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14:52 EST 7th December 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Sanofi Pharmaceuticals Incorporated" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 345

Mytilidae as model organisms in the marine ecotoxicology of pharmaceuticals - A review.

Growing production and consumption of pharmaceuticals is a global problem. Due to insufficient data on the concentration and distribution of pharmaceuticals in the marine environment, there are no appropriate legal regulations concerning their emission. In order to understand all aspects of the fate of pharmaceuticals in the marine environment and their effect on marine biota, it is necessary to find the most appropriate model organism for this purpose. This paper presents an overview of the ecotoxicologica...


Occurrence and ranking of pharmaceuticals in the major rivers of China.

Residual pharmaceuticals have received widespread attention worldwide due to their continuous release and potential hazard to the environment. As a result of rapid development and a large population, China has become a country with high production and consumption of pharmaceuticals. This may be the main reason for the high detection frequencies and concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment in China. Rivers represent an important water resource and play an important role in the sustainable...

Analysis, occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals in African water resources: A current status.

Pharmaceuticals are organic compounds used in medicines for alleviation of pain. Since 2017, there has been a steady increase on the availability of information on contamination of water resources caused by pharmaceuticals in some African countries. Thus far, most environmental monitoring studies of pharmaceuticals are conducted in South Africa while there is still no available data in majority of the African countries. Therefore, the knowledge on the presence of pharmaceuticals in African water resources i...


Prioritization of pharmaceuticals in water environment in China based on environmental criteria and risk analysis of top-priority pharmaceuticals.

Numerous studies have shown that a wide range of pharmaceuticals are present in the environment and many of their adverse biological effects on the aquatic ecosystem and human health are unknown. Due to the high population density and large number of pharmaceuticals produced and consumed in China, a systematic approach is needed to identify pharmaceuticals that require greater attention. The present study provides a ranking of pharmaceuticals in China in terms of their occurrence (O), persistence, bioaccumu...

Occurrence and distribution of pharmaceuticals in raw, finished, and drinking water from seven large river basins in China.

The occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the drinking water is a growing concern in China. In this study, we determined the concentration and distribution of 59 selected pharmaceuticals in raw, finished, and tap water samples from 79 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) in 15 cities, encompassing seven large river basins in China, using solid-phase extraction pretreatment and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Forty-seven pharmaceuticals were detected in raw water...

Biological removal of pharmaceuticals by Navicula sp. and biotransformation of bezafibrate.

Pharmaceutically active compounds are of great concern due to their detection frequency in the environment and the unexpected risks. In this study, the simultaneous removal of mixed pharmaceuticals by microalgae was explored using a typical freshwater diatom Navicula sp. Results showed that Navicula sp. could efficiently remove atenolol, carbamazepine, ibuprofen and naproxen with the efficiencies of >90% after 21 d of exposure. As compared to the removal efficiencies of each pharmaceutical in the individu...

Sorption of ionic and neutral species of pharmaceuticals to loessial soil amended with biochars.

To clarify the impact of biochar amendment on soil sorption for coexisting pharmaceuticals, wheat straw-derived biochars pyrolyzed at 300 and 700 °C (labeled as WS300 and WS700, respectively) were prepared. Batch experiments on ketoprofen (KTP), atenolol (ATL) and carbamazepine (CBZ) sorption to biochars, loessial soil and biochar-amended soils were conducted. The results indicated that sorption affinity of different species of pharmaceuticals to WS300 and WS700 was in the order of cationic ATL > neutral C...

Distribution and ecological risk of pharmaceuticals in surface water of the Yeongsan river, Republic of Korea.

This study examined the distribution of pharmaceuticals in Yeongsan River and at point sources (PSs) in the associated water system, and performed a risk assessment based on our findings. The samples included effluents collected from three sewage treatment plants (PS1, PS2, and PS3) and two industrial complexes (PS4 and PS5) as well as surface water collected from seven mainstreams and 11 tributaries of the river. The target pharmaceuticals were acetylsalicylic acid, carbamazepine, clarithromycin, naproxen,...

Single and mixture toxicity of four pharmaceuticals of environmental concern to aquatic organisms, including a behavioral assessment.

Pharmaceuticals are frequently detected in aquatic environments as mixtures and can cause toxic effects to non-target organisms. We aimed to evaluate the single and mixture effects of the pharmaceuticals metformin, bisoprolol, ranitidine and sotalol using Daphnia similis and Danio rerio. In addition, we aimed to test the predictive accuracy of the mathematical models concentration addition and independent action and to evaluate the nature of the possible toxicological interactions among these pharmaceutical...

Insights into the isotherm and kinetic models for the coadsorption of pharmaceuticals in the absence and presence of metal ions: A review.

Pharmaceuticals are a wide class of emerging pollutants due to their continuous and the increasing consumption of users. These pollutants are usually found in the real environment as mixtures alone or with metal ions. Thus, the migration risk increases, which complicates the removal of pharmaceuticals because of the combined and synergistic effects. The focus of treatment of pharmaceutical mixtures and their coexistence with metals is of considerable importance. For this purpose, adsorption has been efficie...

The Future Of Omics For Clinical Practice.

Dr. Kari Nadeau: Dr. Nadeau receives grant support from NIAID, Food Allergy Research & Education (FARE), End Allergies Together, Allergenis, Ukko; personal Fees from Regeneron, AstraZeneca, ImmuneWorks, Cour; sponsored research from Novartis, Sanofi, Astellas, Nestle; Sponsored research for clinical trials from Genentech, Aimmune Therapeutics, DBV Technologies, AnaptysBio, Stallergenes-Greer, Regeneron, and Adare Pharmaceuticals; Data and Safety Monitoring Board member at Novartis and NHLBI; co-founded Befo...

Occurrence, removal and seasonal variation of pharmaceuticals in Brasilian drinking water treatment plants.

The presence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic environments has become a major issue of concern for scientific community, since there is a lack of information about risks and impacts to the environment and public health. In the context of Brazil, many cities do not have Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) and domestic sewage is dumped directly into the water bodies, aggravating the problem. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the presence of 28 prescribed pharmaceuticals from different therapeutic classes...

An Approach for Using In Vitro and In Silico Data to Identify Pharmaceuticals with Potential (Anti-)Estrogenic Activity in Aquatic Vertebrates at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations.

Endocrine-active pharmaceuticals can cause adverse reproductive and developmental effects in non-target organisms. Aquatic vertebrates may be susceptible to the effects of such pharmaceuticals given that the structure of hormone receptors and the physiology of the endocrine system are highly conserved across vertebrates. To aid in the regulatory review of the environmental impact of drugs, we demonstrate an approach to screen and support the prioritization of pharmaceuticals based on their ability to intera...

Pharmaceuticals removal in an on-farm pig slurry treatment plant based on solid-liquid separation and nitrification-denitrification systems.

The fate and degradation of 28 multiple-class veterinary pharmaceuticals in an on-farm pig slurry treatment plant based on solid-liquid separation and a nitrification-denitrification (NDN) sequence batch reactor (SBR) were evaluated for the first time. The pharmaceuticals detected at the highest concentrations in raw pig slurries belonged to the group of tetracycline antibiotics. Fluoroquinolone, lincosamide and pleuromutilin antibiotics and other drugs such as flubendazole and flunixin were also frequently...

Cobalt-Catalyzed Alkylation of Drug-Like Molecules and Pharmaceuticals Using Heterocyclic Phosphonium Salts.

Alkylated pyridines are common in pharmaceuticals, and metal catalysis is frequently used to prepare this motif via Csp-Csp coupling processes. We present a cobalt-catalyzed coupling reaction between pyridine phosphonium salts and alkylzinc reagents that can be applied to complex drug-like fragments and for late-stage functionalization of pharmaceuticals. The reaction generally proceeds at room temperature, and 4-position pyridine C-H bonds are the precursors in this strategy. Given the challenges in select...

Dose-dependent effects of acetate on the biodegradation of pharmaceuticals in moving bed biofilm reactors.

Moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) are promising as a post-treatment for removing pharmaceuticals from wastewater. However, the effect of easily degradable carbon sources on the degradation of pharmaceuticals is unclear. This study shows the influence of acetate on the degradation of 26 pharmaceuticals in an MBBR was dose- and compound-dependent: while the degradation of venlafaxine, tramadol and ciprofloxacin was promoted (increase of reaction rate constant (k) by 133%, 212%, 55%) by acetate, its presence ...

Investigation of pharmaceutical and personal care product interactions of soil and beets (Beta vulgaris L.) under the effect of wastewater reuse.

Although, several recent greenhouse studies are beginning to address the uptake of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) by a variety of crops, few studies have assessed the effects of exposure to complex, realistic wastewater effluents on uptake. Hence, in this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in order to study the interactions occurring exclusively between PPCPs in soil, and in the edible plant part of beets (Beta vulgaris) after exposure to treated wastewater effluent. According ...

Supercritical CO fluid extraction of croton crassifolius Geisel root: Chemical composition and anti-proliferative, autophagic, apoptosis-inducing, and related molecular effects on A549 tumour cells.

The use of plant essential oils as pharmaceuticals is a fast-growing market especially in China. Throughout the 20th century, a rapid increase took place in the use of many essential oil-derived products in the medicinal industry as nutraceuticals, medicinal supplements, and pharmaceuticals.

External Reference Pricing for Pharmaceuticals-A Survey and Literature Review to Describe Best Practices for Countries With Expanding Healthcare Coverage.

Countries with expanding healthcare coverage (CEHCs) increasingly use external reference pricing (ERP) for pharmaceuticals. The ERP policies must aim to optimize efficiency, minimize disturbances, and maximize access to effective therapies for all patients.

A review of Dengvaxia®: development to deployment.

Dengue is the world's most prevalent and important arboviral disease. More than 50% of the world's population lives at daily risk of infection and it is estimated more than 95 million people a year seek medical care following infection. Severe disease can manifest as plasma leakage and potential for clinically significant hemorrhage, shock, and death. Treatment is supportive and there is currently no licensed anti-dengue virus prophylactic or therapeutic compound. A single dengue vaccine, Sanofi Pasteur's D...

Sotagliflozin: First Global Approval.

Sotagliflozin (Zynquista™) is a dual inhibitor of sodium-glucose co-transporters (SGLT) 1 and 2 being developed by Lexicon Pharmaceuticals and Sanofi as a treatment for type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The drug has a dual action, blunting and delaying absorption of glucose from the gastrointestinal tract and the reabsorption of glucose in the proximal tubule of the kidney, respectively. In the phase III inTandem clinical trial program in patients with T1DM, sotagliflozin as an adjunct to...

Mechanistic study on uptake and transport of pharmaceuticals in lettuce from water.

The dissemination of pharmaceuticals in agroecosystems originating from land application of animal manure/sewage sludge and irrigation with treated wastewater in agricultural production has raised concern about the accumulation of pharmaceuticals in food products. The pathways of pharmaceutical entries via plant roots, transport to upper fractions, and the factors influencing these processes have yet been systematically elucidated, thus impeding the development of effective measures to mitigate pharmaceutic...

Analysis of neurotransmitters in Daphnia magna affected by neuroactive pharmaceuticals using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

Neurotransmission plays an essential role during the central nervous system (CNS) development. During the last years, several studies based on the changes produced in neurotransmitters of aquatic organisms caused by pharmaceuticals have been reported. Daphnia magna, the aquatic ecotoxicological model organism, shares several of the neurotransmitters targeted by antidepressant and other neuro-active drugs with vertebrates. Therefore, a method based on liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spe...

Spatial and temporal occurrence of pharmaceuticals in UK estuaries.

There is a lack of data on the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in estuaries worldwide, with little understanding of their temporal and spatial variations globally. Ibuprofen, paracetamol, diclofenac, trimethoprim and citalopram were measured in twelve estuaries in the UK. Initially, these compounds were monitored in the Humber Estuary, where samples were taken every two months over a twelve month period in order to assess their spatial and temporal variations. Ibuprofen was found at some of the highest concen...

Fluorine-Containing Drugs Approved by the FDA in 2018.

Over the last two decades, fluorine substitution has become one of the essential structural traits in modern pharmaceuticals. Thus, about half of the most successful drugs (blockbuster drugs) contain fluorine atom. In this review, we profile 17 fluorine-containing drugs approved by the FDA in 2018. The newly approved pharmaceuticals feature several types of aromatic F- and CF3-, aliphatic (CF2) substitution, offering advances in treatment of various diseases, including cancer, HIV, malarial and smallpox inf...


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