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PubMed Journals Articles About "Risperidone Cocaine Related Disorders" RSS

21:43 EDT 19th August 2018 | BioPortfolio

Risperidone Cocaine Related Disorders PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Risperidone Cocaine Related Disorders articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Risperidone Cocaine Related Disorders" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 24,000+

How treatment improvement in ADHD and cocaine dependence are related to one another: A secondary analysis.

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is overrepresented among individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. We previously reported that treatment with extended release mixed amphetamine salts (MAS-XR) increased abstinence, compared to placebo, among patients with co-occurring ADHD and cocaine dependence. This secondary analysis investigates the temporal relationship between ADHD improvement and cocaine abstinence in the first six weeks of the trial.


Relevance of treated cocaine users' retrospective memory of first cocaine use.

Little is known regarding between-subject variability in the subjective effects of first cocaine use. This study retrospectively assesses the subjective effects of first cocaine use in 160 current treatment-seeking cocaine use disorder patients. Subjective effects of first cocaine use were evaluated with an ad-hoc questionnaire used for cannabis effects. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed, with resulting factors correlated with clinical variables (α = 0.05). Four factors emerged in the ...

Case for diagnosis. Palate perforation due to cocaine use.

We report a 42-year-old cocaine addicted female patient referred for evaluation of hard palate ulceration resulting in oro-sinus communication with difficulties in swallowing and phonation, an rhino-sinusitis. Acrylic and removable silicone prosthesis was prescribed to relieve severe functional disorders. It is essential that the patient permanently abandons cocaine use to perform surgical reconstruction.


Bioavailability and Pharmacokinetics of Oral Cocaine in Humans.

The pharmacokinetic profile of oral cocaine has not been fully characterized and prospective data on oral bioavailability are limited. A within-subject study was performed to characterize the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of oral cocaine. Fourteen healthy inpatient participants (six males) with current histories of cocaine use were administered two oral doses (100 and 200 mg) and one intravenous (IV) dose (40 mg) of cocaine during three separate dosing sessions. Plasma samples were collected for up t...

(-)-Stepholidine reduces cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking and cocaine self-administration in rats.

Dopamine receptors are implicated in cocaine reward and seeking. We hypothesize that (-)-stepholidine, a dopamine D1/D2/D3 multi-receptor agent, would be effective in reducing cocaine reward and seeking in an animal model. We investigated the effects of (-)-stepholidine in cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking and cocaine self-administration (reward).

Injectable Risperidone During Hemodialysis.

Pre-trial cocaine biases choice toward cocaine through suppression of the nondrug option.

Being under the influence during choice between drug and nondrug options can have a dramatic effect on choice outcomes. When rats face a choice between cocaine and sweet water and are not under the influence, they prefer sweet water. In contrast, when they are under the influence of cocaine, this causes them to shift their choice to cocaine nearly exclusively. Here we sought to characterize the behavioral mechanisms underlying the influence of cocaine on choice. In theory, rats under the influence of cocain...

Association between dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms and effects of risperidone treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

The effect of risperidone treatment in patients with schizophrenia varies according to the dopamine receptor genes. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between genes of the dopamine receptors (D1, D2, and D3) and the effect of risperidone treatment.

Cocaine and HIV-1 Tat disrupt cholesterol homeostasis in astrocytes: Implications for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in cocaine user patients.

Cholesterol synthesis and clearance by astrocytes are tightly regulated to maintain constant levels within the brain. In this context, liver X receptors (LXRs) are the master regulators of cholesterol homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS). Increasing levels of cholesterol in astrocytes trigger LXR activation leading to the transcription of target genes involved in cholesterol trafficking and efflux, including apolipoprotein E, cytochrome P450 enzymes, sterol regulatory binding protein, and several...

Pharmacogenetics Analysis of Serotonin Receptor Gene Variants and Clinical Response to Risperidone in Han Chinese Schizophrenic Patients.

Assessments of the pharmacological profiles of antipsychotic agents have shown that the serotonin receptor family is often involved in their pharmacodynamics. Response to antipsychotic therapy is highly variable, yet prognostic biomarkers are lacking. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from HTR3C, HTR3D, HTR5A and HTR6 with risperidone response in 201 Han Chinese schizophrenia patients. The results showed that the HTR6 rs6699866 was ...

Structure of the Ddopamine receptor bound to the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone.

Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that has been implicated in processes as diverse as reward, addiction, control of coordinated movement, metabolism and hormonal secretion. Correspondingly, dysregulation of the dopaminergic system has been implicated in diseases such as schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, nausea and vomiting, among others. Dopamine's actions are mediated by a family of five G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) (viz. D, D, D, Dand D). The Ddo...

Effects of Cocaine Self-Administration and Its Extinction on the Rat Brain Cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 Receptors.

The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the expression of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) receptor proteins in several brain regions in rats undergoing cocaine self-administration and extinction training. We used a triad-yoked procedure to distinguish between the motivational and pharmacological effects of cocaine. Using immunohistochemistry, we observed a significant decrease in CB1 receptor expression in the prefrontal cortex, dorsal striatum, and the basolateral and basomedial amygdala foll...

Detecting illegal intra-corporeal cocaine containers: Which factors influence their density?

To determine parameters related to hyperdensity (>40 HU) of intra-corporeal cocaine packets on low-dose CT (LDCT); hyperdensity increases detectability on abdominal radiographs.

Prenatal and concurrent cocaine, alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco effects of adolescent cognition and attention.

Prenatal cocaine/polydrug exposure (PCE) may increase vulnerability to substance use disorders due to associated cognitive deficits. We examined whether neurocognitive deficits in executive functions and attention observed in PCE children persisted to adolescence when compared to non-cocaine/polydrug (NCE) children, and whether adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana) was also associated with neurocognitive deficits.

Double-blind evaluation of homeopathy on cocaine craving: a randomized controlled pilot study.

Brazil is among the nations with the greatest rates of annual cocaine usage. Pharmacological treatment of cocaine addiction is still limited, opening space for nonconventional interventions. Homeopathic Q-potencies of opium and Erythroxylum coca have been tested in the integrative treatment of cocaine craving among homeless addicts, but this setting had not proven feasible, due to insufficient recruitment.

Extinction and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in self-administering mice is associated with bidirectional AMPAR-mediated plasticity in the nucleus accumbens shell.

Experience-dependent synaptic plasticity is an important component of both learning and motivational disturbances found in addicted individuals. Here, we investigated the role of cocaine experience-dependent plasticity at excitatory synapses in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) in relapse-related behavior in mice with a history of volitional cocaine self-administration. Using an extinction/reinstatement paradigm of cocaine-seeking behavior, we demonstrate that cocaine experienced mice with extinguished co...

Environmental enrichment reduces cocaine neurotoxicity during cocaine-conditioned place preference in male rats.

Environmental enrichment (EE) has a neuroprotective role and prevents the development of cocaine addiction behavior in rats. Studies showing the role of EE in cocaine toxicity are nonexistent. We hypothesized that rats exposed to EE are protected from cocaine-induced changes in the redox profile and DNA damage after undergoing conditioned place preference (CPP). Ten male Wistar rats were placed in EE cages equipped with toys, a ladder and tunnels, and ten were provided clean, standard laboratory housing (no...

Cocaine + nicotine mixture enhances induction and expression of behavioral sensitization in rats.

Psychoactive substance abuse is a health problem worldwide. Has been reported a high prevalence of use of tobacco and cocaine, either separately or in combination. Clinical and animal studies have suggested that the concurrent use of cocaine and nicotine reinforces the potency of one or both drugs and that nicotine may enhance the reinforcing effects of cocaine. Our study evaluated the combined effects of cocaine and nicotine on locomotor activity during the induction and expression phases of locomotor sens...

Activation of 5-HT receptors in the Lateral Habenula attenuates the anxiogenic effects of cocaine.

Recent work has implicated the Lateral Habenula (LHb) in the production of anxiogenic and aversive states. It is innervated by all the major monoamine neurotransmitter systems and has projections that have been shown to modulate the activity of both dopaminergic and serotonergic brain regions. Cocaine is a stimulant drug of abuse that potentiates neurotransmission in these monoamine systems and recent research suggests that the drug's behavioral effects may be related in part to its actions within the LHb. ...

Highly sensitive and specific on-site detection of serum cocaine by a low cost aptasensor.

Cocaine is one of the most used illegal recreational drugs. Developing an on-site test for cocaine use detection has been a focus of research effort, since it is essential to the control and legal action against drug abuse. Currently most of cocaine detection methods are time-consuming and require special or expensive equipment, and the detection often suffers from high cross-reactivity with cocaine metabolites and relative low sensitivity with the best limit of detection reported at sub nanomolar (nM) leve...

Bile diversion, a bariatric surgery, and bile acid signaling reduce central cocaine reward.

The gut-to-brain axis exhibits significant control over motivated behavior. However, mechanisms supporting this communication are poorly understood. We reveal that a gut-based bariatric surgery chronically elevates systemic bile acids and attenuates cocaine-induced elevations in accumbal dopamine. Notably, this surgery reduces reward-related behavior and psychomotor sensitization to cocaine. Utilizing a knockout mouse model, we have determined that a main mediator of these post-operative effects is the Take...

Risperidone Treatment for Irritability in Fragile X Syndrome.

The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness of risperidone monoantipsychotic therapy targeting irritability in patients with Fragile X syndrome (FXS) in a naturalistic outpatient clinical setting.

Posttraumatic stress disorder with secondary psychotic features (PTSD-SP): Diagnostic and treatment challenges.

Trauma exposure leads to various psychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorders, personality disorders, psychotic disorders, and trauma related disorders, especially posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There are some overlapping symptoms of both PTSD and psychosis that make diagnosis challenging. Despite this overlap, the evidence of PTSD with comorbid psychosis as a distinct entity lies in the research showing biologic, genetic and treatment management differences between psychoti...

Cognitive impairment associated with cocaine use: The role of co-existent alcohol abuse/dependence.

Cocaine abuse has been reported as leading to impaired cognitive function. However, cocaine abusers commonly also abuse alcohol, which can itself produce cognitive impairment. This study, therefore, aimed to examine the potential confounding effect of alcohol abuse on neuropsychological test performance in cocaine and alcohol abusing individuals, comparing them with individuals who abused alcohol alone and non-abusing controls.

Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Risperidone Subcutaneous Implants in Stable Patients With Schizophrenia.

A subcutaneous risperidone implant (RI) formulation was developed to improve medication adherence in schizophrenia. Two phase 1 studies were conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of RI in adult patients with schizophrenia. In study 1, all subjects were stable on 4 mg oral risperidone; subsequently, the first subject received 375 mg RI for 1 month, and the remaining subjects received 375 mg RI for 3 months. In study 2, all subjects were stable on oral risperidone 4 mg, 6 mg, or 8 mg and subsequentl...


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