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PubMed Journals Articles About "Penguin Group" RSS

03:55 EST 14th November 2018 | BioPortfolio

Penguin Group PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Penguin Group articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Penguin group" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 11,000+

Ancient DNA of crested penguins: Testing for temporal genetic shifts in the world's most diverse penguin clade.

Human impacts have substantially reduced avian biodiversity in many parts of the world, particularly on isolated islands of the Pacific Ocean. The New Zealand archipelago, including its five subantarctic island groups, holds breeding grounds for a third of the world's penguin species, including several representatives of the diverse crested penguin genus Eudyptes. While this species-rich genus has been little studied genetically, recent population estimates indicate that several Eudyptes taxa are experienci...


A novel coupled fluid-behavior model for simulating dynamic huddle formation.

A coupled numerical model is developed to examine aggregative behavior in instances where the behavior not only responds to the environment, but the environment responds to the behavior such as fish schooling and penguin huddling. In the coupled model, the full Navier-Stokes equations are solved for the wind field using a finite difference method (FDM), and coupled to a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) model adapted to simulate animal behavior (penguins are individual particles in the SPH). We use the ...

From incubation to release: Hand-rearing as a tool for the conservation of the endangered African penguin.

The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) population is estimated at 25,000 breeding pairs, approximately 5% of that at the start of the 20th century, and the species is currently classified as Endangered. In the last two decades, the hand-rearing of penguin chicks that were abandoned by their parents due to oil spills or other circumstances has become a valuable conservation tool to limit mortality and to bolster the population at specific colonies. We summarize and evaluate the techniques employed by the ...


Marathon penguins - Reasons and consequences of long-range dispersal in Fiordland penguins / Tawaki during the pre-moult period.

Migratory species often roam vast distances bringing them into contact with diverse conditions and threats that could play significant roles in their population dynamics. This is especially true if long-range travels occur within crucial stages of a species' annual life-cycle. Crested penguins, for example, usually disperse over several hundreds of kilometres after completing the energetically demanding breeding season and in preparation for the costly annual moult. A basic understanding of crested penguins...

Group Influences on Engaging Self-Control: Children Delay Gratification and Value It More When Their In-Group Delays and Their Out-Group Doesn't.

Self-control emerges in a rich sociocultural context. Do group norms around self-control influence the degree to which children use it? We tested this possibility by assigning 3- to 5-year-old children to a group and manipulating their beliefs about in-group and out-group behavior on the classic marshmallow task. Across two experiments, children waited longer for two marshmallows when they believed that their in-group waited and their out-group did not, compared with children who believed that their in-grou...

Assessment of heavy metal contamination from penguins and anthropogenic activities on Fildes Peninsula and Ardley Island, Antarctic.

Fildes Peninsula, with a high density of scientific stations, has been significantly impacted by anthropogenic activities. However, the contamination from penguins, a biovector that transports pollutants from ocean to land, has seldom been assessed. In this study, 32 lacustrine surface sediment samples on Fildes Peninsula and 8 lacustrine surface sediment samples on Ardley Island were collected to determine Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cd, Co, Sb, Hg and P levels. The results showed that the heavy metal contents of ...

Humboldt penguins' feathers as bioindicators of metal exposure.

Avian feathers have the potential to accumulate trace elements originating from contaminated food and polluted environments. In fact, in feathers, metals bind to keratin, a sulphur-containing protein for which several metals have a strong affinity. Here, the concentrations of 18 essential and non-essential elements were investigated in a Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) colony housed at the Acquario di Cattolica (Italy). This species is listed as vulnerable in the Red List of the International Union ...

Does Timing of Surgery Affect Treatment of the Terrible Triad of the Elbow?

BACKGROUND This study investigated the influence of surgical timing on the treatment of terrible triad of the elbow (TTE). MATERIAL AND METHODS After exclusion, 63 patients were enrolled in this study: 20 patients were classified into the emergency group (group A, within 24 h after injury), 26 into the early surgery group (group B, from 4 to 14 days after injury), and 17 into the delayed surgery group (group C, more than 14 days after injury). All patients underwent the same approach, and elbow motion and c...

An Examination of Group Size and Valence in Delay Discounting of Shared Outcomes.

Previous research has examined delay discounting in a group context, where the outcomes are shared with others. These studies indicate shallow delay discounting in a group context compared to an individual context. The present set of studies aimed to explore the impact of two factors, group size (the number of others in the group) and group valence (liked or disliked others in the group), that may affect delay discounting in a group context. Results of the two studies replicated previous results, where shal...

PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF VITAMIN A, B, D, AND E IN HUMBOLDT PENGUINS ( SPHENISCUS HUMBOLDTI) BEFORE AND AFTER DIETARY VITAMIN SUPPLEMENTATION OF THEIR FISH DIET.

In a practical feeding trial at Ouwehand Zoo, plasma concentrations of vitamin A, calcidiol (D), α-tocopherol (E), and B in 17 Humboldt penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti) were measured before and after supplementation to gain insight into the effect of supplementing these vitamins in animals being fed thawed frozen-fish diets. None of the penguins received vitamin supplements for at least 6 mo before the supplementation trial, which was conducted prior to their normal nesting and molting period. During the t...

Isolation and exploitation of minority: Game theoretical analysis.

We investigate various group-size distributions occurring in a situation where each group's resource is exposed to appropriation by other groups. The amount of appropriation depends on the size difference between groups. Our work focuses on the cases where the entire community isolates a small group or even an individual to maximize its gain. While people's basic motivation to form a group can be understood based on the group-size effect on multiplying a collective asset, sensitive factors that induce a asy...

ENVIRONMENTAL FUNGAL LOADS IN AN INDOOR-OUTDOOR AFRICAN PENGUIN ( SPHENISCUS DEMERSUS) EXHIBIT.

Aspergillosis continues to be one of the most important causes of disease in captive penguins. As such, designing exhibits and holding areas that minimize the risk of aspergillosis is of great interest; however, very little has been published regarding this topic. The goal of this study was to assess total fungal spore loads as well as the loads of Aspergillus spp. encountered in multiple indoor and outdoor microenvironments around the exhibit for a large colony of African penguins ( Spheniscus demersus). A...

Nephroprotective Effect of Zingerone against CCl-Induced Renal Toxicity in Swiss Albino Mice: Molecular Mechanism.

The protective effects of Zingerone against CCl induced nephrotoxicity in Swiss albino mice via modulation of metabolizing enzyme, oxidative stress, inflammatory cytokines, and apoptosis. The biochemical estimation indicated that the BUN and creatinine were significantly increased in group 2 (CCl) compared to group 1 (normal) which was significantly reduced after treatment with Zingerone in group 3 when compared with group 2. The CCl treatment has significantly increased TBARS levels and reduced the antioxi...

Group I introns are widespread in archaea.

Group I catalytic introns have been found in bacterial, viral, organellar, and some eukaryotic genomes, but not in archaea. All known archaeal introns are bulge-helix-bulge (BHB) introns, with the exception of a few group II introns. It has been proposed that BHB introns arose from extinct group I intron ancestors, much like eukaryotic spliceosomal introns are thought to have descended from group II introns. However, group I introns have little sequence conservation, making them difficult to detect with sta...

The role of group cohesion in a group-based behavioral weight loss intervention.

Behavioral weight loss interventions are often delivered in groups. Group cohesion may enhance program attendance and, thereby, weight loss. In this secondary analysis, our goals were to: (1a) assess whether group cohesion measured early in a behavioral weight loss intervention predicts program attendance and weight loss outcomes and, if so, (1b) explore whether attendance mediates the link between group cohesion and weight loss; (2) characterize the association between change in group cohesion and weight l...

Experimental animal study of docetaxel combined with carboplatin in the treatment of retinoblastoma.

The synergistic effects of docetaxel (DTX) combined with carboplatin in the treatment of retinoblastoma (RB) was explored in mouse RB xenografts compared with carboplatin alone and DTX alone groups. Retinoblastoma Y-79 cells (4.0×10/ml) were injected into the vitreous body of the right eye of mice to establish the mouse model of RB xenografts. Then the mice were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=30): DTX combined with carboplatin group (group A), carboplatin group (group B), DTX group (group C) and blank c...

Reply to readers (Manuscript ID: HEP-18-1297).

In our preliminary experiment, we divided patients into 3 groups, 10 patients in each group. Group A received standard medicine treatment (SMT) only. Group B was treated with allogeneic bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) every week for 4 weeks, at a dosage of 1x10 per Kg. For Group C the dosage of BM-MSCs was 10x10 per Kg. No significant difference was found in the levels of liver functions and 24 week survival rate between Group B and Group C (data not published). This may be related with the peripheral ve...

Hypergravity enhances the therapeutic effect of dexamethasone in allergic asthma and rhinitis animal model.

We investigated whether the therapeutic effects of dexamethasone for allergic asthma and rhinitis were enhanced in mice when exposed to hypergravity. Forty mice were divided into 5 groups (n = 8/group): Control group received saline intraperitoneally (i.p.) and intranasally (i.n.); Asthma group received i.p./i.n. ovalbumin (OVA) for inducing allergic asthma/rhinitis; Dexa group received i.n. dexamethasone (0.75 mg/kg) 30 minutes before each OVA challenge; Hypergravity group was subjected to allergic asthma/...

Effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on minimum alveolar concentration values of sevoflurane and desflurane in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma complicated with jaundice.

The effects of neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) values of sevoflurane and desflurane in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) complicated with jaundice were investigated. Eighty patients with HCC complicated with jaundice were selected. Forty patients underwent the neoadjuvant chemotherapy and were grouped into the desflurane group (Group D) and the sevoflurane group (Group S). Patients in all chemotherapy groups received 2 cycles of chemotherapy prior to surgery a...

Comparison of Congenital Malformations among Babies Born after Administration of Letrozole or Clomiphene Citrate for Infertility Treatment in a Korean Cohort.

This retrospective study investigated and compared the incidence of congenital foetal anomalies after letrozole versus clomiphene citrate (CC) administration for infertility treatment. Data from 142 newborns were included: letrozole group, n = 83; CC group, n = 61. Congenital anomalies were found in 7.2% (6/83) patients in the letrozole group and 18.0% (11/61) patients in the CC group, with no significant between-group difference (p = .066). Major congenital anomaly rate was 2.4% (2/83) in the l...

Ostracism drives group moralization and extreme group behavior.

Sharing beliefs, particularly moral beliefs, is a way to establish social connections. We hypothesized that ostracism leads people who are high in the need to belong to adhere to the moral beliefs of an ingroup, and that moralizing the beliefs of one's group increases the willingness to endorse extreme behavior on behalf of the group. Across two studies, participants were ostracized or included, rated the moral relevance of their group values, and indicated their endorsement of extreme behavior on behalf of...

The Importance of Structure and Connection for People Living With Schizophrenia: A 33-Year Outpatient Group Experience.

This paper evaluates an outpatient group for persons living with schizophrenia. Qualitative changes and psychiatric admissions among group members were reviewed to measure recovery. Thirty-two members have attended sessions for up to 28 years. Meaningful interactions (e.g., supportive comments) have increased and hospitalizations have decreased. The support of the therapists and the other group members has allowed for personal recovery and developing and maintaining social connections. Prior to starting th...

Stability of anti-A blood group titers among blood group B renal transplant candidates.

As deceased donor kidney allocation is based in part on blood type compatibility, group B candidates are disadvantaged due to their disproportionate representation on the wait list compared to the group B donor pool. To mitigate this discrepancy, group B candidates can receive group A or A B donor kidneys if their anti-A titers are below a predetermined cutoff. Currently, eligibility is reverified quarterly to UNet based on individual center protocols, which can vary due to a lack of set guidelines for moni...

Comparison of two groups for the apolipoprotein E polymorphisms by using next generation sequencing: The first group with three consecutive abortions and the second group with at most one abortion in three consecutive pregnancies.

The importance of apolipoprotein E genotypes and allelic polymorphisms in the etiology of recurrent miscarriage is controversial. We plan to investigate this in a two-group study involving more than a thousand participants. In total, 1046 subjects (802 participants in the first group, 244 participants in the second group) were investigated. Women in the first group had a history of ≥3 consecutive spontaneous miscarriage and women in the second group had at most one miscarriage in three consecutive pregnan...

Molecular genetics unveiled unknown family relationships and hybrids in an ex-situ colony of African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

Genealogical relationships among colony members, inbreeding status, and presence of hybrids are crucial data that can assist zoo curators in captive colony management and decision-making on relocation for reproduction. This study employed molecular markers to study a large colony (n=56) of African Penguin hosted in an Italian biopark. A panel of 15 STRs (single tandem repeats) was selected, and genotype data were analyzed using COLONY software to determine parentage relationships and compare the existing st...


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