PubMed Journals Articles About "Ondansetron Placebo Schizoaffective Schizophreniform Disorders" RSS

11:38 EDT 18th October 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Ondansetron Placebo Schizoaffective Schizophreniform Disorders" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 7,200+

Identification of novel ondansetron metabolites using LC/MS and NMR.

Ondansetron, a potent and highly sensitive 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, has been used for the treatment of chemotherapy- and radiotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. The isolation and identification of ondansetron metabolites were investigated in our research. The feces and bile samples collected after oral administration of ondansetron were extracted and then isolated by semi-preparative HPLC. Then the pretreated samples were characterized by LC/MS and NMR. In rats feces, a tota...

Placebo and nocebo responses in other movement disorders besides Parkinson's disease: How much do we know?

Among movement disorders and medicine in general, PD is one of the conditions for which there is a greater knowledge of the placebo and nocebo responses. In other movement disorders, the knowledge of placebo and nocebo responses is less. An advance in this field is expected to contribute to a better understanding of the nature of a therapeutic benefit in clinical research and clinical practice, and mechanisms of placebo and nocebo. We conducted a review on placebo and nocebo responses in other movement diso...

Protocol for a double blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial using ondansetron to reduce vomiting in children receiving intranasal fentanyl and inhaled nitrous oxide for procedural sedation in the emergency department (the FON trial).

Intranasal fentanyl and nitrous oxide (NO) can be combined to create a non-parenteral procedural sedation regimen for children in the paediatric emergency department. This combination of intranasal fentanyl and NO provides effective pain relief for more painful procedures, but is associated with a higher incidence of vomiting than NO alone. Our aim is to assess whether ondansetron used preventatively reduces the incidence of vomiting associated with intranasal fentanyl and NO for procedural sedation compare...

An evaluation of the differences in DNA damage in lymphocytes and repair efficiencies in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

Schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder are chronic and debilitating psychiatric disorders. The present study was designed to determine DNA damage in patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder to assess the roles of oxidative metabolism and DNA repair mechanisms in this process, to assess the contribution of drugs, and thus to demonstrate the differences between schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. Thirty schizophrenia and 30 schizoaffective disorder patients, each having at least fi...

Ondansetron for Treatment of Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy and the Risk of Specific Birth Defects.

To use data from two large studies of birth defects to describe time trends in ondansetron use for the treatment of first-trimester nausea and vomiting of pregnancy and to investigate associations, either previously reported or undescribed, between first-trimester ondansetron use and major birth defects.

Oxytocin receptor mRNA expression in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in major psychiatric disorders: A human post-mortem study.

There is growing interest in oxytocin as a putative treatment for various psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder. However, potential alterations in the endogenous brain oxytocin system in these disorders are poorly characterized. Brain expression of oxytocin and its receptor genes in patients with these psychiatric disorders has not been well studied outside the hypothalamus. We measured expression of mRNA for oxytocin and its r...

Ondansetron and teratogenicity in rats: evidence for a mechanism mediated via embryonic hERG blockade.

The potent hERG channel blocking drug ondansetron is used off-label for treatment of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy. Some human epidemiological studies have associated ondansetron with fetal cardiovascular defects and orofacial clefts. This study investigated the effects of ondanestron on embryonic heart rhythm of gestational day (GD) 13 rat embryos in vitro and then integrated the results with published animal teratology, and animal and human pharmacokinetic studies to perform a risk evaluation. On...

Randomized, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of fosaprepitant, ondansetron, dexamethasone (FOND) versus FOND plus olanzapine (FOND-O) for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with hematologic malignancies receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy and hematopoietic cell transplantation regimens: the FOND-O Trial.

Evidence supports olanzapine for prophylaxis of chemotherapy-induced nausea/vomiting (CINV) for highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC); however, most studies focus on solid malignancies and single day regimens. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to compare addition of olanzapine to triplet therapy (fosaprepitant, ondansetron, dexamethasone; FOND-O) versus triplet therapy alone (FOND) in preventing CINV in hematology patients receiving single and multi-day HEC and hematopoieti...

Exploring the moderating effects of dopaminergic polymorphisms and childhood adversity on brain morphology in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

Genetic and environmental etiologies may contribute to schizophrenia and its associated neurobiological profile. We examined the interaction between dopaminergic polymorphisms, childhood adversity and diagnosis (schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder) on dopamine-related brain structures. Childhood adversity histories and structural MRI data were obtained from 249 (153 schizophrenia/schizoaffective, 96 controls) participants registered in the Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank. Polymorphisms in DRD2 and...

Service utilization and suicide among people with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

To compare individuals with and without schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or psychotic disorder not otherwise specified) who die by suicide.

Harnessing the power of placebos in movement disorders: Insights from Parkinson's disease in clinical research and practice.

The placebo effect alongside the detrimental nocebo and lessebo effects associated with the use of placebos are well-recognized phenomena. Research conducted in the last two decades has demonstrated that the placebo effect is a measurable health benefit with well-known neurobiological correlates. In this review, we describe the current knowledge about how to best make use of the placebo effect to improve clinical research and optimize clinical care. We will cover four key topics: (1) setting the stage: hist...

The placebo response in Parkinson's disease and other movement disorders.

Nocebo in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy; a systematic review and meta-analysis of placebo-controlled clinical trials.

Nocebo is very prevalent among neurological disorders, resulting in low adherence and treatment outcome. We sought to examine the adverse events (AE) following placebo administration in placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials (RCTs) for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP).

The 5-HT receptor antagonist ondansetron potentiates the effects of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor donepezil on neuronal network oscillations in the rat dorsal hippocampus.

Cognitive impairments in Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been associated with alterations in neuronal oscillatory activity, of which hippocampal theta and gamma oscillations are essential for the coordination of neuronal networks during cognitive functions. Cognitive deterioration in AD is delayed by symptomatic treatment with donepezil and other acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs). However, the efficacy of symptomatic monotherapy is insufficient. Combining 5-HT receptor antagonists with AChEIs represent...

A causality dilemma: ARFID, malnutrition, psychosis, and hypomagnesemia.

We present a novel case of a woman with coincident occurrence of auditory and visual hallucinations, electrolyte disturbances, chloride unresponsive alkalosis, and an eating disorder. The patient was ultimately diagnosed with Gitelman syndrome comorbid with schizophreniform disorder and avoidant restrictive food intake disorder. Eating disorders are often associated with electrolyte abnormalities which, in turn, can cause or contribute to other neuropsychiatric symptoms. At the same time, psychotic disorder...

Adjunctive Use of a Standardized Extract of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) to Treat Symptom Exacerbation in Schizophrenia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

To determine if adjunctive treatment with a standardized extract of Withania somnifera (WSE), with known anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties, improves psychopathology and stress in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (DSM-IV-TR).

Association of anti-emetic efficacy of Ondansetron with 18792A>G polymorphism in a drug target gene 5-HT3B in Pakistani population.

To evaluate the association of anti-emetic efficacy of ondansetron with 18792A>G polymorphism in the target gene of 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 subtype B.

Neurobiology of placebo effect in Parkinson's disease: What we have learned and where we are going.

The placebo effect is a phenomenon produced when an inert substance administered like a regular treatment improves the clinical outcome. Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the main clinical disorders for which the placebo response rates are high. The first evidence of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the placebo effect in PD stems from 2001, when de la Fuente-Fernandez and colleagues demonstrated that a placebo injection led to the release of dopamine in the striatal nuclei of PD measured with posi...

Placebo analgesia persists during sleep: An experimental study.

Although placebo analgesia is a well-recognized phenomenon with important clinical implications, the possibility that placebo effects occur during sleep has received little attention. This experimental study examined whether responsiveness to acute heat pain stimuli applied during sleep could be reduced following a placebo conditioning procedure administered before sleep. Healthy individuals (n = 9) underwent polysomnographic recordings for one habituation night followed by one placebo analgesia night a...

Emerging psychiatric disorders in Kleine-Levin syndrome.

In Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS), episodes of hypersomnia and cognitive, psychiatric and behavioural disturbances alternate with asymptomatic periods in adolescents. We evaluated whether psychiatric disorders would emerge during asymptomatic periods in a naturalistic, uncontrolled clinical cohort. Patients with primary KLS underwent psychiatric interviews at diagnosis and every year for 1-10 years, leading to diagnosis of former and present comorbid psychiatric disorders. Among the 115 patients (65.2% male a...

Using Placebo Beverages in Group Alcohol Studies.

Placebo beverage conditions remain a key element in the methodological toolkit for alcohol researchers interested in evaluating pharmacological and nonpharmacological factors influencing the effects of alcohol consumption. While interest in experimentally examining alcohol in social context is on the rise, there has been little research examining the effectiveness of placebo manipulations in group settings, when just one suspicious participant could potentially jeopardize the effect of the placebo on group ...

Prescribing Placebos: An Experimental Examination of the Role of Dose, Expectancies, and Adherence in Open-Label Placebo Effects.

Recent evidence indicates that placebo effects can occur even when patients know that they are taking a placebo, termed the open-label placebo effect.

Influence of adjuvant omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids on depression, sleep, and emotion regulation among outpatients with major depressive disorders - Results from a double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled clinical trial.

Extant literature shows that adjuvant omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (O3PUFAs) to a standard antidepressant medication impacts favorably on symptoms of depression in participants with major depressive disorders (MDD). The aim of the present study was to investigate, if and to what extent compared to placebo adjuvant O3PUFAs had a favorable impact on symptoms of depression, anxiety, sleep and emotion regulation among outpatients with MDD.

Early post-natal neuroactive steroid manipulation modulates ondansetron effects on initial periods of alcohol consumption in rats.

Neuroactive steroids (NS) such as allopregnanolone are crucial for brain development and adult behaviour. Early post-natal alterations of NS by administering finasteride induce a decrease in the sensitivity to stimulant effects of low alcohol doses, an increase in alcohol consumption, and a decrease in ventrostriatal dopamine and serotonin levels. The aim of the present study is to observe if the effects of the 5HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron on initial alcohol consumption are modulated by post-natal N...

Ondansetron Blocks Wildtype and p.F503L Variant Small Conductance Calcium Activated Potassium Channels.

The apamin-sensitive, small conductance, calcium-activated potassium (SK) current ( I) is encoded by KCNN genes. I importantly contributes to cardiac repolarization in conditions associated with reduced repolarization reserve. To test the hypothesis that I inhibition contributes to drug-induced long QT (diLQT) syndrome, we (1) screened for KCNN variants among patients with diLQT, (2) determined the properties of heterologously expressed wildtype and variant KCNN channels, and (3) determined if the 5-HT rece...

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