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04:56 EDT 19th May 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Publication reform safeguard wildlife from researcher harm" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 5,600+

Publication reform to safeguard wildlife from researcher harm.

Despite abundant focus on responsible care of laboratory animals, we argue that inattention to the maltreatment of wildlife constitutes an ethical blind spot in contemporary animal research. We begin by reviewing significant shortcomings in legal and institutional oversight, arguing for the relatively rapid and transformational potential of editorial oversight at journals in preventing harm to vertebrates studied in the field and outside the direct supervision of institutions. Straightforward changes to ani...

Separation and Analysis of Microplastics and Nanoplastics in Complex Environmental Samples.

The vast amount of plastic waste emitted into the environment and the increasing concern of potential harm to wildlife has made microplastic and nanoplastic pollution a growing environmental concern. Plastic pollution has the potential to cause both physical and chemical harm to wildlife directly or via sorption, concentration, and transfer of other environmental contaminants to the wildlife that ingest plastic. Small particles of plastic pollution, termed microplastics (>100 nm and

Comprehensive Researcher Achievement Model (CRAM): a framework for measuring researcher achievement, impact and influence derived from a systematic literature review of metrics and models.

Effective researcher assessment is key to decisions about funding allocations, promotion and tenure. We aimed to identify what is known about methods for assessing researcher achievements, leading to a new composite assessment model.

Patterns of self-harm methods over time and the association with methods used at repeat episodes of non-fatal self-harm and suicide: A systematic review.

The risk of self-harm repetition and suicide may be influenced by self-harm method choice. However, there are mixed findings regarding whether there is a discernible pattern in self-harm methods over successive episodes of non-fatal self-harm, and if so, how these may be associated with self-harm repetition and/or suicide.

Self-harm among children and adolescents.

Self-harm among children and adolescents is a prevalent health issue. Definitions of self-harm differ, and the distinction between attempted suicide or self-harm is often unclear. A recent large population-based cohort study on self-harm among children and adolescents aged 10-29 years showed a sharp increase in the incidence of self-harm, especially in girls aged 13-16 years. It also showed an inequality in treatment offered, depending upon the socio-economic profile of the region in which the patient prese...

Measuring researcher independence using bibliometric data: A proposal for a new performance indicator.

Bibliometric indicators are increasingly used to evaluate individual scientists-as is exemplified by the popularity of the many other publication and citation-based indicators used in evaluation. These indicators, however, cover at best some of the quality dimensions relevant for assessing a researcher: productivity and impact. At the same time, research quality has more dimensions than productivity and impact alone. As current bibliometric indicators are not covering various important quality dimensions, w...

On the relationship between body condition and parasite infection in wildlife: a review and meta-analysis.

Body condition metrics are widely used to infer animal health and to assess costs of parasite infection. Since parasites harm their hosts, ecologists might expect negative relationships between infection and condition in wildlife, but this assumption is challenged by studies showing positive or null condition-infection relationships. Here, we outline common condition metrics used by ecologists in studies of parasitism, and consider mechanisms that cause negative, positive, and null condition-infection relat...

Talk About Self-Harm (TASH): participatory action research with young people, GPs and practice nurses to explore how the experiences of young people who self-harm could be improved in GP surgeries.

The incidence of self-harm in young people in primary care is increasing dramatically, and many young people who self-harm visit their GP surgery as a first point of contact for help.

The harm of medical disorder as harm in the damage sense.

Jerome Wakefield has argued that a disorder is a harmful dysfunction. This paper develops how Wakefield should construe harmful in his harmful dysfunction analysis (HDA). Recently, Neil Feit has argued that classic puzzles involved in analyzing harm render Wakefield's HDA better off without harm as a necessary condition. Whether or not one conceives of harm as comparative or non-comparative, the concern is that the HDA forces people to classify as mere dysfunction what they know to be a disorder. For instan...

Future of assisted dying reform in Australia.

The Voluntary Assisted Dying Act 2017 (Vic) will come into force in June 2019, becoming the first law in Australia in 20 years to permit voluntary assisted dying (VAD). This paper considers how other Australian states and territories are likely to respond to this development. It analyses three key factors that suggest that law reform is likely to occur in other parts of Australia: (1) the growing international trend to permit VAD; (2) social science evidence about how VAD regimes operate; and (3) changes to...

Challenges in the Conceptualisation and Measurement of Gambling-Related Harm.

This paper examines the significance of recent developments in research relating to gambling-related harm. Previous research, it is argued, has failed to capture gambling-harm in a way that is useful to inform public policy and regulation. This is because most standardised psychometric measures and the DSM classifications have conflated gambling behaviour and harm and mostly focused on serious harms. As a result, little has generally been known about the prevalence of harm in lower risk gambling groups. Her...

Mental health laws and the psychiatric reform in Latin America: Multiple paths to its implementation.

This paper describes and analyzes the psychiatric reform process in three Latin American countries (Brazil, Chile and Colombia) based on the Caracas Declaration of 1990. It compares the psychiatric reform processes in these three countries and highlights the role of national mental health laws in these processes. Our goal when investigating the experiences in other countries of Latin America is to draw conclusions for the Argentine psychiatric reform and for the future of such reforms in the region.

The Abolition or Reform of Mental Health Law: How Should the Law Recognise and Respond to the Vulnerability of Persons with Mental Impairment?

Vulnerability theory challenges the assumption that human beings are abstract and invulnerable liberal subjects and insists that any decent and just society must create law that takes into account and tries to ameliorate human vulnerability. In this article, I explore how vulnerability might apply in the context of the debate about the future of mental health law that has arisen since the entry into force of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) in 2008; namely, whether mental hea...

Demographic and psychosocial characteristics of self-harm: The Pakistan perspective.

Self-harm is a major public health issue in Pakistan, yet the characteristics of those who self-harm are under-explored. This is a secondary analysis from a large randomized control trial on the prevention of self-harm, exploring demographic, clinical and psychological characteristics of people who self-harm in Pakistan. A total of 221 participants with a history of self-harm were recruited from medical wards of three major hospitals in Karachi. The Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSI), Beck Depression In...


Universal Health Care in Ireland-What Are the Prospects for Reform?

Principles, practice, and policy vacuums: Policy actor views on provincial/territorial harm reduction policy in Canada.

Canada is experiencing a new era of harm reduction policymaking and investment. While many provinces and territories are expanding access to these services, harm reduction policy and policymaking varies across the country. The present study, part of the Canadian Harm Reduction Policy Project (CHARPP), described policy actors' views on formal harm reduction policies in Canada's 13 provinces and territories.

An Autoethnographic Account of a Bicultural Clinician-Researcher Applying New Evidence of Chinese Diabetes Education Into Practice.

A clinician-researcher in translational research fulfils obligations in care provision and knowledge generation. Similarly, a bicultural clinician could struggle to switch between cultural paradigms. The purpose of this study was to explore the in-depth experience of multiple roles as a bicultural clinician-researcher in a translational research study.

The implementation and first insights of the French-speaking Swiss programme for monitoring self-harm.

Self-harm is a major risk factor for suicide but remains poorly documented. No data on self-harm in French-speaking Switzerland exist. To address this deficiency, the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health commissioned a specific self-harm monitoring programme. We present and discuss its implementation and first findings.

Non-suicidal self-harm in prison: A national population-based study.

Prisoners are at risk of self-harm during incarceration, yet national estimates of the rate and risk factors of self-harm are rare. We aimed to examine the rate and risk factors of self-harm on aggregate and by sex using a national population-based study design. Israel Prison Service data were examined on all persons incarcerated for a criminal offense 2009-2015 (N = 263,794). Self-harm was ascertained from real-time recorded observations. The study covariates were: demographic, criminal history, and pr...

Risk assessment scales to predict risk of hospital treated repeat self-harm: A cost-effectiveness modelling analysis.

Risk scales are used widely for assessing individuals presenting to Emergency Departments (EDs) following self-harm. There is growing evidence that risk scales have limited clinical utility in identifying episodes at highest risk of repeat self-harm. However, their cost-effectiveness in terms of treatment allocation and subsequent repeat self-harm is unknown. We aimed to examine the cost-effectiveness of five risk scales (SAD PERSONS Scale, Modified SAD PERSONS Scale, ReACT Self-Harm Rule, Manchester Self-H...

An Exploratory Analysis of Self-Reported Protective Factors against Self-Harm in an Enrolled Veteran General Mental Health Population.

The purpose of this study is to characterize self-reported protective factors against suicide or self-harm within free-response comments from a harm-risk screening.

Psychology's Replication Crisis and Clinical Psychological Science.

Despite psychological scientists' increasing interest in replicability, open science, research transparency, and the improvement of methods and practices, the clinical psychology community has been slow to engage. This has been shifting more recently, and with this review, we hope to facilitate this emerging dialogue. We begin by examining some potential areas of weakness in clinical psychology in terms of methods, practices, and evidentiary base. We then discuss a select overview of solutions, tools, and c...

Harm perceptions of e-cigarettes and other nicotine products in a UK sample.

E-cigarettes (EC) and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) are less harmful than smoking, but misperceptions of relative harm are common. Aims were to (1) assess nicotine knowledge and perceptions of: harm of EC and NRT relative to smoking, addictiveness of EC relative to smoking, and change in harm to user if smoking replaced with EC; (2) define associations of these perceptions with respondent characteristics including nicotine knowledge; and (3) explore perceived main harms of EC and whether these differ b...

Racial Differences in Insurance Stability After Health Insurance Reform.

One of the potential benefits of insurance reform is greater stability of insurance and reduced coverage disparities by race and ethnicity.

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