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PubMed Journals Articles About "Robust Model Gated Working Memory" RSS

10:32 EST 6th December 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Robust Model Gated Working Memory" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 24,000+

A Robust Model of Gated Working Memory.

Gated working memory is defined as the capacity of holding arbitrary information at any time in order to be used at a later time. Based on electrophysiological recordings, several computational models have tackled the problem using dedicated and explicit mechanisms. We propose instead to consider an implicit mechanism based on a random recurrent neural network. We introduce a robust yet simple reservoir model of gated working memory with instantaneous updates. The model is able to store an arbitrary real va...


Working Memory: Flexible but Finite.

There are inherent trade-offs between the flexibility and the capacity of working memory, or the ability to temporarily hold information "in mind." In a recent issue of Neuron, Bouchacourt and Buschman (2019) present a new model of working memory that demonstrates how coordinated activity between specialized sensory networks and flexible higher-order networks may support these competing constraints.

Time-Gated Word Recognition in Children: Effects of Auditory Access, Age, and Semantic Context.

Purpose We employed a time-gated word recognition task to investigate how children who are hard of hearing (CHH) and children with normal hearing (CNH) combine cognitive-linguistic abilities and acoustic-phonetic cues to recognize words in sentence-final position. Method The current study included 40 CHH and 30 CNH in 1st or 3rd grade. Participants completed vocabulary and working memory tests and a time-gated word recognition task consisting of 14 high- and 14 low-predictability sentences. A time-to-event ...


How the Motor System Integrates with Working Memory.

Working memory is vital for basic functions in everyday life. During working memory, one holds a finite amount of information in mind until it is no longer required or when resources to maintain this information are depleted. Convergence of neuroimaging data indicates that working memory is supported by the motor system, and in particular, by regions that are involved in motor planning and preparation, in the absence of overt movement. These "secondary motor" regions are physically located between primary m...

ERP Evidence for the Effect of Working Memory Span Training on Working Memory Maintenance: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

There is a lot of debate in the literature with regards to whether the effects of working memory span training generalize to working memory tasks that are different from the trained task, however, there is little evidence to date supporting this idea. The present randomized controlled trial included 80 undergraduate students who were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (N = 40) or the control group (N = 40) in order to receive a working memory span intervention for 20 sessions over the course...

Reviewing working memory training gains in healthy older adults: A meta-analytic review of transfer for cognitive outcomes.

The objective of this meta-analytic review was to systematically assess the effects of working memory training on healthy older adults. We identified 552 entries, of which 27 experiments met our inclusion criteria. The final database included 1130 participants. Near- and far-transfer effects were analysed with measures of short-term memory, working memory, and reasoning. Small significant and long-lasting transfer gains were observed in working memory tasks. Effects on reasoning was very small and only marg...

Affective Working Memory: An Integrative Psychological Construct.

When people ruminate about an unfortunate encounter with a loved one, savor a long-sought accomplishment, or hold in mind feelings from a marvelous or regretfully tragic moment, what mental processes orchestrate these psychological phenomena? Such experiences typify how affect interacts with working memory, which we posit can occur in three primary ways: emotional experiences can modulate working memory, working memory can modulate emotional experiences, and feelings can be the mental representations mainta...

Obesity is associated with poor working memory in women, not men: Findings from a nationally representative dataset of U.S. adults.

A growing body of research has linked obesity to lower working memory performance. However, sex differences are often found in associations between obesity and cognition, and little work has examined potential sex differences in the association between obesity and working memory. To address this issue, the present research uses data from Wave IV of The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (N = 4,769, mean age = 29) to examine whether sex moderated the association between excess ...

Does spatial attention modulate sensory memory?

According to some theoretical models, information contained in visual short-term memory (VSTM) consists of two main memory stages/storages: sensory memory, a system wherein information is stored for a brief time with high detail and low resistance to visual interference, and visual working memory, a low-capacity system wherein information is protected from visual interference and maintained for longer delays. Previous studies have consistently shown a strong relationship between attention and visual working...

Differential trajectories of memory quality and guessing across sequential reports from working memory.

Working memory enables the storage of few items for a short period of time. Previous research has shown that items in working memory cannot be accessed equally well, indicating that they are held in at least two different states with different capacity limitations. However, it is unclear whether differences between states are due to limitations of the number of items that can be stored, or the quality with which items are stored. We employed a sequential whole-report procedure where participants reported th...

Gated spiking neural network using Iterative Free-Energy Optimization and rank-order coding for structure learning in memory sequences (INFERNO GATE).

We present a framework based on iterative free-energy optimization with spiking neural networks for modeling the fronto-striatal system (PFC-BG) for the generation and recall of audio memory sequences. In line with neuroimaging studies carried out in the PFC, we propose a genuine coding strategy using the gain-modulation mechanism to represent abstract sequences based solely on the rank and location of items within them. Based on this mechanism, we show that we can construct a repertoire of neurons sensitiv...

The contents of visual working memory delay the perceived offset of matching visual stimuli.

Previous research suggests that the perception of stimulus onset can be accelerated by a match between the contents of visual working memory and the stimulus presented alone in the peripheral visual field. This onset acceleration effect might contribute to previously reported effects of working memory on perceived stimulus duration. However, it remains possible that the contents of visual working memory may also modulate the offset perception of matching visual stimuli, thereby contributing to the modulatio...

Compared to outcome pressure, observation pressure produces differences in performance of N-back tasks: an ERP study.

Previous studies have reported that observation pressure and outcome pressure impact working memory, but have not investigated whether they exert different effects on working memory. The neuronal activity in some brain areas encodes task-related information corresponding to working memory across delay periods. Therefore, changes in working memory under pressure can be further verified by exploring neuronal activity changes in brain areas under pressure. In this study, we used an N-back task and event-relate...

Visual working memory representation as a topological defined perceptual object.

The question of what the basic unit is of visual working memory remains one of the most fundamental and controversial issues. In the current study, we proposed a unique perspective based on early topological perception to describe the nature of representation in visual working memory. In a series of updating change-detection tasks, the repetition-benefit effect on color memory was not affected when items in the second memory array underwent massive changes of nontopological features from the first memory ar...

Fellow travellers in cognitive evolution: Co-evolution of working memory and mental time travel?

Humans spend the lion's share of their mental life either in their personal past or an anticipated or imagined future. This type of mental state is known as mental time travel. It is perhaps the most sophisticated and fitness-promoting cognition that has evolved in humans and with some reservation in animals. We have proposed that working memory capacity and the complexity of executive functions within working memory might limit the authenticity with which past events are reconstructed and anticipated or im...

Visual Search May Not Require Target Representation in Working Memory or Long-Term Memory.

We spend a lot of time searching for things. If we know what we are looking for in advance, a memory representation of the target will be created to guide search. But if the identity of the search target is revealed simultaneously with the presentation of the search array, is a similar memory representation formed? In the present study, 96 observers determined whether a central target was present in a peripheral search array. The results revealed that as long as the central target remained available for ins...

Emotion regulation difficulties and impaired working memory interact to predict boredom emotional eating.

Emotional eating (EE), or eating in response to emotions, is related to depression, binge eating, and weight gain. Emotion regulation difficulties are a risk factor for EE. Working memory deficits may also be a risk factor for EE, as working memory is an important cognitive factor in emotion regulation. The current study is a secondary analysis that examined whether working memory moderated the relationship between emotion regulation and emotional eating. A college student sample completed measures of EE in...

Listening to your intuition in the face of distraction: Effects of taxing working memory on accuracy and bias of intuitive judgments of semantic coherence.

People can intuitively estimate the semantic coherence of word triads, even when they are unable to state the triads' common denominator. The present research examines the role of working memory in such intuitive coherence judgments. Dual-process models of information processing suggest that intuition does not depend on working memory. Consistent with this, the authors predicted that taxing working memory capacity will not lower the accuracy of intuitive coherence judgments. Nevertheless, taxing working mem...

Perturbing Neural Representations of Working Memory with Task-irrelevant Interruption.

Working memory maintains information so that it can be used in complex cognitive tasks. A key challenge for this system is to maintain relevant information in the face of task-irrelevant perturbations. Across two experiments, we investigated the impact of task-irrelevant interruptions on neural representations of working memory. We recorded EEG activity in humans while they performed a working memory task. On a subset of trials, we interrupted participants with salient but task-irrelevant objects. To track ...

Working Memory Profiles of Children With Dyslexia, Developmental Language Disorder, or Both.

Purpose Compared to children with typical development, children with dyslexia, developmental language disorder (DLD), or both often demonstrate working memory deficits. It is unclear how pervasive the deficits are or whether the deficits align with diagnostic category. The purpose of this study was to determine whether different working memory profiles would emerge on a comprehensive battery of central executive, phonological, visuospatial, and binding working memory tasks and whether these profiles were as...

The association between obesity and lower working memory is mediated by inflammation: Findings from a nationally representative dataset of U.S. adults.

Obesity is often accompanied by lower working memory (e.g., a lower ability to keep goal-relevant information in mind) relative to healthy weight individuals. Understanding this relative working memory impairment has important clinical implications, as working memory is thought to facilitate adherence to weight management programs. Theoretical models of obesity, self-regulation, and inflammation suggest that inflammation plays a role in obesity-related working memory impairments, but to date no study has te...

Perceived Control Moderates the Impact of Academic Stress on the Attention Process of Working Memory in Male College Students.

Academic stress is a common long-term stress among the student population and is known to impact working memory within the frontoparietal attention network. Perceived control is an individual variation that may play a buffering role between stress and overall adjustment. In this study, we addressed the moderating effects of perceived control between academic stress and working memory. Fifty-nine male college students participated in the study. Academic stress and perceived control were assessed before parti...

Differential impairment of short working and spatial memories in a rat model of progressive Parkinson's disease onset: a focus on the prodromal stage.

Studying the non-motor disorders of the prodromal phase of Parkinson's disease (PD) is of great importance because of their negative impact on patient's quality of life. Classical neurotoxic animal models of PD generally unable the exploration of the progression of the non-motor phase of the prodromal stage of the disease. The aim of this study is to assess the evolution of two types of memory alteration namely; short working and spatial memories at different stages of the prodromal phase of a rat model of ...

Distinguishing target biases and strategic guesses in visual working memory.

Previous studies have shown that when there are statistical regularities in the items stored in visual working memory, the responses are biased toward the ensemble average. This statistical-regularity-induced bias could happen in two ways: (1) a target bias, where the individual memory representations are pulled toward the ensemble average; or (2) a strategic guess, for items that are not memorized, other information in the ensemble (e.g., another item) is reported as a substitute. Here, these two mechanism...

Effects of Early Auditory Deprivation on Working Memory and Reasoning Abilities in Verbal and Visuospatial Domains for Pediatric Cochlear Implant Recipients.

The overall goal of this study was to compare verbal and visuospatial working memory in children with normal hearing (NH) and with cochlear implants (CI). The main questions addressed by this study were (1) Does auditory deprivation result in global or domain-specific deficits in working memory in children with CIs compared with their NH age mates? (2) Does the potential for verbal recoding affect performance on measures of reasoning ability in children with CIs relative to their NH age mates? and (3) Is pe...


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