PubMed Journals Articles About "Risperidone Cocaine Related Disorders" RSS

15:18 EDT 23rd October 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Risperidone Cocaine Related Disorders" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 24,000+

Symptomatic Extreme Elevation of Prolactin Related to Risperidone Use.

fMRI Stroop and behavioral treatment for cocaine-dependence: Preliminary findings in methadone-maintained individuals.

Although behavioral treatment for cocaine use disorders is common, the use of cognitive neuroscience methods to investigate these treatments' mechanisms of action remains limited. Cognitive control (e.g., as measured by the Stroop task) has been proposed to be central to cocaine-use disorders, including treatment response.

How treatment improvement in ADHD and cocaine dependence are related to one another: A secondary analysis.

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is overrepresented among individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders. We previously reported that treatment with extended release mixed amphetamine salts (MAS-XR) increased abstinence, compared to placebo, among patients with co-occurring ADHD and cocaine dependence. This secondary analysis investigates the temporal relationship between ADHD improvement and cocaine abstinence in the first six weeks of the trial.

Relevance of treated cocaine users' retrospective memory of first cocaine use.

Little is known regarding between-subject variability in the subjective effects of first cocaine use. This study retrospectively assesses the subjective effects of first cocaine use in 160 current treatment-seeking cocaine use disorder patients. Subjective effects of first cocaine use were evaluated with an ad-hoc questionnaire used for cannabis effects. A principal component analysis (PCA) was performed, with resulting factors correlated with clinical variables (α = 0.05). Four factors emerged in the ...

Injectable Risperidone During Hemodialysis.

(-)-Stepholidine reduces cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking and cocaine self-administration in rats.

Dopamine receptors are implicated in cocaine reward and seeking. We hypothesize that (-)-stepholidine, a dopamine D1/D2/D3 multi-receptor agent, would be effective in reducing cocaine reward and seeking in an animal model. We investigated the effects of (-)-stepholidine in cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking and cocaine self-administration (reward).

Pre-trial cocaine biases choice toward cocaine through suppression of the nondrug option.

Being under the influence during choice between drug and nondrug options can have a dramatic effect on choice outcomes. When rats face a choice between cocaine and sweet water and are not under the influence, they prefer sweet water. In contrast, when they are under the influence of cocaine, this causes them to shift their choice to cocaine nearly exclusively. Here we sought to characterize the behavioral mechanisms underlying the influence of cocaine on choice. In theory, rats under the influence of cocain...

Association between dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms and effects of risperidone treatment: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

The effect of risperidone treatment in patients with schizophrenia varies according to the dopamine receptor genes. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between genes of the dopamine receptors (D1, D2, and D3) and the effect of risperidone treatment.

Pharmacogenetics Analysis of Serotonin Receptor Gene Variants and Clinical Response to Risperidone in Han Chinese Schizophrenic Patients.

Assessments of the pharmacological profiles of antipsychotic agents have shown that the serotonin receptor family is often involved in their pharmacodynamics. Response to antipsychotic therapy is highly variable, yet prognostic biomarkers are lacking. The aim of the study was to investigate the association of 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from HTR3C, HTR3D, HTR5A and HTR6 with risperidone response in 201 Han Chinese schizophrenia patients. The results showed that the HTR6 rs6699866 was ...

Impairments in reversal learning following short access to cocaine self-administration.

Cocaine use disorder is characterized by compulsive drug-seeking that persists long into abstinence. Work using rodent models of cocaine addiction has found evidence for reversal learning deficits 21 days after non-contingent cocaine administration and 60 days after self-administration. Here we sought to determine if a deficit in reversal learning is present 3-4 weeks after cessation of cocaine self-administration, when relapse to cocaine-seeking is robust. Conversely, we hypothesized that reversal learning...

The importance of considering polysubstance use: lessons from cocaine research.

Polysubstance use (PSU) is prevalent among individuals with substance use disorders, but the vast majority of preclinical substance use research has focused on individual substances in isolation. Cocaine has been prevalent in the repertoire of persons who use more than one illicit substance.

Glutamate-glutamine transfer and chronic stress-induced sex differences in cocaine responses.

Substance use disorders (SUD) often co-occur with other mental disorders such as major depression (MD). Our previous findings revealed sex-dependent changes in extracellular levels of glutamate (Glu) and glutamine (Gln) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in Long-Evans rats that were exposed to 21 days of chronic social defeat stress (CSDS), which models MD. The current study investigated the role of a Gln transporter called sodium-coupled neutral amino acid transporter subtype 1/2 (SNAT 1/2), phosphate-activate...

Schema Modes and Personality Disorder Symptoms in Alcohol-Dependent and Cocaine-Dependent Patients.

Substance use disorders (SUD) and personality disorders co-occur frequently. This relationship might be understood by studying schema modes (a key concept in Schema therapy), which explain the dysfunctions characterizing personality disorder patients. In the present study, we compared the schema modes and personality disorder symptoms between alcohol-dependent patients, cocaine-dependent patients and healthy controls. We found indications that specific schema modes are specific for SUD patients. However, no...

Effects of Cocaine Self-Administration and Its Extinction on the Rat Brain Cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 Receptors.

The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the expression of cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) receptor proteins in several brain regions in rats undergoing cocaine self-administration and extinction training. We used a triad-yoked procedure to distinguish between the motivational and pharmacological effects of cocaine. Using immunohistochemistry, we observed a significant decrease in CB1 receptor expression in the prefrontal cortex, dorsal striatum, and the basolateral and basomedial amygdala foll...

Detecting illegal intra-corporeal cocaine containers: Which factors influence their density?

To determine parameters related to hyperdensity (>40 HU) of intra-corporeal cocaine packets on low-dose CT (LDCT); hyperdensity increases detectability on abdominal radiographs.

Prenatal and concurrent cocaine, alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco effects of adolescent cognition and attention.

Prenatal cocaine/polydrug exposure (PCE) may increase vulnerability to substance use disorders due to associated cognitive deficits. We examined whether neurocognitive deficits in executive functions and attention observed in PCE children persisted to adolescence when compared to non-cocaine/polydrug (NCE) children, and whether adolescent substance use (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana) was also associated with neurocognitive deficits.

Double-blind evaluation of homeopathy on cocaine craving: a randomized controlled pilot study.

Brazil is among the nations with the greatest rates of annual cocaine usage. Pharmacological treatment of cocaine addiction is still limited, opening space for nonconventional interventions. Homeopathic Q-potencies of opium and Erythroxylum coca have been tested in the integrative treatment of cocaine craving among homeless addicts, but this setting had not proven feasible, due to insufficient recruitment.

Extinction and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in self-administering mice is associated with bidirectional AMPAR-mediated plasticity in the nucleus accumbens shell.

Experience-dependent synaptic plasticity is an important component of both learning and motivational disturbances found in addicted individuals. Here, we investigated the role of cocaine experience-dependent plasticity at excitatory synapses in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) in relapse-related behavior in mice with a history of volitional cocaine self-administration. Using an extinction/reinstatement paradigm of cocaine-seeking behavior, we demonstrate that cocaine experienced mice with extinguished co...

Environmental enrichment reduces cocaine neurotoxicity during cocaine-conditioned place preference in male rats.

Environmental enrichment (EE) has a neuroprotective role and prevents the development of cocaine addiction behavior in rats. Studies showing the role of EE in cocaine toxicity are nonexistent. We hypothesized that rats exposed to EE are protected from cocaine-induced changes in the redox profile and DNA damage after undergoing conditioned place preference (CPP). Ten male Wistar rats were placed in EE cages equipped with toys, a ladder and tunnels, and ten were provided clean, standard laboratory housing (no...

Adolescent Social Isolation Increases Cocaine Seeking in Male and Female Mice.

Childhood and adolescent adversity are associated with a wide range of psychiatric disorders, including an increased risk for substance abuse. Despite this, the mechanisms underlying the ability of chronic stress during adolescence to alter reward signaling remains largely unexplored. Understanding how adolescent stress increases addiction-like phenotypes could inform the development of targeted interventions both before and after drug use. The current study examined how prolonged isolation stress, beginnin...

Optimization of Maintenance Therapy of Risperidone with CYP2D6 Genetic Polymorphisms through an Extended Translational Framework-Based Prediction of Target Occupancies/Clinical Outcomes.

Risperidone, one of the second-generation antipsychotics, can efficiently target dopamine D and serotonin 5-HT receptors. There actually exists significant implication of CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms on the metabolic kinetics of risperidone, little is known about the extent of CYP2D6 impacting human D2 and 5-HT2 A receptor occupancies as well as the clinical efficacy and efficacy in schizophrenia treatment. Here we assessed the influences of CYP2D6 gene polymorphisms on human target occupancies/clinical o...

Repeated Cannabidiol treatment reduces cocaine intake and modulates neural proliferation and CB1R expression in the mouse hippocampus.

Cannabinoid derivatives have shown promising results for treating neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. Recent studies on the therapeutic effects of Cannabidiol (CBD) on drug abuse showed mixed results, especially with psychostimulant substances such as cocaine. To determine whether CBD can attenuate cocaine reinforcement, we assessed behavioural responses induced by cocaine in mice, using the behavioural sensitization, conditioned place preference and intravenous self-administration paradig...

Activation of 5-HT receptors in the Lateral Habenula attenuates the anxiogenic effects of cocaine.

Recent work has implicated the Lateral Habenula (LHb) in the production of anxiogenic and aversive states. It is innervated by all the major monoamine neurotransmitter systems and has projections that have been shown to modulate the activity of both dopaminergic and serotonergic brain regions. Cocaine is a stimulant drug of abuse that potentiates neurotransmission in these monoamine systems and recent research suggests that the drug's behavioral effects may be related in part to its actions within the LHb. ...

Bile diversion, a bariatric surgery, and bile acid signaling reduce central cocaine reward.

The gut-to-brain axis exhibits significant control over motivated behavior. However, mechanisms supporting this communication are poorly understood. We reveal that a gut-based bariatric surgery chronically elevates systemic bile acids and attenuates cocaine-induced elevations in accumbal dopamine. Notably, this surgery reduces reward-related behavior and psychomotor sensitization to cocaine. Utilizing a knockout mouse model, we have determined that a main mediator of these post-operative effects is the Take...

Posttraumatic stress disorder with secondary psychotic features (PTSD-SP): Diagnostic and treatment challenges.

Trauma exposure leads to various psychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety, bipolar disorders, personality disorders, psychotic disorders, and trauma related disorders, especially posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). There are some overlapping symptoms of both PTSD and psychosis that make diagnosis challenging. Despite this overlap, the evidence of PTSD with comorbid psychosis as a distinct entity lies in the research showing biologic, genetic and treatment management differences between psychoti...

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