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07:30 EDT 23rd October 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Shigella Vaccines Shigellosis" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 922

Microevolution and Patterns of Transmission of Shigella sonnei within Cyclic Outbreaks Shigellosis, Israel.

Whole-genome sequencing unveiled host and environment-related insights to Shigella sonnei transmission within cyclic epidemics during 2000-2012 in Israel. The Israeli reservoir contains isolates belonging to S. sonnei lineage III but of different origin, shows loss of tetracycline resistance genes, and little genetic variation within the O antigen: highly relevant for Shigella vaccine development.

Closed genome and comparative phylogenetic analysis of the clinical multidrug resistant Shigella sonnei strain 866.

Shigella sonnei is responsible for the majority of shigellosis infections in the United States with over 500,000 cases reported annually. Here we present the complete genome of the clinical multidrug resistant (MDR) strain 866, which is highly susceptible to bacteriophage infections. The strain has a circular chromosome of 4.85 Mb and carries a 113 kb MDR plasmid. This IncB/O/K/Z-type plasmid, termed p866, confers resistance to five different classes of antibiotics including ß-lactamase, sulphonamide, ...

Constructing and transient expression of a gene cassette containing edible vaccine elements and shigellosis, anthrax and cholera recombinant antigens in tomato.

Shigella dysenteriae causing shigellosis is one of the diseases that threaten the health of human society in the developing countries. In Shigella, IpaD gene is one of the key pathogenic genes causing strong mucosal immune system reactions. Anthrax disease is caused by Bacillus anthracis. PA protective antigen is one of the subunits in anthrax toxin complex responsible for the transfer of other subunits into the cytosol of host cells. The 20 kDa subunit of PA (PA20) has the property of immunogenicity. CTxB...

Genotypic Diversity of Multidrug Resistant Shigella species from Iran.

In many developing countries, shigellosis is endemic and also occurs in epidemics and treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates are important. The aims of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility, prevalence of class 1 and 2 integrons and the clonal relatedness of isolates.

Shigella and Enteroinvasive Escherichia Coli.

Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) are gram-negative bacteria responsible for bacillary dysentery (shigellosis) in humans, which is characterized by invasion and inflammatory destruction of the human colonic epithelium. Different EIEC and Shigella subgroups rose independently from commensal E. coli through patho-adaptive evolution that included loss of functional genes interfering with the virulence and/or with the intracellular lifestyle of the bacteria, as well as acquisition of genetic e...

Recent insights into Shigella.

Diarrhoea is a major global health problem, and recent studies have confirmed Shigella as a major contributor to this burden. Here, we review recent advances in Shigella research; focusing on their epidemiology, pathogenesis, antimicrobial resistance, and the role of the gut microbiome during infection.

Cyclic OmpC peptidic epitope conjugated to tetanus toxoid as a potential vaccine candidate against shigellosis.

In earlier works we have described that mice immunized with outer membrane protein OmpC survive the challenge with live Shigella flexnerii 3a. We have also identified conformational epitope of this protein, that was recognized by mice antibodies. The aim of current work was to investigate whether synthetic OmpC epitope homologs can elicit immunological response sufficient in protecting mice against shigellosis. Several linear peptides containing RYDERY motif were synthesized and conjugated to poly-lysine. T...

Defens-IN! Human α-Defensin 5 Acts as an Unwitting Double Agent to Promote Shigella Infection.

Shigella pathogenesis has confounded researchers for years because of its narrow host selectivity and extraordinary infectious capability. In this issue of Immunity, Xu et al. (2018) identify a cunning mechanism whereby Shigella hijacks human α-defensin 5 to enhance its adhesion and subsequent invasion.

Characterization of a serologically atypical Shigella flexneri Z isolated from diarrheal patients in Bangladesh and a proposed serological scheme for Shigella flexneri.

Atypical Shigella flexneri Z variant, that agglutinate with E1037 group factor specific monoclonal antisera against Shigella flexneri IV-I but not with other group or type specific antisera, has continuously being isolated in Bangladesh since 1997. Later this serotype has been reported in Indonesia, China and Argentina. Despite being a provisional serotype, continuous isolation of these strains in diverse geographical regions implicated a great necessity to study the overall characteristics of these strains...

Detection and discrimination of Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri based on vacuolar responses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

This study provided a system for bacteria detection based on a lysosome-like-vacuole response in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Vacuoles are factors known to activate the immune system in the presence of foreign substances. Here, Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri were exposed to yeast to analyze the alteration of vacuolar enzymes. The ability to detect the bacteria was evaluated by confocal microscopy after exposing and staining vacuoles with LysoTracker. Results showed that the treatment of yeast ...

A requirement for septins and the autophagy receptor p62 in the proliferation of intracellular Shigella.

Shigella flexneri, a Gram-negative enteroinvasive pathogen, causes inflammatory destruction of the human intestinal epithelium. During infection of epithelial cells, Shigella escape from the phagosome to the cytosol, where they reroute host cell glycolysis to obtain nutrients for proliferation. Septins, a poorly understood component of the cytoskeleton, can entrap cytosolic Shigella targeted to autophagy in cage-like structures to restrict bacterial proliferation. Although bacterial entrapment by septin cag...

Antimicrobial sensitivity trends and virulence genes in Shigella spp. from the Oceania region.

Shigella is a common cause of diarrhoea in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and other Oceania countries. However, little is known about the strains causing infection. Archived Shigella isolates (n = 72) were obtained from research laboratories in PNG and reference laboratories in Australia. Shigella virulence genes were detected by PCR, and antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disk diffusion. The ipaH virulence gene was present in all 72 isolates. The prevalence of other virulence genes was variable, wi...

A case of multi-drug resistant ESBL-producing Shigella sonnei acute acalculous cholecystitis and gastroenteritis in a returned traveller.

The first case of Shigella-associated acalculous cholecystitis is described. A 27-year-old woman presented to hospital with diarrhoea and acute acalculous cholecystitis one day after return to Australia from Vietnam. Her feces culture grew multi-drug resistant ESBL-producing Shigella sonnei and she improved with antimicrobial therapy and intravenous fluids.

Setup of luminescence-based serum bactericidal assay against Salmonella Paratyphi A.

Increasing awareness of Salmonella Paratyphi A's contribution to enteric fever episodes throughout Asia has led to the development of new S. Paratyphi A vaccines. Assays are needed to measure functional antibodies elicited by the new vaccine candidates to assess their immunogenicity and potential protective capacities. Serum bactericidal assay (SBA) is the method of choice to measure functional antibody titers against various bacterial pathogens, but it is rarely been used for large dataset and clinical sam...

Novel multiplex PCR assay for identification and subtyping of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli and differentiation from Shigella based on target genes selected by comparative genomics.

Both Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) can cause enterocolitis, but they have a distinct epidemiology and public health relevance. Current culture-independent testing (CIT) methods to identify Shigella in faecal samples rely on the ipaH gene as the target, which is also found in EIEC genomes. The aim of this study was to design an assay that can identify EIEC in cultures from CIT ipaH-positive samples.

Fluoroquinolone Resistance Mechanisms in Shigella Isolates in Shanghai, China Between 2010 and 2015.

This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Shigella isolated in Shanghai, China and to determine the genetic basis of its resistance to fluoroquinolones.

Prevalence and characterization of third generation cephalosporin resistant Shigella flexneri isolates from Jiangsu of China, 2013-2015.

To assess the prevalence of Shigella flexneri resistance to third-generation cephalosporins and characterize the underlying mechanism.

Cell culture-derived flu vaccine: Present and future.

The benefit of influenza vaccines is difficult to estimate due to the complexity of accurately assessing the burden of influenza. To improve the efficacy of influenza vaccines, vaccine manufacturers have developed quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) formulations for seasonal vaccination by including both influenza B lineages. Three parallel approaches for producing influenza vaccines are attracting the interest of many vaccine manufacturing companies. The first and oldest is the conventional egg-derived in...

Cancer vaccines: translation from mice to human clinical trials.

Therapeutic cancer vaccines have been a long-sought approach to harness the exquisite specificity of the immune system to treat cancer, but until recently have not had much success as single agents in clinical trials. However, new understanding of the immunoregulatory mechanisms exploited by cancers has allowed the development of approaches to potentiate the effect of vaccines by removing the brakes while the vaccines step on the accelerator. Thus, vaccines that had induced a strong T cell response but no c...

Comparative effectiveness of H7N9 vaccines in healthy individuals.

Avian H7N9 influenza viruses possess a potential pandemic threat to public health worldwide, and have caused severe infection and high mortality in humans. A series of clinical trials of H7N9 vaccines have been completed. Meta-analyses need to be performed to assess the immunogenicity and safety of H7N9 vaccines.

as a Vector for Cancer Immunotherapy: Current Understanding and Progress.

, a Gram-positive facultative anaerobic bacterium, is becoming a popular vector for cancer immunotherapy. Indeed, multiple vaccines have been developed utilizing modified as a tool for generating immune responses against a variety of cancers. Moreover, over a dozen clinical trials testing cancer vaccines are currently underway, which will help to understand the utility of vaccines in cancer immunotherapy. This review aims to summarize current views on how -based vaccines induce potent antitumor immunity ...

Safety and immunogenicity of fractional dose intradermal injection of two quadrivalent conjugated meningococcal vaccines.

Vaccination with conjugated meningococcal vaccines is the best way to prevent invasive meningococcal disease. Changes in serogroup epidemiology have led to the inclusion of quadrivalent vaccines in the national immunization programs of several countries, but vaccines are frequently in short supply. Intradermal administration has the potential to increase vaccine availability through dose reduction, without sacrificing efficacy. It has never before been investigated for glycoconjugate meningococcal vaccines.

Dominant serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance profile of Shigella spp. in Xinjiang, China.

Shigella represents one of the major diarrhea-inducing pathogens threatening public health, but its prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profile in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous region, China, remains unclear. We conducted comprehensive investigation of Shigella serotype distribution and antimicrobial resistance pattern in Xinjiang, identifying 458 Shigella isolates between 2008 to 2014. Shigella flexneri was identified as predominant species, and several S. flexneri serotypes were isolated, including atypic...

IncFII plasmid carrying antimicrobial resistance genes in Shigella flexneri: Vehicle for dissemination.

Plasmids harboring antimicrobial resistance determinants in clinical strains are the significant public health concern worldwide. The present study investigated for such plasmids in clinical Shigella flexneri isolates.

Vaccination with a DNA vaccine encoding CD317-targeting HBs antigen elicits enhanced immunity in mice.

Conventional hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccines fail to induce protective antibody titers in 5-10% of immune-competent vaccines. Therefore, safe and effective HBV vaccines are still clinically needed.

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