)'s 2013 policy statement, which recommended that laboratories report pathogenic alterations in 56 genes. Although wide variation in laboratories' secondary findings policies has been ...
In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Zhang et al. (2017) show that translational repression through eIF2α phosphorylation mediated by PK4 kinase activity plays a key role in artemisinin resistance in recrudescent malaria infections. Targeting this druggable process could extend the lifespan of current frontline treatments.
The determinants of helminth resistance are not well understood. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Entwistle et al. (2017) provide intriguing evidence that a phospholipase A2 (Pla2gb1) produced by epithelial cells can impair larval development in helminths, providing a novel mechanism contributing to intestinal nematode resistance.
Commensal bacteria protect against invading pathogens using many strategies. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Paharik et al. (2017) find that a commensal blocks Staphylococcus aureus colonization by producing a signal to shut down virulence.
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) plays a well-known metabolic role inside cells. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Grayczyk et al. (2017) show that the bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus unexpectedly secretes and repurposes the lipoylated E2 subunit of PDH to suppress TLR-mediated activation of host macrophages by bacterial lipoproteins.
Cerebral malaria is one of the most severe complications of human infection by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Kessler et al. (2017) provide valuable insights into the diagnosis and pathogenesis of this poorly understood manifestation of malaria.
Choline is a crucial methyl donor necessary for epigenetic regulation. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Romano et al. (2017) demonstrate that choline-utilizing gut bacteria compete with their host for this essential resource, calling for a systematic consideration of gut microbial composition for personalized diet recommendations.
RNA viruses circulate as rapidly evolving swarms of related variants, and their evolutionary dynamics within hosts may be key to understanding virus emergence. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Parameswaran et al. (2017) combine next-generation sequencing and functional studies to characterize viral populations in acute dengue infections.
A diversity of plant-associated organisms secrete effectors-proteins and metabolites that modulate plant physiology to favor host infection and colonization. However, effectors can also activate plant immune receptors, notably nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat region (NLR)-containing proteins, enabling plants to fight off invading organisms. This interplay between effectors, their host targets, and the matching immune receptors is shaped by intricate molecular mechanisms and exceptionally dy...
Phenotypic screening methods have had a profound impact on antimalarial drug development, but assays that predict which compounds might provide a radical cure have remained elusive. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Gural et al. (2018) report hypnozoite culturing and systems to study these elusive, yet deadly, parasites.
Dynamics of phages and bacteria in the gut may play key roles in human health. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, De Sordi et al. (2017) provide insights into phage-bacteria interactions, finding that microbial communities contribute to phage persistence in the mammalian gut by supplying new hosts.
The attachment of bacteria to roots constitutes the first physical step in many plant-microbe interactions. These interactions exert both positive and negative influences on agricultural systems depending on whether a growth-promoting, symbiotic, or pathogenic relationship transpires. A common biphasic mechanism of root attachment exists across agriculturally important microbial species, including Rhizobium, Agrobacterium, Pseudomonas, Azospirillum and Salmonella. Attachment studies have revealed how plant-...
The gut microbiome is comprised of microbes from multiple kingdoms, including bacteria, but also fungi, viruses, and perhaps other agents. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Jiang et al. (2017) reveal that fungal monocolonization after antibiotic-mediated depletion of intestinal bacteria prevents colitis and influenza, thus highlighting beneficial roles of fungi.
In the absence of IL-10, Helicobacter hepaticus (Hh) induces colitis. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Danne et al. (2017) report that Hh produces a polysaccharide that induces an anti-inflammatory response in macrophages, providing a potential clue as to why this bacterium is normally tolerated by the immune system.
In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Wilmore et al. (2018) co-housed isogenic mouse populations, uncovering commensal bacteria-induced serum IgA and IgA-producing bone marrow plasma cells as critical components of resistance against sepsis. They further identified gut microbial taxa that may account for the induction of this protective system.