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PubMed Journals Articles About "Occupancy Detectability Modelling Vertebrates Northern Australia Using Multiple" RSS

16:29 EDT 26th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Occupancy detectability modelling vertebrates northern Australia using multiple" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 13,000+

Occupancy and detectability modelling of vertebrates in northern Australia using multiple sampling methods.

Understanding where species occur and how difficult they are to detect during surveys is crucial for designing and evaluating monitoring programs, and has broader applications for conservation planning and management. In this study, we modelled occupancy and the effectiveness of six sampling methods at detecting vertebrates across the Top End of northern Australia. We fitted occupancy-detection models to 136 species (83 birds, 33 reptiles, 20 mammals) of 242 recorded during surveys of 333 sites in eight con...


The past and future roles of competition and habitat in the range-wide occupancy dynamics of Northern Spotted Owls.

Slow ecological processes challenge conservation. Short-term variability can obscure the importance of slower processes that may ultimately determine the state of a system. Furthermore, management actions with slow responses can be hard to justify. One response to slow processes is to explicitly concentrate analysis on state dynamics. Here, we focus on identifying drivers of Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) territorial occupancy dynamics across 11 study areas spanning their geographic range...

Identifying wildlife corridors for the restoration of regional habitat connectivity: A multispecies approach and comparison of resistance surfaces.

Many large-scale connectivity initiatives have been proposed around the world with the aim of maintaining or restoring connectivity to offset the impacts on biodiversity of habitat loss and fragmentation. Frequently, these are based on the requirements of a single focal species of concern, but there is growing attention to identifying connectivity requirements for multi-species assemblages. A number of methods for modelling connectivity have been developed; likewise, different approaches have been used to c...


Evaluation of human observer performance on lesion detectability in single-slice and multislice dedicated breast cone beam CT images with breast anatomical background.

We evaluate the lesion detectability using human and model observer studies in single-slice and multislice cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images with a breast anatomical background. The purposes of this work are (1) to compare human observer detectability between single-slice and multislice images for different signal sizes and noise structures, (2) to investigate the effect of different multislice viewing modes (i.e. sequential and simultaneous) on the detectability by a human observer, and (3) to pr...

Theoretical study on crystal morphologies of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene in solvents: Modified attachment energy model and occupancy model.

In this study, the growth morphologies of 1,1-diamino-2,2-dinitroethene (FOX-7) in vacuum and solvent conditions were investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. The modified attachment energy (MAE) model and occupancy model were used separately to predict the crystal morphology by calculating relative growth rate of different crystal faces in HO/NMP and DMSO/AC solvent system. The calculated results show that the (0 1 1) face and (1 0 1) face are the most important crystal face in both two solvents towa...

Nest sites as a key resource for population persistence: A case study modelling nest occupancy under forestry practices.

Natural nest sites are important breeding resource in terms of population dynamics, especially in forest systems where nest trees limit populations or timber harvesting destroys nests. Nest structures usually have a long life and can be reused by breeding pairs across multiple breeding seasons, so studying their dynamics is of relevance for biodiversity conservation. In this study, we develop a dynamic model to evaluate nest site availability and its influence on the breeding settlement of a forest raptor c...

Assessing the spatiotemporal interactions of mesopredators in Sumatra's tropical rainforest.

Co-occurrence between mesopredators can be achieved by differentiation of prey, temporal activity, and spatial habitat use. The study of mesopredator interactions is a growing area of research in tropical forests and shedding new light on inter-guild competition between threatened vertebrate species that were previously little understood. Here, we investigate sympatry between the Sunda clouded leopard (Neofelis diardi) and Asiatic golden cat (Pardofelis temminckii) living in the Sumatran rainforests of Indo...

Modelling the dispersion of radon-222 from a landform covered by low uranium grade waste rock.

The dispersion of Rn from the planned remediation of the Ranger U mine in the wet-dry tropics of Northern Australia was modelled. Dry and wet season contour maps of Rn dose normalised to Ra activity concentration in the proposed waste rock substrate on the remediated landform were developed. Three example exposure scenarios were assessed based on an anticipated waste rock Ra activity concentration of 800 Bq kg. The estimated above-background annual dose from Rn to hypothetical receptors at the Aboriginal co...

Wolbachia and the near cessation of dengue outbreaks in Northern Australia despite continued dengue importations via travellers.

Resting state functional connectivity in neurosurgical patients under propofol anesthesia: detectability and variability between patients and between sessions.

Intraoperative assessment of the functional connectivity (FC) provides a new possibility of mapping the eloquent brain region before, during, and after tumor resection. a systematic analysis of the detectability of FC and its variation between subjects and session.

Plio-Pleistocene diversification and biogeographic barriers in southern Australia reflected in the phylogeography of a widespread and common lizard species.

Palaeoclimatic events and biogeographical processes since the mid-Tertiary have played an important role in shaping the evolution and distribution of Australian fauna. However, their impacts on fauna in southern and arid zone regions of Australia are not well understood. Here we investigate the phylogeography of an Australian scincid lizard, Tiliqua rugosa, across southern Australia using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and 11 nuclear DNA markers (nuDNA), including nine anonymous nuclear loci. Phylogenetic analys...

Estimation of annual probabilities of changing disability levels in Australians with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

Transition probabilities are the engine within many health economics decision models. However, the probabilities of progression of disability due to multiple sclerosis (MS) have not previously been estimated in Australia.

Genetic Connectivity Between Papaya Ringspot Virus Genomes from Papua New Guinea and Northern Australia, and New Recombination Insights.

Isolates of papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) were obtained from plants of pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) or cucumber (Cucumis sativus) showing mosaic symptoms growing at Zage in Goroka District in the Eastern Highland Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG) or Bagl in the Mount Hagen District, Western Highlands Province. The samples were sent to Australia on FTA cards where they were subjected to High Throughput Sequencing (HTS). When the coding regions of the six new PRSV genomic sequences obtained via HTS were compared ...

A scoping review of caries risk management protocols in Australia and New Zealand.

To identify and map the caries risk management protocols with multiple strategies, which were used in Australia and New Zealand and reported in the existing literature.

Traits influence detection of exotic plant species in tropical forests.

Detecting exotic plant species is essential for invasive species management. By accounting for factors likely to affect species' detection rates (e.g. survey conditions, observer experience), detectability models can help choose search methods and allocate search effort. Integrating information on species' traits can refine detectability models, and might be particularly valuable if these traits can help improve estimates of detectability where data on particular species are rare. Analysing data collected d...

Stomach contents of long-finned pilot whales, Globicephala melas mass-stranded in Tasmania.

New data are reported from analyses of stomach contents from 114 long-finned pilot whales mass-stranded at four locations around Tasmania, Australia from 1992-2006. Identifiable prey remains were recovered from 84 (74%) individuals, with 30 (26%) individuals (17 females and 13 males) having empty stomachs. Prey remains comprised 966 identifiable lower beaks and 1244 upper beaks, belonging to 17 families (26 species) of cephalopods. Ommastrephidae spp. were the most important cephalopod prey accounting for 1...

Ascertaining infectious disease burden through primary care clinic attendance among young Aboriginal children living in four remote communities in Western Australia.

Infectious diseases contribute a substantial burden of ill-health in Australia's Aboriginal children. Skin infections have been shown to be common in remote Aboriginal communities, particularly in the Northern Territory, Australia. However, primary care data on skin and other infectious diseases among Aboriginal children living in remote areas of Western Australia are limited. We conducted a retrospective review of clinic presentations of all children aged 0 to 5 years presenting to four clinics located in ...

7 T Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging in Multiple Sclerosis: How Does Spatial Resolution Affect the Detectability of Metabolic Changes in Brain Lesions?

The aim of this study was to assess the utility of increased spatial resolution of magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) at 7 T for the detection of neurochemical changes in multiple sclerosis (MS)-related brain lesions.

The Role of Assisted Living Capacity on Nursing Home Financial Performance.

The rapid growth of the assisted living industry has coincided with decreased levels of nursing home occupancy and financial performance. The purpose of this article is to examine the relationships among assisted living capacity, nursing home occupancy, and nursing home financial performance. In addition, we explore whether the relationship between assisted living capacity and nursing home financial performance is mediated by nursing home occupancy. This research utilized publicly available secondary data, ...

Occupancy of adenosine A receptors by istradefylline in patients with Parkinson's disease using C-preladenant PET.

Istradefylline, an adenosine A receptor (AR) antagonist, is effective as an adjunct to levodopa and can alleviate "off" time and motor symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The present study aimed to calculate occupancy rates of ARs by administrating istradefylline 20 mg or 40 mg, which is the currently approved dose for PD in Japan. Additionally, AR availability was compared between patients with PD and healthy controls. Ten patients with PD under levodopa therapy and six age-matched healthy ...

Genome-wide identification of FOXL2 binding and characterization of FOXL2 feminizing action in the fetal gonads.

The identity of the gonads is determined by which fate, ovarian granulosa cell or testicular Sertoli cell, the bipotential somatic cell precursors choose to follow. In most vertebrates, the conserved transcription factor FOXL2 contributes to the fate of granulosa cells. To understand FOXL2 functions during gonad differentiation, we performed genome-wide analysis of FOXL2 chromatin occupancy in fetal ovaries and established a genetic mouse model that forces Foxl2 expression in the fetal testis. When FOXL2 wa...

Passive acoustics and sound recognition provide new insights on status and resilience of an iconic endangered marsupial (koala Phascolarctos cinereus) to timber harvesting.

Retention forestry aims to mitigate impacts of native forestry on biodiversity, but data are limited on its effectiveness for threatened species. We used acoustics to investigate the resilience of a folivorous marsupial, the koala Phascolarctos cinereus, to timber harvesting where a key mitigation practice is landscape exclusion of harvesting. We deployed acoustic recorders at 171 sites to record male bellows (~14,640 hours) for use in occupancy modelling and for comparisons of bellow rate (bellows night-1)...

Investigating locally relevant risk factors for infection in Australia: protocol for a case-control study and genomic analysis.

The CampySource project aims to identify risk factors for human infection in Australia. We will investigate locally relevant risk factors and those significant in international studies in a case-control study. Case isolates and contemporaneous isolates from food and animal sources will be sequenced to conduct source attribution modelling, and findings will be combined with the case-control study in a source-assigned analysis.

Detectability of Brain Metastases by Using Frequency-Selective Nonlinear Blending in Contrast-Enhanced Computed Tomography.

The aim of this study to evaluate the role of frequency-selective nonlinear blending (FS-NLB) for the detectability of brain metastases with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as standard of reference.

Evidence for Trait-Based Dominance in Occupancy among Fossil Taxa and the Decoupling of Macroecological and Macroevolutionary Success.

Biological systems provide examples of differential success among taxa, from ecosystems with a few dominant species (ecological success) to clades that possess far more species than sister clades (macroevolutionary success). Macroecological success, the occupation by a species or clade of an unusually high number of areas, has received less attention. If macroecological success reflects heritable traits, then successful species should be related. Genera composed of species possessing those traits should occ...


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