PubMed Journals Articles About "OXYGEN" RSS

12:45 EDT 19th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

OXYGEN PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest OXYGEN articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "OXYGEN" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 4,000+

Enzymatic glucose/oxygen biofuel cells: Use of oxygen-rich cathodes for operation under severe oxygen-deficit conditions.

A glucose/oxygen biofuel cell (BFC) that can operate continuously under oxygen-free conditions is described. The oxygen-deficit limitations of metabolite/oxygen enzymatic BFCs have been addressed by using an oxygen-rich cathode binder material, polychlorotrifluoroethylene (PCTFE), which provides an internal oxygen supply for the BFC reduction reaction. This oxygen-rich cathode component mitigates the potential power loss in oxygen-free medium or during external oxygen fluctuations through internal supply of...

Oxygen Reserve Index: Validation of a New Variable.

Pulse oximetry-derived oxygen saturation is typically >97% in normoxia and hyperoxia, limiting its clinical use. The new Oxygen Reserve Index (ORi), a relative indicator of the partial pressure of oxygen dissolved in arterial blood (PaO2) in the range of 100-200 mm Hg, may allow additional monitoring of oxygen status.

The effect of oxygen concentration on arterial blood partial pressure of oxygen in dogs under general anesthesia.

Oxygen is used for medical treatment and general anesthesia. However, high concentrations of oxygen can have toxic effects on cells. In veterinary medicine, 100% oxygen is usually used during general anesthesia and it can be toxic to animals. However, there is little concern about its harmful effects in humans. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that using a high con- centration of oxygen increases the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2) more so than a lower concentration, by com...

Oxygen toxicity in acute care settings.

Oxygen therapy is widespread in acute care settings as adequate oxygen supplementation is essential in case of hypoxemia. Excessive oxygen supplementation has several unrecognized deleterious effects. This article reviews the deleterious effects of hyperoxemia and sums up the actual recommendations for safe oxygen supplementation.

Development and validation of a questionnaire to assess the doctors and nurses knowledge of acute oxygen therapy.

Prescription and administration of oxygen in emergencies by healthcare providers are reported to be inappropriate in most settings. There is a huge gap in the knowledge of health care providers on various aspects of oxygen therapy, and this may be a barrier to optimal oxygen administration. Hence, it is essential to ascertain providers' knowledge of acute oxygen therapy so that appropriate educational interventions are instituted for better delivery. There is no available validated instrument to assess know...

pH-Responsive Oxygen Nanobubbles for Spontaneous Oxygen Delivery in Hypoxic Tumors.

Tumor hypoxia is a significant factor leading to the resistance of tumors to treatments, especially for photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy where oxygen is needed to kill cancer cells. Oxygen delivery agents such as oxygen-saturated perfluorocarbon nanoemulsions or lipid oxygen microbubbles have been employed to supply oxygen to the hypoxic tumors with the ultrasound activation. Such oxygen delivery systems are still associated with several drawbacks including premature oxygen release and the dependence o...

Oxygen versus air-driven nebulisers for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial.

In exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, administration of high concentrations of oxygen may cause hypercapnia and increase mortality compared with oxygen titrated, if required, to achieve an oxygen saturation of 88-92%. Optimally titrated oxygen regimens require two components: titrated supplemental oxygen to achieve the target oxygen saturation and, if required, bronchodilators delivered by air-driven nebulisation. The effect of repeated air vs oxygen-driven bronchodilator nebulisation i...

How we diagnose and manage altered oxygen affinity hemoglobin variants.

Altered oxygen affinity variant hemoglobins are caused by mutations of the globin genes. Changes in hemoglobin oxygen affinity shift the oxygen dissociation curve, and can be identified by abnormal p50 measurements of patient red blood cells. Variants are categorized as either low oxygen affinity (high p50) or high oxygen affinity (low p50). Accurate diagnosis requires recognition of typical clinical and laboratory findings. In this case-based review, we present two patients with altered oxygen affinity var...

Oxygen Regulation in Development: Lessons from Embryogenesis towards Tissue Engineering.

Oxygen is a vital source of energy necessary to sustain and complete embryonic development. Not only is oxygen the driving force for many cellular functions and metabolism, but it is also involved in regulating stem cell fate, morphogenesis, and organogenesis. Low oxygen levels are the naturally preferred microenvironment for most processes during early development and mainly drive proliferation. Later on, more oxygen and also nutrients are needed for organogenesis and morphogenesis. Therefore, it is critic...

Lipid-polymer bilaminar oxygen nanobubbles for enhanced photodynamic therapy of cancer.

Hypoxia in solid tumors may be a hindrance to effective treatments of tumors in achieving their therapeutic potential, especially for photodynamic therapy (PDT) which requires oxygen as the supplement substrate. Oxygen delivery using perfluorocarbon emulsions or lipid oxygen microbubbles has been developed as the agents to supply endogenous oxygen to fuel singlet oxygen generation in PDT. However, such methods suffer from premature oxygen release and storage issues. To address these limitations, we designed...

Oxygen plasmas: a sharp chisel and handy trowel for nanofabrication.

Although extremely chemically reactive, oxygen plasmas feature certain properties that make them attractive not only for material removal via etching and sputtering, but also for driving and sustaining nucleation and growth of various nanostructures in plasma bulk and on plasma-exposed surfaces. In this minireview, a number of representative examples is used to demonstrate key mechanisms and unique capabilities of oxygen plasmas and how these can be used in present-day nano-fabrication. In addition to modif...

Economical lipid production from Trichosporon oleaginosus via dissolved oxygen adjustment and crude glycerol addition.

The effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on lipid accumulation in Trichosporon oleaginosus has been investigated. The experiment was performed in 15 L fermenters. The dissolved oxygen concentration varied by adjusting the agitation and aeration. High dissolved oxygen level at 50%-60% enhanced cell growth. Maintaining low dissolved oxygen concentration at 20%-30% during lipogenesis phase led to high final lipid content (51%) in Trichosporon oleaginosus. The consumptions of energy and cost of the proces...

New Perspectives in Oxygen Therapy Titration: Is Automatic Titration the Future?

Oxygen therapy, like all technology-based treatments, is continuously evolving. There are no doubts as to its effectiveness in the treatment of acute and respiratory failure in different clinical scenarios. However, the dosing guidelines for oxygen therapy are not as strict as for other treatments. The use of higher than necessary flows over excessively long periods, derived from the clinician's perception of it as a 'life-saving treatment with few side effects', has led to a rather liberal use of this inte...

Altered chemistry of oxygen and iron under deep Earth conditions.

A drastically altered chemistry was recently discovered in the Fe-O-H system under deep Earth conditions, involving the formation of iron superoxide (FeOHx with x = 0 to 1), but the puzzling crystal chemistry of this system at high pressures is largely unknown. Here we present evidence that despite the high O/Fe ratio in FeOHx, iron remains in the ferrous, spin-paired and non-magnetic state at 60-133 GPa, while the presence of hydrogen has minimal effects on the valence of iron. The reduced iron is ac...

(2,5-Dioxoimidazolidin-4-ylidene)aminocarbonylcarbamic acid as a precursor of parabanic acid, the singlet oxygen-specific oxidation product of uric acid.

Previously we identified that parabanic acid (PA) and its hydrolyzate, oxaluric acid (OUA), are the singlet oxygen-specific oxidation products of uric acid (UA). In this study we investigated the PA formation mechanism by using HPLC and a time-of-flight mass spectrometry technique and identified unknown intermediates as (2,5-dioxoimidazolidin-4-ylidene)aminocarbonylcarbamic acid (DIAA), dehydroallantoin, and 4-hydroxyallantoin (4-HAL). DIAA is the key to PA production and its formation pathway was character...

Oxygen diffusion in amorphous and partially crystalline gallium oxide.

Oxygen transport in amorphous (a-GaO1.5) and partially crystalline (a/c-GaO1.5) gallium oxide was studied by means of 18O/16O isotope exchange experiments and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Thin films of a-GaO1.5 were deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on alumina substrates at room temperature in an oxygen atmosphere. Oxygen tracer diffusion coefficients D* and oxygen surface exchange coefficients k* were determined as a function of temperature, 300 ≤ T/°C ≤ 370, and...

Identifying the Chemical Origin of Oxygen Redox Activity in Li-Rich Anti-Fluorite Lithium Iron Oxide by Experimental and Theoretical X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy.

Harnessing oxygen redox reactions is an intriguing route to increasing capacity in Li-ion batteries (LIBs). Despite numerous experimental and theoretical attempts to unravel the mechanism of oxygen redox behavior, the electronic origin of oxygen activities in energy storage of Li-rich LIB materials remains under intense debate. In this work, the onset of oxygen activity was examined using a Li-rich material that has been reported to exhibit oxygen redox, namely Li5FeO4. By comparing experimental measurement...

Superconductivity in Anti-ThCrSi-type ErOBi Induced by Incorporation of Excess Oxygen with CaO Oxidant.

Recently, superconductivity was induced by expanding interlayer distance between Bi square nets in anti-ThCrSi-type YOBi through incorporation of excess oxygen with increased nominal amount of oxygen. However, such oxygen incorporation was applicable to only YOBi among ROBi ( R = rare earth metal), probably due to a larger amount of oxygen incorporation for YOBi. In this study, the interlayer distance in ErOBi was increased by cosintering with CaO, which served as an oxidant, indicating that excess oxygen ...

Effect of Apneic Oxygenation on Tracheal Oxygen Levels, Tracheal Pressure, and Carbon Dioxide Accumulation: A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Buccal Oxygen Administration.

Apneic oxygenation via the oral route using a buccal device extends the safe apnea time in most but not all obese patients. Apneic oxygenation techniques are most effective when tracheal oxygen concentrations are maintained >90%. It remains unclear whether buccal oxygen administration consistently achieves this goal and whether significant risks of hypercarbia or barotrauma exist.

Review: Liberal oxygen increases mortality in acutely ill adults compared with conservative oxygen therapy.

Fabrication and high ORR performance of MnO nanopyramid layers with enriched oxygen vacancies.

Manganese oxide nanopyramids (MONPMs) with enriched oxygen vacancies (OVs) are vertically grown on nitrogen doped carbon (NC) microlaminate arrays with narrow spacing, yielding a high performance for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR).

Oxygen vacancies modulated Bi-rich bismuth oxyiodide microspheres with tunable valence band position to boost the photocatalytic activity.

How to optimize the photogenerated electron-hole pairs' separation efficiency and redox performance of defective photocatalysts is still a concern for photocatalysis research. In this study, rich oxygen vacancy was introduced in BiOI microsphere (BiOI-OVR) via a facile ionic liquid assisted solvothemal method to investigate the charge separation and photocatalytic performance. To demonstrate the dominant role of the introduced oxygen vacancy, partial oxygen vacancy in BiOI microsphere was repaired by post-c...

State of Oxygen Molecules in Aqueous Supersaturated Solutions.

The state of oxygen in aqueous supersaturated solutions prepared by different methods was studied using high-resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy in combination with other techniques. This allowed for non-destructive evaluation of the properties of oxygen solute particles, composed of oxygen molecules and surrounding (coordinating) molecules of water, at equilibrium and at supersaturated conditions, at different temperatures and concentrations of O. The results were compared with the behaviors of other types ...

Use of supplemental oxygen in emergency patients: a systematic review and recommendations for military clinical practice.

Supplemental oxygen is a key element of emergency treatment algorithms. However, in the operational environment, oxygen supply poses a challenge. The lack of high-quality evidence alongside emerging technologies provides the opportunity to challenge current guidelines. The aim of this review was to appraise the evidence for the administration of oxygen in emergency patients and give recommendations for its use in clinical practice.

Comparison of pre-oxygenation using spontaneous breathing through face mask and high-flow nasal oxygen: A prospective randomised crossover controlled study in healthy volunteers.

High-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) therapy has been proposed for pre-oxygenation before intubation, but the end-tidal fraction of oxygen (ETO2) obtained remains unknown.

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