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Leukemic transformation is an unfavorable event emerging in a minority of patients with myelofibrosis (MF) and carrying a poor prognosis. Patients with post-MF acute myeloid leukemia (AML) may be treated with curative or noncurative intent, but there is no standard of care. The use of hypomethylating agents has been correlated with limited activity and low overall survival rates, while ruxolitinib has been proven to have modest antileukemic activity.
In BCR-ABL1-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms, myelofibrosis (MF) is either primary (PMF) or secondary (SMF) to polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia. MF is characterized by an increased risk of transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and a shortened life expectancy.
There have been conflicting results regarding impact of minimal/measurable disease at transplant on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) outcomes after haploidentical transplantation (haplo-SCT). We assessed the impact of pre-transplant disease status on post-transplant outcomes of 143 patients treated with haplo-SCT using fludarabine-melphalan (FM) conditioning and post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy). With a median follow-up of 29 months, the two-year PFS for all patients was 41%. Compared to patients in com...
To provide a comprehensive review of evidence-based data on the newly approved therapeutic agents in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with regards to appropriate indications for use, efficacy, and safety.
Identification of cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities has become vital for the appropriate treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). One of the most common molecular alterations in AML is the constitutive activation by internal tandem duplication of FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3).
To review the current state of molecular and genetic profiling of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and its implications.
Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) that evolves into acute leukemia with blasts of mixed phenotypes has rarely been reported and has no distinct diagnostic category. Herein, we describe a 79-year-old Korean female patient with MDS-excess blasts (MDS-EB) that evolved into acute leukemia; the blasts simultaneously expressed B-lymphoid and myeloid antigens. The patient was diagnosed with MDS-EB with blasts of myeloid lineage coexpressing a few B-lymphoid antigens with 7q and 20q abnormalities. The disease progress...
This study was carried out to compare the efficacy and toxicity of consolidation with cytarabine only to consolidation with anthracycline combination in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) achieving complete remission (CR).
The mutational landscape of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has revised diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic schemata over the past decade. Recurrently mutated AML genes have functional consequences beyond typical oncogene-driven growth and loss of tumor suppresser function.
PRL-3, an oncogenic dual-specificity phosphatase, is overexpressed in 50% of acute myeloid leukemia patients. Stathmin has been identified as a downstream target of PRL-3 in colorectal cancer. However, the correlation between PRL-3 and stathmin in myeloid leukemia is unclear. In this study, we revealed the positive correlation between PRL-3 and stathmin in myeloid leukemia. Knockdown of the gene by shRNA reduced the expression of downstream stathmin, suppressed cell proliferation, induced G2/M arrest and c...
The majority of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are aged >65 years at the time of diagnosis and are not actively treated. The objective of the current study was to determine the prevalence, temporal trends, and factors associated with no active treatment (NAT) among older patients with AML in the United States.
Leukemia is the most common cancer in children and has the highest rates of incidence in industrialized countries, followed by developing countries. This epidemiologic profile can mainly be attributed to the availability of diagnostic resources. In Brazil, leukemia diagnosis is a challenge due to financial viability, lack of hemovigilance services in isolated regions and the vast size of the territory. Its incidence in the state of Amazonas has been increasing since 2010. Therefore, this study aims to descr...
Relapse of -mutated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) following allogeneic stem cell transplantation is associated with poor survival. The clinical utility of sorafenib monotherapy in this setting is described in a patient presenting as leukemia cutis.
Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) represents ∼10% of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia cases and typically affects young children (
A 75-year-old woman developed a frontal lobe disorder a few days after the diagnostic of an Acute Myeloid Leukemia secondary to a myelodysplastic syndrome. The patterns on the cerebral Magnetic Resonance Imaging and positron emission tomography and the find of antiglutamic acid decarboxylase antibody on cerebral spinal fluid were in favor of a paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. In cerebral spinal fluid, there were no micro-organisms nor leukemic cells. We found no sign of cancer on full body computerized t...
The standard first-line treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a combination of cytarabine and anthracyclines. To date, there is no commonly agreed-on regimen for patients who are ineligible for this therapy because of cardiac comorbidities or prior exposure to anthracyclines. We compared 3 anthracycline-free regimens currently used in France.
The dried heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan L. is traditionally prescribed in the formula of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), while nothing is yet known of the active fractions and the underlying mechanisms.
Splenomegaly is a key clinical manifestation of myelofibrosis, and splenectomy is currently indicated in patients with drug refractory, symptomatic splenomegaly or with the aim of improving refractory cytopenias. Transformation to acute myeloid leukemia occurs in up to 20% of patients with myelofibrosis, while cases of myeloid sarcoma have been reported very unfrequently. In this manuscript, we report the case of a 60-year-old man with a history of primary myelofibrosis who underwent splenectomy because of ...
Breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy regimens containing alkylating agents and anthracyclines are at an increased risk for secondary myeloid malignancies, either acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Complex genomic changes (karyotypes and/or gene amplification) accompany the development of the secondary neoplasms. Here we present a unique case of a breast cancer patient who developed secondary AML within 18 months of treatment with trastuzumab, pertuzumab, doc...
The study aims to develop a prognostic scoring system based on prognostic lncRNAs for acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
The present study aimed to investigate the correlation of protein phosphatase Mg /Mn dependent 1D (PPM1D) with the risk stratification, treatment response, and survival profile in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients.
Dietary habits during pregnancy have been inconsistently linked to childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML), given the putative intrauterine onset of the disease as a result of triggering events during the critical period of fetal hematopoiesis. We investigated the potential association of maternal coffee and tea consumption during pregnancy with childhood AML risk, pooling primary data from eight case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium.
Myeloid leukemia associated with Down syndrome (ML-DS) is characterized by a predominance of acute megakaryoblastic leukemia, the presence of GATA1 mutations and a favorable outcome. Because DS children can also develop conventional acute myeloid leukemia with unfavorable outcome, detection of GATA1 mutations is important for diagnosis of ML-DS. However, myelofibrosis and the significant frequency of dry taps have hampered practical screening of GATA1 mutations using bone marrow (BM) samples. In response to...
To define the biological differences in acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) with KMT2A gene involvements and their prognostic impact, we compared 190 de novo AML patients at diagnosis, 95 harbouring KMT2A-rearrangement (KMT2Ar) and 95 KMT2A-PTD by performing cytogenetic and molecular genetic analyses. Both AML subtypes had an unfavourable outcome, particularly in patients > 60 years. Patients with KMT2Ar were younger compared to patients with KMT2A-PTD (mean 52 vs 65 years, p