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PubMed Journals Articles About "Prolonged Exposure Therapy Observation FMRI Stress Disorders Post" RSS

07:13 EST 19th January 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Prolonged Exposure Therapy Observation fMRI Stress Disorders Post" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 37,000+

Does Virtual Reality Increase Simulator Sickness During Exposure Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder?

Measurement of simulator-related side effects (SSEs) is an integral component of competent and ethical use of virtual reality exposure (VRE), but common SSEs may overlap with symptoms of anxiety. Limited research exists about the frequency of SSEs during VRE treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and no research compares self-reported SSEs for those undergoing VRE with those participating in exposure therapy without virtual reality. This study compared the SSEs of active duty soldiers with PTSD...


Virtual reality therapy in the care management of anxiety disorders.

Virtual reality involves the creation of an interactive three-dimensional virtual world which the user can navigate. This technology is proposed for anxiety disorders as an alternative to the in vivo and imaginative exposure provided in cognitive behavioral therapy, the gold standard psychoterapeutic treatment for this pathology. According to a signifcant number of publications including meta-analysis, virtual reality therapy exposure is at least equivalent to in vivo exposure in specifc phobias, panic diso...

Exposure therapy for youth with anxiety: Utilization rates and predictors of implementation in a sample of practicing clinicians from across the United States.

Exposure therapy is a highly effective, evidence-based treatment technique for children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. Regardless, therapists in the community are reported to use exposure relatively rarely compared with other approaches. The goal of the present study was to identify how practicing clinicians treat youth with anxiety disorders across the United States and what factors contribute to their use of exposure therapy. Recruited from public directories, 257 private practice therapists who ...


Does virtual reality increase emotional engagement during exposure for PTSD? Subjective distress during prolonged and virtual reality exposure therapy.

Prolonged exposure (PE) is a treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) based on emotional processing theory. According to this theory, emotional engagement during imaginal exposure is critical to clinical outcome. One rationale for virtual reality exposure therapy (VRE) is the ability of trauma-relevant, multi-sensory stimuli to increase emotional engagement. This study compared the subjective distress of active duty soldiers (N = 108) during exposure via PE or VRE. Soldiers with higher mean or...

Neuroprotective effects of a catalytic antioxidant in a rat nerve agent model.

Persistent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase resulting from exposure to nerve agents such as soman, is associated with prolonged seizure activity known as status epilepticus (SE). Without medical countermeasures, exposure to soman and resultant SE leads to high morbidity and mortality. Currently available therapeutics are effective in limiting mortality, however effects on morbidity are highly time-dependent and rely on the ability to suppress SE. We have previously demonstrated significant protection from...

Internet-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Stress: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Prolonged exposure to stress can lead to substantial suffering, impairment and societal costs. However, access to psychological treatment is limited. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT) can be effective in reducing symptoms of stress, but little is known of its effects in clinical samples. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of ICBT for patients suffering from chronic stress, operationalized as adjustment disorder (AD) and exhaustion disorder (ED).

Mirror exposure therapy for body image disturbances and eating disorders: A review.

Mirror exposure therapy is a clinical trial validated treatment component that improves body image and body satisfaction. Mirror exposure therapy has been shown to benefit individuals with high body dissatisfaction and patients with eating disorders (ED) in clinical trials. Mirror exposure is an optional component of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), an effective treatment for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD). However, most clinical trials of mirror exposure therapy have been small or uncontrolled and have ...

Effects of post-exposure naps on exposure therapy for social anxiety.

Exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD) utilizes fear extinction, a memory process enhanced by sleep. We investigated whether naps following exposure sessions might improve symptoms and biomarkers in response to social stress in adults undergoing 5-week exposure-based group SAD therapy. Thirty-two participants aged 18-39 (18 females) with SAD were randomized. Before and after treatment, participants completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) and underwent a Trier Social Stress Test with ...

Treatment of acute stress disorder for victims of violent crime.

Victims of violent crime are at elevated risk of developing acute stress disorder (ASD) as well as subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), both of which are linked to severe psychological distress. The aim of this 12-month prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) vs. cognitive-behavioral therapy with a significant other (CBT-SO), relative to usual care (UC), for the improvement of post-traumatic, depression and anxiety symptoms and the prevention of PTSD...

Neonatal isolation modulates glucocorticoid-receptor function and synaptic plasticity of hippocampal and amygdala neurons in a rat model of single prolonged stress.

Early life and stressful experiences affect hippocampal and amygdala structure and function. They also increase the incidence of mental and nervous system disorders in adults. However, prospective studies have yet to show if early-life experiences affect the risk/severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

Which patients initiate cognitive processing therapy and prolonged exposure in department of veterans affairs PTSD clinics?

The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) provides Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) and Prolonged Exposure therapy (PE) for PTSD at all of its facilities, but little is known about systematic differences between patients who do and do not initiate these treatments. VA administrative data were analyzed for 6,251 veterans receiving psychotherapy over one year in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) specialty clinics at nine VA medical centers. CPT and PE were initiated by 2,173 (35%) patients. V...

Post-operative pain in mice is prolonged by diet-induced obesity and rescued by dietary intervention.

The prevalence of obesity has increased at an alarming rate during past decades. Obesity is associated with pathophysiological disorders that can evolve and increase the risk of heart disease, diabetes and hypertension. While the impact of diabetes on post-operative recovery is now known, the consequences of obesity on post-operative pain remain much less explored. Here, we show that obesity affects post-operative pain resolution and leads to a chronic pain state in mice. Several mechanisms were identified ...

Dissemination of exposure in the treatment of anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder among German cognitive behavioural therapists.

The efficacy of exposure is beyond doubt, which is reflected in guidelines recommending its application in the treatment of anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Research suggests exposure to be underutilized in clinical practice in the United States and Europe. A systematic investigation of the dissemination of exposure in Germany is lacking. The present study examined the dissemination and application frequency of exposure among German cognitive behavioural therapists working in rou...

Reductions in reported persecutory ideation and psychotic-like experiences during exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder.

While psychotic-like experiences (PLEs), including persecutory ideation and auditory or visual hallucinations, are common in PTSD, questions remain about their relationships to core PTSD symptoms and responsiveness to treatment. This study examined data from a waitlist (WL) controlled clinical study of the effect of virtual reality (VR) and prolonged exposure (PE) in a sample of active-duty service members with deployment-related trauma (n = 161). PLEs were assessed and examined with regard to their res...

Nonsuicidal self-injury among adolescents and young adults with prolonged exposure to violence: The effect of post-traumatic stress symptoms.

Less is known about nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among adolescents and young adults living in areas under prolonged political violence. This study aims to explore the frequencies of NSSI as well as the severity of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), depression, anxiety, and sleep problems among 889 Palestinian adolescents and young adults. The participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing NSSI, PTSS, depression, anxiety symptoms, and sleep difficulties. The results found that 13.8% of the...

Protective effects of elevated anandamide on stress and fear-related behaviors: translational evidence from humans and mice.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common, debilitating condition with limited treatment options. Extinction of fear memories through prolonged exposure therapy, the primary evidence-based behavioral treatment for PTSD, has only partial efficacy. In mice, pharmacological inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) produces elevated levels of anandamide (AEA) and promotes fear extinction, suggesting that FAAH inhibitors may aid fear extinction-based treatments. A human FAAH 385C->A substitution e...

Description and Preliminary Outcomes of an In Vivo Exposure Group Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

Prolonged exposure (PE) therapy is traditionally delivered individually to patients. To engage more veterans in care, an in vivo exposure group treatment was developed in an urban VA medical center. This treatment represented a modification of the in vivo exposure portion of PE, with the addition of in-session, therapist-assisted in vivo exposures. Here, we describe this 12-week treatment and present preliminary outcome data. Demographics and pre- and posttreatment scores on the PTSD Checklist-Specific (PCL...

Post-exposure effects of the piscicide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) on the stress response and liver metabolic capacity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

The piscicide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) has been used to control invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Great Lakes for almost 60 years. Applied to rivers and streams containing larval lampreys, TFM seldom harms non-target fishes, but the effects of sub-lethal treatments on fish physiology are not well understood. We examined the effects of 9 h exposure to TFM on the stress axis and liver metabolic capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using in vivo and in vitro a...

The anxiolytic-like effects of estazolam on a PTSD animal model.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious psychiatric disorder. Estazolam has been shown to produce anxiolytic-, hypnotic-, amnestic-, and sedative-like effects. However, few studies are concerned about its anti-PTSD-like effects. The anti-PTSD-like effects of estazolam were evaluated by single prolonged stress animal model. After exposure to single prolonged stress, rats (Sprague-Dawley, male, 8 weeks) were administered by estazolam (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) from day 2 to 13 once daily. The beha...

Allele-specific DNA methylation level of FKBP5 is associated with post-traumatic stress disorder.

FK506-binding protein 5 (FKBP5) binds to glucocorticoid receptors and modulates glucocorticoid sensitivity. The FKBP5 gene has been implicated in the dysregulation of human stress responses, contributing to the risk and treatment response of stress-related disorders. The present study examined whether epigenetic changes in FKBP5 are associated with chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) status in the context of FKBP5 genetic variation (rs1360780 polymorphism) among male veterans exposed to combat tra...

Brain circuit dysfunction in post-traumatic stress disorder: from mouse to man.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, debilitating and sometimes deadly consequence of exposure to severe psychological trauma. Although effective treatments exist for some individuals, they are limited. New approaches to intervention, treatment and prevention are therefore much needed. In the past few years, the field has rapidly developed a greater understanding of the dysfunctional brain circuits underlying PTSD, a shift in understanding that has been made possible by technological revolu...

The opioid system in stress-induced memory disorders: From basic mechanisms to clinical implications in posttraumatic stress disorder and Alzheimer's disease.

Cognitive and emotional impairment are a serious consequence of stress exposure and are core features of neurological and psychiatric conditions that involve memory disorders. Indeed, acute and chronic stress are high-risk factors for the onset of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), two devastating brain disorders associated with memory dysfunction. Besides the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, stress response also involves the activ...

Oxidative stress and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

With the progress of modern medicine, oxygen therapy has become a crucial measure for the treatment of premature infants. As an environmental stimulus, in the normal development of lungs, oxygen plays a very important regulatory role. However, the problem is that long-term exposure to hyperoxia can interfere with the development of lungs, leading to irreversible developmental abnormalities. Now, the incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is increasing year by year. The existing related research shows...

Social Stress Affects Colonic Inflammation, the Gut Microbiome, and Short Chain Fatty Acid Levels and Receptors.

Gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID), involve disrupted homeostatic interactions between the microbiota and the host. Both disorders are worsened during stress, and in laboratory mice, stress exposure has been shown to change the composition of the gut microbiome. Stress-induced changes to the microbiome exacerbate intestinal inflammation and alter intestinal motility in mice. However, it is not yet known whether microbiota-de...

Abnormal postural behavior in patients with functional movement disorders during exposure to stress.

Patients affected by functional (psychogenic) movement disorders (FMD) have abnormal processing of stress responses. However, little is known about the influence of this abnormal stress processing on automatic motor defense behavior, such as freeze response. Our aim was thus to investigate stress-induced postural motor responses in FMD.


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