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PubMed Journals Articles About "Separations" RSS

04:11 EDT 23rd October 2019 | BioPortfolio

Separations PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Separations articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Separations" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 104

Enhancing metal separations by liquid-liquid extraction using polar solvents.

The less polar phase of liquid-liquid extraction systems has been studied extensively for improving metal separations, however, the role of the more polar phase has been overlooked for far too long. Here, we investigate the extraction of metals from a variety of polar solvents and demonstrate that, the influence of polar solvents on metal extraction is so significant that extraction of many metals can be largely tuned, and the metal separations can be significantly enhanced by selecting suitable polar solve...


Droplet sample introduction to microchip gel and zone electrophoresis for rapid analysis of protein-protein complexes and enzymatic reactions.

Electrophoresis has demonstrated utility as tool for screening of small molecule modulators of protein-protein interactions and enzyme targets. Screening of large chemical libraries requires high-throughput separations. Such fast separation can be accessed by microchip electrophoresis. Here, microchip gel electrophoresis separations of proteins are achieved in 2.6 s with 1200 V/cm and 3-mm separation lengths. However, such fast separations can still suffer from limited overall throughput from sample intro...

Molecular Sieves for the Separation of Hydrogen Isotopes.

Stable molecular hydrogen isotopes, D and T, are both scarce and essential in several energy, industrial and large-scale, fundamental research applications. Due to the chemical similarity of these isotopes, their extraction and purification from hydrogen has relied for decades on expensive and energy-demanding processes. However, factoring in the phenomenon of quantum sieving could provide a new route for these separations. In this work, we have explored how to separate hydrogen isotopes by adsorption takin...


A conditional cash transfer and Women's empowerment: Does Bolsa Familia Influence intimate partner violence?

We apply mixed methods to explore how a conditional cash transfer (CCT) may influence intimate partner violence (IPV). Qualitative interviews with female beneficiaries of Bolsa Familia, Brazil's CCT program, and service providers suggest positive, negative, and null associations between CCTs and IPV are all plausible. These associations result from a combination of economic and psychological motivations. We also use quantitative methods to examine if the expansion of Bolsa Familia between 2004 and 2009 affe...

Qualitative evaluation of high pH mass spectrometry-compatible reversed phase liquid chromatography for altered selectivity in separations of intact proteins.

Intact proteins are increasingly being recognized as potential biomarkers and biotherapeutic agents for cancer and other serious diseases. Low pH reversed phase plays an important role in both single and multidimensional protein separations for resolving complex protein samples prior to mass spectrometric detection. In this work, we evaluated the use of high pH reversed phase liquid chromatography as an alternative chromatographic separation to gain different selectivity while maintaining the high resolving...

Magnetic Field Directed Rare-Earth Separations.

The separation of rare-earth ions from one another is challenging due to their chemical and physical similarities. Nearly all rare-earth separations rely upon small changes in ionic radii to direct speciation or reactivity. Herein, we show that the intrinsic magnetic properties of the rare-earth ions impact the separations of light/heavy and selected heavy/heavy binary mixtures. Using TriNOx 3- ({(2- t BuNO)C 6 H 4 CH 2 } 3 N] 3- ) rare-earth complexes, we efficiently and selectively crystallized heavy rare...

Ultrathin membranes with polymer/nanofiber inter-penetrated structure for high-efficiency liquid separations.

Ultrathin film composite (UTFC) membrane comprising an ultrathin polymeric active layer has been extensively explored in gas separation applications benefiting from its extraordinary permeation flux for high throughput separation. However, the practical realization of ultrathin active layer in liquid separations is still impeded by the trade-off effect between membrane thickness (permeation flux) and structural stability (separation factor). Herein, we report a general multi & alternate spin-coating (MAS) s...

On the existence of endocytosis driven by membrane phase separations.

Large endocytic responses can occur rapidly in diverse cell types without dynamins, clathrin, or actin remodeling. Our experiments suggest that membrane phase separations are crucial with more ordered plasma membrane domains being internalized. Not only do these endocytic processes rely on coalescence of membrane domains, they are promoted by participation of membrane proteins in such domains, one important regulatory influence being palmitoylation. Membrane actin cytoskeleton in general resists membrane ph...

Untargeted LC/MS-based metabolic phenotyping (metabonomics/metabolomics): The state of the art.

Liquid chromatography (LC) hyphenated to mass spectrometry is currently the most widely used means of determining metabolic phenotypes via both untargeted and targeted analysis. At present a range of analytical separations, including reversed-phase, hydrophilic interaction and ion-pair LC are employed to maximise metabolome coverage with ultra (high) performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) increasingly displacing conventional high performance liquid chromatography because of the need for short analysis ti...

Clinical and pharmaceutical applications of affinity ligands in capillary electrophoresis: A review.

Affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE) is a separation technique that combines a biologically-related binding agent with the separating power and efficiency of capillary electrophoresis. This review will examine several classes of binding agents that have been used in ACE and applications that have been described for the resulting methods in clinical or pharmaceutical analysis. Binding agents that will be considered are antibodies, aptamers, lectins, serum proteins, carbohydrates, and enzymes. This review...

Intensified Ethylene Production via Chemical Looping through an Exergetically Efficient Redox Scheme.

Ethylene production via steam cracking of ethane and naphtha is one of the most energy and emission-intensive processes in the chemical industry. High operating temperatures, significant reaction endothermicity, and complex separations create hefty energy demands and result in substantial CO and NO emissions. Meanwhile, decades of optimization have led to a thermally efficient, near-"perfect" process with ∼95% first law energy efficiency, leaving little room for further reduction in energy consumption and...

Liquid chromatographic chiral recognition of phytoalexins on immobilized polysaccharides chiral stationary phases. Unusual temperature behavior.

Three immobilized polysaccharide chiral stationary phases, Chiralpak IA, Chiralpak IB and Chiralpak IC, were used for the study of enantioseparation of 36 derivatives of natural indole phytoalexins, in most cases bioactive, including racemic spirobrassinin, 1-methoxyspirobrassinin and 1-methoxyspirobrassinol methyl ether. Almost all analytes were baseline resolved at least on two different polysaccharide columns in normal phase mode. The effects of mobile phase composition, the analyte structure and the col...

Ion Mobility Spectrometry: Fundamental Concepts, Instrumentation, Applications, and the Road Ahead.

Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is a rapid separation technique that has experienced exponential growth as a field of study. Interfacing IMS with mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) provides additional analytical power as complementary separations from each technique enable multidimensional characterization of detected analytes. IMS separations occur on a millisecond timescale, and therefore can be readily nested into traditional GC and LC/MS workflows. However, the continual development of novel IMS methods has gen...

Understanding the Nature of Weak Interactions Between Functionalized Boranes and N/O, Promising Functional Groups for Gas Separations.

The separation of nitrogen and oxygen gases is considered as a very challenging processes, since both O2 and N2 are nonpolar molecules with similar kinetic diameters. Electronic structure theory can provide a fundamental understanding on effects that can lead to selective binding of oxygen or nitrogen gas for the development of novel separation processes. Boranes can bind dinitrogen through a dative bond, where the boron acts as a σ acceptor and back-donate through π orbitals. To better understand these i...

Laminar Graphene Oxide Membranes Towards Selective Ionic and Molecular Separations: Challenges and Progress.

Resolution of resources and environmental crises requires an efficient separation technologies, consequently, scientists and engineers are working vigorously for ideal separation materials. Laminar graphene oxide (GO) is a two-dimensional (2D) material offers considerable interest in this field due to its single atomic layer thickness, good stability, chemical inertness, and variety of functional groups. Recently, GO have emerged as a novel membrane material for molecular and ionic separation of gases, solv...

Enhanced CO2 capture and hydrogen purification via hydroxy metal-organic framework/polyimide mixed matrix membranes.

Membrane separation technology provides substantial energy- and cost-savings for molecular separations in chemical industrials, ideally complementing conventional thermal-driven separation approaches. However, current membranes confront pragmatic challenges, primarily lying in the Robeson permeability-selectivity upper bound limits. Here we show hydroxy metal-organic frameworks (MOFs)/polyimide mixed matrix membranes, enabling high separation performance for applications including CO2 capture and hydrogen p...

Chemically Selective Transport in a Cross-Linked H Phase Lyotropic Liquid Crystal Membrane.

The uniform size and complex chemical topology of the pores formed by self-assembled amphiphilic molecules such as liquid crystals make them promising candidates for selective separations. In this work, we observe transport of water, sodium ions and 20 small polar solutes within the pores of a lyotropic liquid crystal (LLC) membrane using atomistic molecular simulations. We find that the transport of a species is dependent not only on molecular size, but on chemical functionality as well. The membrane's inh...

Adenovirus 5 recovery using nanofiber ion exchange adsorbents.

Viral vectors such as adenovirus have successful applications in vaccines and gene therapy but the manufacture of high quality virus remains a challenge. It is desirable to use the adsorption based chromatographic separations that so effectively underpin therapeutic protein manufacture. However fundamental differences in the size and stability of this class of product means it is necessary to revisit the design of sorbent's morphology and surface chemistry. In this study, the behaviour of a cellulose nanofi...

Evaluation of Direct from Sample Metabolomics of Human Faeces using Rapid Evaporative Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (REIMS).

Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool in the investigation of the human faecal metabolome. However, current approaches require time-consuming sample preparation, chromatographic separations, and consequently long analytical run times. Rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry (REIMS) is a method of ambient ionisation mass spectrometry and has been utilised in the metabolic profiling of a diverse range of biological materials, including human tissue, cell culture lines, and microorganisms. Here, we descr...

Precursors to Exciton Condensation in Quantum Hall Bilayers.

Tunneling spectroscopy reveals evidence for interlayer electron-hole correlations in quantum Hall bilayer two-dimensional electron systems at layer separations near, but above, the transition to the incompressible exciton condensate at total Landau level filling ν_{T}=1. These correlations are manifested by a nonlinear suppression of the Coulomb pseudogap which inhibits low energy interlayer tunneling in weakly coupled bilayers. The pseudogap suppression is strongest at ν_{T}=1 and grows rapidly as the cr...

Vortex fiber nulling for exoplanet observations. I. Experimental demonstration in monochromatic light.

Vortex fiber nulling is a method for spectroscopically characterizing exoplanets at small angular separations, ≲λ/D, from their host star. The starlight is suppressed by creating an optical vortex in the system point spread function, which prevents the stellar field from coupling into the fundamental mode of a single-mode optical fiber. Light from the planet, on the other hand, couples into the fiber and is routed to a spectrograph. Using a prototype vortex fiber nuller (VFN) designed for monochromatic l...

The long-range attraction between hydrophobic macroscopic surfaces.

Direct measurements of the long-range strongly attractive force observed between macroscopic hydrophobic surfaces across aqueous solutions are reexamined in light of recent experiments and theoretical developments. The focus is on systems in the absence of submicroscopic bubbles (preexistent or induced) to avoid capillary bridging forces. Other possible interferences to the measurements are also eliminated. The force-distance profiles are obtained directly (no contributions from electrical double layer or h...

The making of new care spaces. How micropublic places mediate inclusion and exclusion in a Dutch city.

This paper provides insight into strategies used by social care initiatives to create caring environments for people with a variety of abilities and disabilities. The analysis is guided by the concept of 'micropublic places' and builds on research about changing spaces of care and three types of spatial, symbolic and public-private boundary logics. Using ethnographic methods, we map three hybridization strategies that challenged spatial separations of functions, professional diagnostic labels, and public-pr...

Loading AgCl@Ag on phosphotungstic acid modified macrocyclic coordination compound: Z-scheme photocatalyst for persistent pollutant degradation and hydrogen evolution.

In this work, Z-scheme photocatalysts of (CuCHN)(PWO)/AgCl@Ag were designed and realized for effective removal of solvable and insolvable persistent organic pollutants and hydrogen evolution under simulated sunlight. The catalysts were synthesized via a simple hydrothermal-chemical co-precipitation method. Excellent photocatalytic abilities are demonstrated in degradations of persistent pollutant 2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) and tetracycline (TC) under simulated sunlight, as well as a high H production rate of 1...

Mechanical Control of the Kinetic Propylene/Propane Separation by Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8.

One intriguing feature of many porous MOFs is their stimulus-induced flexibility that makes them unique compared to the standard adsorbents. Here we propose an innovative concept to achieve an efficient kinetic separation of species with similar properties via a mechanical fine-tuning of the pore architecture of the flexible Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework ZIF-8. This unprecedented approach was applied to one of the most challenging societally-relevant separations, the propylene/propane separation which is o...


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