PubMed Journals Articles About "Risperidone Cocaine Related Disorders" RSS

05:25 EST 21st January 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Risperidone Cocaine Related Disorders" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 24,000+

Symptomatic Extreme Elevation of Prolactin Related to Risperidone Use.

Using a data science approach to predict cocaine use frequency from depressive symptoms.

Depressive symptoms may contribute to cocaine use. However, tests of the relationship between depression and severity of cocaine use have produced mixed results, possibly due to heterogeneity in individual symptoms of depression. Our goal was to establish which symptoms of depression are most strongly related to frequency of cocaine use (one aspect of severity) in a large sample of current cocaine users. We utilized generalized additive modeling to provide data-driven exploration of the relationships betwee...

fMRI Stroop and behavioral treatment for cocaine-dependence: Preliminary findings in methadone-maintained individuals.

Although behavioral treatment for cocaine use disorders is common, the use of cognitive neuroscience methods to investigate these treatments' mechanisms of action remains limited. Cognitive control (e.g., as measured by the Stroop task) has been proposed to be central to cocaine-use disorders, including treatment response.

Effects of DRD2 splicing-regulatory polymorphism and DRD4 48 bp VNTR on crack cocaine addiction.

There is evidence that dopamine receptors D2 (DRD2) and D4 (DRD4) polymorphisms may influence substance use disorders (SUD) susceptibility both individually and through their influence in the formation of DRD2-DRD4 heteromers. The dopaminergic role on the vulnerability to addiction appears to be influenced by sex. A cross-sectional study with 307 crack cocaine addicts and 770 controls was conducted. The influence of DRD2 rs2283265 and DRD4 48 bp VNTR in exon 3 variants, as well as their interaction on crac...

Changes in the prevalence and correlates of cocaine use and cocaine use disorder in the United States, 2001-2002 and 2012-2013.

To present nationally representative data on changes in the prevalences of 12-month cocaine use, cocaine use disorder (CocUD) and 12-month CocUD among 12-month cocaine users between 2001 and 2002 and 2012-2013. Data were derived from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and the 2012-2013 NESARC-III. Between 2001 and 2002 and 2012-2013, prevalences of 12-month cocaine use and DSM-IV CocUD significantly increased and 12-month CocUD among 12-month users signifi...

The effects of amphetamine on working memory and locomotor activity in adult rats administered risperidone early in life.

Antipsychotic drugs are used to manage symptoms of pediatric psychiatric disorders despite the relative absence of research regarding the long-term effects of these drugs on brain development. Using rats as a model, research has demonstrated that administration of the antipsychotic drug, risperidone, during early postnatal development elevates locomotor activity and sensitivity to the locomotor effects of amphetamine during adulthood. Because risperidone targets neurotransmitter receptors and forebrain regi...

Making risky decisions to take drug: Effects of cocaine abstinence in cocaine users.

Risky decision-making is characteristic of drug users, but little is known about the effects of circumstances, such as abstinence, on risky choice behavior in human drug users. We hypothesized that cocaine users would make more risky choices for cocaine (defined as taking a chance to receive a large number of cocaine doses as opposed to choosing to receive a fixed amount of cocaine) after 3 or 7 days of cocaine abstinence, compared to 1 day of cocaine abstinence. Six male nontreatment-seeking current co...

Association between dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms and effects of risperidone treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

The effect of risperidone treatment in patients with schizophrenia varies according to the dopamine receptor genes. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between genes of the dopamine receptors (D1, D2, and D3) and the effect of risperidone treatment.

Pre-trial cocaine biases choice toward cocaine through suppression of the nondrug option.

Being under the influence during choice between drug and nondrug options can have a dramatic effect on choice outcomes. When rats face a choice between cocaine and sweet water and are not under the influence, they prefer sweet water. In contrast, when they are under the influence of cocaine, this causes them to shift their choice to cocaine nearly exclusively. Here we sought to characterize the behavioral mechanisms underlying the influence of cocaine on choice. In theory, rats under the influence of cocain...

Pharmacogenetics Analysis of Serotonin Receptor Gene Variants and Clinical Response to Risperidone in Han Chinese Schizophrenic Patients.

Assessments of the pharmacological profiles of antipsychotic agents have shown that the serotonin receptor family is often involved in their pharmacodynamics. Response to antipsychotic therapy is highly variable, yet prognostic biomarkers are lacking. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from HTR3C, HTR3D, HTR5A and HTR6 with risperidone response in 201 Han Chinese schizophrenia patients. The results showed that the HTR6 rs6699866 was ...

Impairments in reversal learning following short access to cocaine self-administration.

Cocaine use disorder is characterized by compulsive drug-seeking that persists long into abstinence. Work using rodent models of cocaine addiction has found evidence for reversal learning deficits 21 days after non-contingent cocaine administration and 60 days after self-administration. Here we sought to determine if a deficit in reversal learning is present 3-4 weeks after cessation of cocaine self-administration, when relapse to cocaine-seeking is robust. Conversely, we hypothesized that reversal learning...

The importance of considering polysubstance use: lessons from cocaine research.

Polysubstance use (PSU) is prevalent among individuals with substance use disorders, but the vast majority of preclinical substance use research has focused on individual substances in isolation. Cocaine has been prevalent in the repertoire of persons who use more than one illicit substance.

Glutamate-glutamine transfer and chronic stress-induced sex differences in cocaine responses.

Substance use disorders (SUD) often co-occur with other mental disorders such as major depression (MD). Our previous findings revealed sex-dependent changes in extracellular levels of glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in Long-Evans rats that were exposed to 21 days of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), which models MD. The current study investigated the role of a Gln transporter called sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter subtype 1/2 (SNAT 1/2), phosphate-activate...

Recent cocaine use and the incidence of hemodynamic events during general anesthesia: A retrospective cohort study.

To evaluate the intraoperative hemodynamics and medication requirements of cocaine-positive patients compared to matched cocaine-negative controls.

Schema Modes and Personality Disorder Symptoms in Alcohol-Dependent and Cocaine-Dependent Patients.

Substance use disorders (SUD) and personality disorders co-occur frequently. This relationship might be understood by studying schema modes (a key concept in Schema therapy), which explain the dysfunctions characterizing personality disorder patients. In the present study, we compared the schema modes and personality disorder symptoms between alcohol-dependent patients, cocaine-dependent patients and healthy controls. We found indications that specific schema modes are specific for SUD patients. However, no...

Localization and Expression of CTP:Phosphocholine Cytidylyltransferase in Rat Brain following Cocaine Exposure.

Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a primary phospholipid and major source of secondary lipid messengers and also serves as a biosynthetic precursor for other membrane phospholipids. Phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) is the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for catalyzing the formation of PC. Changes in CCT activity have been associated with lipid dysregulation across various neurological disorders. Additionally, intermediates in PC synthesis, such as CDP-choline, have been suggested to attenuate drug cravi...

Prenatal and concurrent cocaine, alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco effects of adolescent cognition and attention.

Prenatal cocaine/polydrug exposure (PCE) may increase vulnerability to substance use disorders due to associated cognitive deficits. We examined whether neurocognitive deficits in executive functions and attention observed in PCE children persisted to adolescence when compared to non-cocaine/polydrug (NCE) children, and whether adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana) was also associated with neurocognitive deficits.

Adolescent Social Isolation Increases Cocaine Seeking in Male and Female Mice.

Childhood and adolescent adversity are associated with a wide range of psychiatric disorders, including an increased risk for substance abuse. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying the ability of chronic stress during adolescence to alter reward signaling remains largely unexplored. Understanding how adolescent stress increases addiction-like phenotypes could inform the development of targeted interventions both before and after drug use. The current study examined how prolonged isolation stress, beginnin...

Optimization of Maintenance Therapy of Risperidone with CYP2D6 Genetic Polymorphisms through an Extended Translational Framework-Based Prediction of Target Occupancies/Clinical Outcomes.

Risperidone, one of the second-generation antipsychotics, can efficiently target dopamine D and serotonin 5-HT receptors. There actually exists significant implication of CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms on the metabolic kinetics of risperidone, little is known about the extent of CYP2D6 impacting human D2 and 5-HT2 A receptor occupancies as well as the clinical efficacy and efficacy in schizophrenia treatment. Here we assessed the influences of CYP2D6 gene polymorphisms on human target occupancies/clinical o...

Is risperidone effective in reducing challenging behaviours in individuals with intellectual disabilities after 1 year or longer use? A placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind discontinuation study.

Many people with intellectual disabilities use risperidone long term for the management of challenging behaviours, despite its limited proof of effectiveness and its clear association with adverse events. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of ongoing treatment with risperidone in reducing challenging behaviours versus controlled discontinuation on behaviour and health parameters.

Repeated Cannabidiol treatment reduces cocaine intake and modulates neural proliferation and CB1R expression in the mouse hippocampus.

Cannabinoid derivatives have shown promising results for treating neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. Recent studies on the therapeutic effects of Cannabidiol (CBD) on drug abuse showed mixed results, especially with psychostimulant substances such as cocaine. To determine whether CBD can attenuate cocaine reinforcement, we assessed behavioural responses induced by cocaine in mice, using the behavioural sensitization, conditioned place preference and intravenous self-administration paradig...

Bile diversion, a bariatric surgery, and bile acid signaling reduce central cocaine reward.

The gut-to-brain axis exhibits significant control over motivated behavior. However, mechanisms supporting this communication are poorly understood. We reveal that a gut-based bariatric surgery chronically elevates systemic bile acids and attenuates cocaine-induced elevations in accumbal dopamine. Notably, this surgery reduces reward-related behavior and psychomotor sensitization to cocaine. Utilizing a knockout mouse model, we have determined that a main mediator of these post-operative effects is the Take...

Posttraumatic stress disorder with secondary psychotic features (PTSD-SP): Diagnostic and treatment challenges.

Trauma exposure leads to various psychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorders, personality disorders, psychotic disorders, and trauma related disorders, especially posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There are some overlapping symptoms of both PTSD and psychosis that make diagnosis challenging. Despite this overlap, the evidence of PTSD with comorbid psychosis as a distinct entity lies in the research showing biologic, genetic and treatment management differences between psychoti...

Dopamine (DRD2) and Serotonin (HTR2A, 2C) Receptor Gene Polymorphisms do not influence early response to Risperidone in South Indian Patients with Schizophrenia.

Treatment response to antipsychotic drugs is variable and conflicting results have been obtained while studying the influence of DRD2 and HTR2 genetic variants on antipsychotic drug efficacy. To explore further, the present study aimed to assess the influence of DRD2 -141 C Ins/Del, Taq1A and HTR2A -1438 G/A, 102T/C and HTR2C -759 C/T genetic polymorphisms in response to risperidone in patients with schizophrenia. The study was conducted among the n=320 South Indian patients with schizophrenia who received ...

Oxytocin prevents the increase of cocaine-related responses produced by social defeat.

The neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) plays a critical role in the regulation of social and emotional behaviors. OXT plays a role in stress response and in drug reward, but to date no studies have evaluated its implication in the long-lasting increase of the motivational effects of cocaine induced by repeated social defeat (RSD). During the social defeat procedure, 1 mg/kg of OXT was administered 30 min before each episode of RSD. Three weeks after the last defeat, the effects of cocaine on the conditioned pl...

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