PubMed Journals Articles About "Nevirapine Infections" RSS

02:05 EST 10th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Nevirapine Infections" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 3,500+

Hatching success and survival of fish early life stages in a chronic exposure to nevirapine: a case study of the Mozambique tilapia.

The anti-retroviral nevirapine has been detected in surface waters throughout South Africa and its effects on non-target aquatic animals are still unknown. The aim was to investigate the potential effects of nevirapine on the hatching success and survival of Oreochromis mossambicus early life stages through a chronic exposure. The exposer started with newly fertilized O. mossambicus eggs and concluded 30 days after hatching. Environmental relevant concentration of nevirapine (1.48 µg/l) was used in a sta...

Pharmacogenetics of artemether-lumefantrine influence on nevirapine disposition: clinically significant drug-drug interaction?

In this study the influence of first-line antimalarial drug artemether-lumefantrine on the pharmacokinetics of the antiretroviral drug nevirapine was investigated in the context of selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a cohort of adult HIV-infected Nigerian patients.

Nevirapine Concentrations During the First Month of Life And Maternal Efavirenz Washout in High Risk HIV-Exposed Infants Receiving Triple Antiretroviral Prophylaxis.

Triple-drug infant antiretroviral prophylaxis containing nevirapine (NVP) is increasingly used to prevent HIV transmission among neonates at high risk of HIV-infection. Our aim was to describe NVP concentration from birth through the first month of life.

Rhodotorula species infections in humans: a systematic review.

Fungal infections by Rhodotorula species are increasingly reported in the literature and consist of bloodstream infections, especially in patients with central venous catheters (CVC), as well as central nervous system (CNS), ocular and other less frequent infections.

A New Scoring System to Predict Blood Stream Infections in Patients with Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections: Experience from a Tertiary Referral Hospital in China.

This purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of blood stream infections (BSIs) on the prognosis of patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) and to make predictions based on patients' characteristics on admission.

Characteristics and Outcome of Twenty-Nine Implant-Related Infections of the Hand and Fingers: Results from a Twelve-Year Observational Study.

Implant-related infections in hand surgery are dreaded complications, potentially leading to loss of finger joint function or amputation. Knowledge about the clinical presentation and treatment concepts of these infections is limited. The aim of this study is to present a consecutive series of patients with implant-related infections of the finger joints and wrist.

A Case-Control Study: Clinical Characteristics of Nosocomial Bloodstream Infections Versus Non-bloodstream Infections of Acinetobacter spp.

Acinetobacter spp. are among the most common causes of bacterial nosocomial infections, including pneumonia and bloodstream infections. Previous studies on the risk factors of bloodstream Acinetobacter spp. infections (BSAcIs) primarily compared uninfected patients to those with BSAcIs. However, the identified risk factors contribute to either BSIs or Acinetobacter spp. infections. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to analyze the risk factors of BSAcIs in comparison to non-bloodstream Ac...

Clinical implications of asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections in Malawi.

Asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum infections are common in Malawi, however, the implications of these infections for the burden of malaria illness are unknown. Whether asymptomatic infections eventually progress to malaria illness, persist without causing symptoms, or clear spontaneously remains undetermined. We identified asymptomatic infections and evaluated the associations between persistent asymptomatic infections and malaria illness.

Invasive Bacterial Infections in Infants Younger Than 60 Days With Skin and Soft Tissue Infections.

The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of invasive bacterial infections (IBIs) in young infants with skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) and the impact of IBI evaluation on disposition, length of stay (LOS), and cost.

Genetic Diversity of Norovirus Infections, Co-Infections, and Undernutrition in Children from Brazilian Semiarid Region.

Norovirus (NoV) infections are known to have high morbidity and mortality rates and are a major health problem globally. However, the impact of NoV on child development is poorly understood.

Ses proteins as possible targets for vaccine development against Staphylococcus epidermidis infections.

The opportunistic pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis is progressively involved in device-related infections. Since these infections involve biofilm formation, antibiotics are not effective. Conversely, a vaccine can be advantageous to prevent these infections. In view of vaccine development, predicted surface proteins were evaluated on their potential as a vaccine target.

Neighbourhood child population density as a proxy measure for exposure to respiratory infections in the first year of life: A validation study.

Assessing exposure to infections in early childhood is of interest in many epidemiological investigations. Because exposure to infections is difficult to measure directly, epidemiological studies have used surrogate measures available from routine data such as birth order and population density. However, the association between population density and exposure to infections is unclear. We assessed whether neighbourhood child population density is associated with respiratory infections in infants.

Both localized and systemic bacterial infections are predicted by injection drug use: A prospective follow-up study in Swedish criminal justice clients.

Both skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) and systemic bacterial infections are common in people who inject drugs (PWID), but data on incidence and risk factors are lacking. We compared registered diagnoses for such infections in Swedish criminal justice clients with regard to injecting drug use.

Early emergence of opportunistic infections after starting direct acting antiviral drugs in HIV/HCV coinfected patients.

Varicella-zoster virus and hepatitis B virus reactivations have been reported after starting interferon-free direct acting antiviral agent (DAA) combinations. HIV/HCV-coinfected patients could be a high-risk group for the reactivation of latent infections. Because of these, we report the occurrence of severe infections after starting DAA regimens in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. Individuals included in the HEPAVIR-DAA (NCT02057003) cohort were selected if they had received all-oral DAA combinations. A retros...

Optimizing therapy in carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections.

In the absence of randomized clinical trial data, questions remain regarding the optimal treatment of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections. CRE have historically been susceptible to polymyxins, tigecycline or aminoglycosides (mostly gentamicin), and these antibiotics have long been considered the drugs of choice for CRE infections, although varying rates of resistance to all have been reported. This review looks at data from clinical studies assessing the outcomes of CRE infections treat...

Identifying patients with bacterial infections using a combination of C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, TRAIL and IP-10 in the emergency department: a prospective observational cohort study.

To effectively reduce the unnecessary use of broad spectrum antibiotics in the emergency department(ED), patients with bacterial infections need to be identified accurately. We investigated the diagnostic value of a combination of biomarkers for bacterial infections CRP and PCT, together with biomarkers for viral infections, TRAIL and IP-10, in identifying suspected and confirmed bacterial infections in a general ED population with fever.

Urgent Infections of the Head and Neck.

Infections of the head and neck are common and appropriately managed by primary care providers in most cases. However, some infections are associated with significant morbidity and require urgent recognition and management by specialty services. These include deep neck space infections originating in the oral cavity, pharynx, and salivary glands, as well as complicated otologic and sinonasal infection. This article provides a review of these conditions, including the pathophysiology, presenting features, an...

Does Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus Aureus Increase the Risk of Post-Operative Infections after Elective Spine Surgery: Do Most Infections Occur in Carriers?

Wound infections following adult spinal deformity surgery place a high toll on patients, providers, and the healthcare system. Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of postoperative wound infections, and nasal colonization by this organism may be an important factor development of surgical site infections (SSI's). The aim is to investigate whether post-operative surgical site infections after elective spine surgery occur at a higher rate in patients with Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) ...

Helminthic Infections of the Central Nervous System.

This article discusses select helminthic parasitic infections that may affect the central nervous system and reviews the epidemiology, neurologic presentation, recommended diagnostic testing, and treatment approach to these infections.

Rare Orbital Infections ~ State of the Art ~ Part II.

Infections of the orbit and periorbita are relatively frequent. Identifying unusual organisms is crucial because they can cause severe local and systemic morbidity, despite their rarity. Opportunistic infections of the orbit should be considered mainly in debilitated or immunocompromised patients. The key to successful management includes a high index of suspicion, prompt diagnosis, and addressing the underlying systemic disease. This review summarizes unusual infectious processes of the orbit, including my...

Current Concepts for the Treatment of Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery.

Skin and soft tissue infections include the skin as well as fascia, muscles, ligaments, tendons, synovial membranes, fat, blood vessels, nerves, and fibrous tissues. They range from superficial infections to deep infections with a necrotizing clinical course. These infections can promptly progress with severe systemic complications, requiring rapid management, and proper surgical and medical treatment. This manuscript provides recommendations based on current practice guidelines for diagnosis and treatment ...

Microbiological and clinical characteristics of Group B Streptococcus isolates causing materno-neonatal infections: high prevalence of CC17/PI-1 and PI-2b sublineage in neonatal infections.

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is one of the major pathogens in severe materno-neonatal infections. We aimed to describe the clinical and molecular characteristics of GBS isolates causing infections in 45 maternal and 50 neonatal subjects, collected from eight healthcare centres in mainland China over the period 2010- 2017.

Significance of HBV NAT Among HBs Antigen-Negative Blood Donors in Saudi Arabia.

Bloodborne hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission from asymptomatic donors with acute HBV infections who have undetectable surface antigen of HBV (HBsAg), or from donors with chronic infections in whom serological markers were not detected, could cause residual infections leading to relevant transfusion-transmitted infections (RTTIs). HBV nucleic acid testing (NAT) can detect HBV DNA in the HBsAg-negative and total hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc)-negative window period of infection and in chronic cases.

Severe Infections in Critically Ill Solid Organ Transplant Patients.

Severe infections are among the most common causes of death in immunocompromised patients admitted to the intensive care unit. The epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of these infections has evolved in the last decade.

A Case-Control Study in Primary Care Settings on the Roles of Dermatoscopy in Infectious Diseases Affecting the Skin, Part 1: Viral and Bacterial Infections.

We aimed to investigate roles of dermatoscopy in skin infections, with Part 1 of our report covering viral and bacterial infections. A case-control study was conducted on the medical records of all patients with skin infections who had had dermatoscopy performed over a period of 3 months. Our control participants were all patients with skin infections in two 3-month periods, and sex-pair-matched patients with the same infections, who had not undergone dermatoscopy. Records of 523 study subjects were analyze...

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