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07:51 EDT 23rd April 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Palifermin Palifermin placebo Infections" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 4,400+

Placebo can enhance creativity.

The placebo effect is usually studied in clinical settings for decreasing negative symptoms such as pain, depression and anxiety. There is interest in exploring the placebo effect also outside the clinic, for enhancing positive aspects of performance or cognition. Several studies indicate that placebo can enhance cognitive abilities including memory, implicit learning and general knowledge. Here, we ask whether placebo can enhance creativity, an important aspect of human cognition.

Placebo Effects in the Treatment of Noncognitive Symptoms of Alzheimer's Disease: Analysis of the CATIE-AD Data.

To compare symptom trajectories between placebo and active drug responders and to examine whether early placebo improvement would be associated with subsequent placebo response in the treatment of patients with behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia.

Placebo analgesia persists during sleep: An experimental study.

Although placebo analgesia is a well-recognized phenomenon with important clinical implications, the possibility that placebo effects occur during sleep has received little attention. This experimental study examined whether responsiveness to acute heat pain stimuli applied during sleep could be reduced following a placebo conditioning procedure administered before sleep. Healthy individuals (n = 9) underwent polysomnographic recordings for one habituation night followed by one placebo analgesia night a...

Prescribing Placebos: An Experimental Examination of the Role of Dose, Expectancies, and Adherence in Open-Label Placebo Effects.

Recent evidence indicates that placebo effects can occur even when patients know that they are taking a placebo, termed the open-label placebo effect.

Th17 Inhibitors in Active Psoriatic Arthritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials.

Several biologics targeting the Th17 pathway have been developed for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis (PsA), a disabling disease with moderate response and an increased incidence of serious infections to first-line biologics (TNF-α antagonists). Th17 inhibitors could replace TNF-α antagonists as first-line biologic agents. We determined the overall treatment effect of Th17 pathway inhibitors compared to placebo or active control on American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20 response at week 12 (primary...

Rate of cough during treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors: A meta-analysis of randomized placebo controlled trials.

Use of protective angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is sometimes limited by incident coughing. In clinical trials cough occurred also on placebo. We performed a meta-analysis including randomized, placebo-controlled trials reporting cough on ACE-I in patients with CVD. We evaluated the attributable fraction of cough on ACE-I accounting rate on placebo: placebo-adjusted ACE-I (%) = (ACE-I (%) - Placebo (%))/ACE-I (%). 65,054 patients from 22 inclu...

Galacto-Oligosaccharide/Polidextrose Enriched Formula Protects against Respiratory Infections in Infants at High Risk of Atopy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Early nutrition affects the risk of atopy and infections through modifications of intestinal microbiota. The Prebiotics in the Prevention of Atopy (PIPA) study was a 24-month randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. It aimed to evaluate the effects of a galacto-oligosaccharide/polydextrose (GOS/PDX)-formula (PF) on atopic dermatitis (AD) and common infections in infants who were born to atopic parents and to investigate the relationship among early nutrition, gut microbiota and clinical outcomes.

Methods for assessing and controlling placebo effects.

The placebo serves as an indispensable control in many randomized trials. When analyzing the benefit of a new treatment, researchers are often confronted with large placebo effects that diminish the treatment effect. Various alternative methods have been proposed for analyzing placebo and treatment effects in studies where large placebo effects are expected or have already occurred. This paper presents an overview of methodological work that has been proposed for assessing and/or controlling for placebo eff...

No evidence for an acute placebo effect on emotional processing in healthy volunteers.

Placebo-controlled trials are the gold standard measure of efficacy in the development of new treatments for depression. However, the large placebo effects associated with standard measures of subjective symptoms reduce the sensitivity of such trials to detect antidepressant effects. There is a need to develop novel efficacy markers that are resistant to placebo effects. Measures of emotional processing, known to be sensitive to antidepressant treatment, may be such a marker, although the effect of an acute...

Enhancing placebo effects in somatic symptoms through oxytocin.

Placebo effects relieve various somatic symptoms but it is unclear how they can be enhanced in order to maximize positive treatment outcomes. Oxytocin administration may potentially enhance placebo effects but few studies have been performed with conflicting findings. The study aim was to investigate the influence of positive verbal suggestions and oxytocin on treatment expectations and placebo effects for pain and itch.

Placebo response and remission rates in randomised trials of induction and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis.

It is important to minimize placebo rates in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to efficiently detect treatment differences between interventions. Historically, high placebo rates have been observed in clinical trials of ulcerative colitis (UC). A better understanding of factors influencing placebo rates may lead to more informed clinical trial design.

Use of Placebo in Supplementation Studies-Vitamin D Research Illustrates an Ethical Quandary.

History has shown that without explicit and enforced guidelines, even well-intentioned researchers can fail to adequately examine the ethical pros and cons of study design choices. One area in which consensus does not yet exist is the use of placebo groups in vitamin supplementation studies. As a prime example, we focus on vitamin D research. We aim to provide an overview of the ethical issues in placebo-controlled studies and guide future discussion about the ethical use of placebo groups. Research in the ...

Placebo Effects Across Self-Report, Clinician Rating, and Objective Performance Tasks Among Women With Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Investigation of Placebo Response in a Pharmacological Treatment Study of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

For a drug to acquire Food and Drug Administration approval, it must significantly outperform placebo treatment. In recent years, the placebo effect seems to be increasing in neuropsychiatric conditions. Here, we examine placebo effects across self-reported, clinically rated, and performance-based data from a trial using a corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor type 1 (CRHR1) antagonist for treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Risk of serious infections in biological treatment of patients with ankylosing spondylitis and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis: a meta-analysis.

The objective of the study is to quantitatively assess the risk of serious infections in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (AS) and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) treated by biologics enrolled in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). A systematic literature searches of MEDLINE (via PubMed), EMBASE, the Cochrane Library and abstracts archives of the annual scientific meetings of both the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) was cond...

Tick-borne infections and co-infections in patients with non-specific symptoms in Poland: Tick-borne infections and co-infections.

The aim of the study was the evaluation of the frequency of infections and co-infections among patients hospitalized because of non-specific symptoms after a tick bite.

Factors Associated With Response to Placebo in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Constipation.

A high proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) respond to placebo in clinical trials (estimated at about 40%). We aimed to identify factors that contribute to the high placebo response rate using data from a placebo-controlled trials of patients with IBS.

Novel designs and paradigms to study the placebo response in gastroenterology.

The investigation of the placebo and the nocebo effect and their mechanisms has a rather short history of less than 20 years, especially in gastroenterology, and only the last 5 years have resulted in substantial improvement of understanding. Placebo refers to symptom improvement following a treatment, nocebo to the opposite, symptom worsening. Among the factors driving this progress are traditional psychological models derived from learning (conditioning) theory bridging into clinical science, new animal m...

Efficacy and Safety of a Single-Dose Mebendazole 500 mg Chewable, Rapidly-Disintegrating Tablet for Ascaris Lumbricoides and Trichuris Trichiura Infection Treatment in Pediatric Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Phase 3 Study.

This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a new chewable, rapidly-disintegrating mebendazole (MBZ) 500 mg tablet for Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infection treatment. Pediatric patients (1-15 years; N = 295; from Ethiopia and Rwanda) excreting A. lumbricoides and/or T. trichiura eggs were enrolled. The study had a screening phase (3 days), a double-blind treatment phase (DBP, 19 days), and an open-label phase (OLP, 7 days). Patients received...

Fungal Infections Increase the Mortality Rate Three-Fold in Necrotizing Soft-Tissue Infections.

Necrotizing soft-tissue infections (NSTIs) result in significant morbidity and mortality rates, with as many as 76% of patients dying during their index admission. Published data suggest NSTIs rarely involve fungal infections in immunocompetent patients. However, because of the recent recognition of fungal infections in our population, we hypothesized that such infections frequently complicate NSTIs and are associated with higher morbidity and mortality rates.

Manual therapy RCTs: should we control placebo in placebo control?

The influence of Catechol-O-Methyltransferase Val158Met on fear of pain and placebo analgesia.

Higher levels of fear have been shown to partly explain individual differences in placebo analgesic responding. The COMT rs4680 Val158Met polymorphism has been associated with both increased placebo analgesia and increased fear-related behavior, in what appears to be inconsistent findings in the literature. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate placebo analgesia and fear-related processes with regard to the COMT genotype, to sort out whether the Met-allele is associated with increased placebo an...

Why do open-label placebos work? A randomized controlled trial of an open-label placebo induction with and without extended information about the placebo effect in allergic rhinitis.

Several studies demonstrated that placebo treatment may have a significant impact on many different symptoms. While in the traditional view concealment of the placebo is essential, recent studies report intriguing evidence that placebos may work even without deception. For example, it has been demonstrated that open-label placebos can improve symptoms in allergic rhinitis. However, the mechanisms of how placebos without concealment work remain unknown.

mircoRNA-3162-3p is a potential biomarker to identify new infections in HIV-1-infected patients.

Identification of new HIV infections (HIV incidence) is critical for monitoring AIDS epidemic and assessing the effectiveness of intervention measures. However, current methods for distinguishing new infections from newly diagnosed HIV-1 patients are still imperfect. We explored utilizing miRNAs as biomarker to identify HIV new infections.

Childhood Infections and Subsequent School Achievement Among 598,553 Danish Children.

Hospitalizations for infections have been associated with subsequent decreased cognitive ability, but it is uncertain if childhood infections influence subsequent scholastic achievement (SA). We aimed to estimate the association between infections during childhood and SA.

Pharmacogenomics and the Placebo Response.

There is perhaps no more important time in the history of placebos to consider their role in clinical trials and in medicine. Increasingly well-designed pharmaceutical and academic clinical trials testing promising and established drug and surgical interventions have failed to "beat" the placebo response. The collateral damage resulting from these failures is staggering; novel treatments, many with compelling mechanisms of action and promising Phase 2 trial results, never reach the patient, adversely affect...

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