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PubMed Journals Articles About "Sodium Interception Xylem Parenchyma Chloride Recirculation Phloem Augment" RSS

09:51 EDT 20th June 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Sodium interception xylem parenchyma chloride recirculation phloem augment" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 2,900+

Sodium interception by xylem parenchyma and chloride recirculation in phloem may augment exclusion in the salt tolerant Pistacia genus: context for salinity studies on tree crops.

Working in tandem with root exclusion, stems may provide salt tolerant woody perennials with some additional capacity to restrict (Na) and chloride (Cl) accumulation in leaves. The Pistacia genus, falling at the nexus of salt tolerance and human intervention, provided an ideal set of organisms for studying the influences of both variable root exclusion and potentially variable discontinuities at the bud union on stem processes. In three experiments covering a wide range of salt concentrations (0 to 150 mM N...


Efficient phloem transport significantly remobilizes cadmium from old to young organs in a hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii.

Our knowledge of cadmium (Cd) in hyperaccumulators mainly concerns root uptake, xylem translocation and foliar detoxification, while little attention has been paid to the role of phloem remobilization. We investigated Cd distribution in different organs of the hyperaccumulating ecotype (HE) of Sedum alfredii and compared its Cd phloem transport with that of the non-hyperaccumulating ecotype (NHE). In HE, results of micro X-ray fluorescence revealed that Cd preferentially accumulated in younger organs compar...

Distribution and re-transportation of sodium in three Malus species with different salt tolerance.

To further dissect the mechanism of salt tolerance in Malus, the comparison was made regarding the differences between the salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive species in sodium accumulation and extrusion capability in the roots and stem base as well as the sodium re-transportation from shoot to roots by using Na labeling-based feeding of leaves and roots-split experiments. The results demonstrated that the salt-tolerant Malus species could accumulate more Na in the main roots, lateral roots, stem base phloem a...


The adequate amount of sodium chloride in Protein A wash buffer for effective host cell protein clearance.

Post-load column wash in Protein A chromatography can effectively improve host cell protein (HCP) clearance. A commonly used wash additive for this purpose is sodium chloride. However, the adequate amount of sodium chloride required for effective HCP clearance is less consistent in literature. In this study we investigated the impact of different amounts of sodium chloride on HCP clearance with five monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). For each mAb, elution pool HCP levels from runs under different wash conditions...

Defoliation constrains xylem and phloem functionality.

Insect defoliation contributes to tree mortality under drought conditions. Defoliation-induced alterations to the vascular transport structure may increase tree vulnerability to drought; however, this has been rarely studied. To evaluate the response of tree vascular function following defoliation, 2-year old balsam poplar were manually defoliated and both physiological and anatomical measurements were made after allowing for re-foliation. Hydraulic conductivity measurements showed that defoliated trees had...

Autointoxication with 'suicide powder'.

We present two patients who were treated for an intentional overdose of sodium nitrite. When ingested sodium nitrite leads to severe methaemoglobinaemia, resulting in severe hypoxia (as methaemoglobin does not transport oxygen), vasodilation and hypotension. Symptoms include cyanosis, headache, nausea, convulsions, coma and death. When measured by pulse oximetry, patients with a sodium nitrite intoxication and severe methaemoglobinaemia generally have an oxygen saturation of around 85%. This value is unreli...

Urine chloride self-measurement to monitor sodium chloride intake in patients with chronic kidney disease.

Background Excessive sodium intake is a risk factor for hypertension, cardiovascular disease and the risk for kidney failure in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Methods We tested the diagnostic performance and the feasibility of an inexpensive method based on urine chloride strips for self-monitoring sodium intake in a series of 72 CKD patients. Results Twenty-four hour urinary chloride as measured by the reactive strips and 24 h urinary sodium were interrelated (r=0.59, p100 mmol/24 h, i.e. the upper...

Sodium Chloride Aggravates Arthritis via Th17 Polarization.

Sodium chloride (NaCl) has been proposed as a driving factor in autoimmune diseases through the induction of pathogenic CD4 T helper cells that produce interleukin-17 (Th17 cells). This study investigated the effects of NaCl on inflammatory arthritis in mice and humans.

Proline-rich protein gene PdPRP regulates secondary wall formation in poplar.

Proline-rich protein (PRP) is a plant cell wall associated protein. Its distinct patterns of regulation and localization studied in a number of plants indicate that it may play important roles in growth and development. However, the mechanism of how these genes control secondary cell wall development in tree species is largely unknown. Here, we report that a Populus deltoides (Marsh.) proline-rich protein gene PdPRP was preferentially expressed in immature/mature phloem and immature xylem in P. deltoides. P...

The Phloem as a Mediator of Plant Growth Plasticity.

Developmental plasticity, defined as the capacity to respond to changing environmental conditions, is an inherent feature of plant growth. Recent studies have brought the phloem tissue, the quintessential conduit for energy metabolites and inter-organ communication, into focus as an instructive developmental system. Those studies have clarified long-standing questions about essential aspects of phloem development and function, such as the pressure flow hypothesis, mechanisms of phloem unloading, and source-...

Dietary salt promotes ischemic brain injury and is associated with parenchymal migrasome formation.

Sodium chloride promotes vascular fibrosis, arterial hypertension, pro-inflammatory immune cell polarization and endothelial dysfunction, all of which might influence outcomes following stroke. But despite enormous translational relevance, the functional importance of sodium chloride in the pathophysiology of acute ischemic stroke is still unclear. In the current study, we show that high-salt diet leads to significantly worse functional outcomes, increased infarct volumes, and a loss of astrocytes and corti...

Contribution and consequences of xylem-transported CO assimilation for C plants.

Traditionally, leaves were thought to be supplied with CO for photosynthesis by the atmosphere and respiration. Recent studies, however, have shown that the xylem also transports a significant amount of inorganic carbon into leaves by the bulk flow of water. However, little is known about the dynamics and proportion of xylem-transported CO that is assimilated, versus simply lost to transpiration. Cut leaves of Populus deltoides and Brassica napus were placed in either KCl or one of three [NaH CO ] solutions...

Large leaves in warm, moist environments confer an advantage in seedling light interception efficiency.

Leaf size varies conspicuously along environmental gradients. Small leaves help plants cope with drought and frost, because of the effect of leaf size on boundary layer conductance; it is less clear what advantage large leaves confer in benign environments. We asked if large leaves give species of warm climates an advantage in seedling light interception efficiency over small-leaved species from colder environments. We measured seedling leaf, architectural and biomass distribution traits of 18 New Zealand t...

Does protein oxidation affect proteolysis in low sodium Chinese traditional bacon processing?

This work investigated protein oxidation, proteolysis and their interrelationship during the manufacturing process of low-sodium Chinese traditional bacon. The bacons were prepared by four different salting treatments: substituting sodium chloride (NaCl) using 0, 30, 50, and 70% of potassium chloride (KCl). Protein oxidation was evaluated by total carbonylation, thiol oxidation, and tryptophan fluorescence changes. Proteolysis was detected by non-protein nitrogen, free amino acid, and sodium dodecyl sulfate...

Sodium Chloride Suppresses the Bitterness of Protein Hydrolysates by Decreasing Hydrophobic Interactions.

The formation of bitter off-flavor is a long-existing issue during food protein hydrolysis. The aim of this study is to determine the mechanism of sodium chloride (NaCl) suppressing the bitterness of protein hydrolysates. In this study, the bitterness of egg white hydrolysate (EWH) and hen meat hydrolysate (HPH) was determined using an electronic tongue. The results showed that the bitterness intensity of quinine hydrochloride, EWH, and HPH was suppressed significantly by NaCl in a concentration-dependent m...

Plant-PET to investigate phloem vulnerability to drought in Populus tremula under changing climate regimes.

Phloem transport is of great importance in trees to distribute assimilated carbon across the entire tree. Nevertheless, knowledge of phloem is incomplete, because of the complexity of measuring its transport and characteristics. Only few studies have addressed how phloem transport might alter under climatic changes, with most data originating from theoretical studies. We measured phloem characteristics in leaves of young Populus tremula L. trees grown during 5 months under ambient (TA, 404 ppm ± 5) and ele...

What is the fate of xylem-transported CO In Kranz-type C plants?

High concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon in stems of herbaceous and woody C plants exit leaves in the dark. In the light, C species use a small portion of xylem-transported CO for leaf photosynthesis. However, it is unknown if xylem-transported CO will exit leaves in the dark or be used for photosynthesis in the light in Kranz-type C plants. Cut leaves of Amaranthus hypochondriacus were placed in one of three solutions of [NaH CO ] dissolved in KCl water to measure the efflux of xylem-transported C...

Correction: Liposomes loading sodium chloride as effective thermo-seeds for microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Correction for 'Liposomes loading sodium chloride as effective thermo-seeds for microwave ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma' by Jie Yu, Ping Liang et al., Nanoscale, 2017, 9, 11068-11076.

Failure of bumetanide to improve outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage in rat.

After intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), brain edema commonly occurs and can cause death. Along with edema, there are significant alterations in the concentrations of key ions such as sodium, potassium, and chloride, which are essential to brain function. NKCC1, a cation-chloride cotransporter, is upregulated after brain damage, such as traumatic injury and ischemic stroke. NKCC1 brings sodium and chloride into the cell, possibly worsening ion dyshomeostasis. Bumetanide, a specific NKCC1 antagonist, blocks the...

Strategies of anaerobic sludge granulation in an EGSB reactor.

Anaerobic sludge granulation was evaluated in an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor based on the increases in the specific organic loading rate (SOLR). The effect of precursor substances (calcium chloride, sodium chloride, and tannin) on the development of granular sludge was also investigated in batch reactors. The reactors were fed with synthetic sewage and operated in mesophilic conditions. The EGSB was operated with a variable hydraulic retention time (HRT) and the batch reactors, with cycles o...

Protecting vulnerable individuals in a population: is the avoidance response of juvenile soil invertebrates more sensitive than the adults response?

Juveniles are generally considered more sensitive to contaminants than adults. However, it is unknown if the behavioral responses of juvenile soil invertebrates is different than the adults. The absence of juvenile or adult soil invertebrates in contaminated soils due to avoidance adversely impacts the soil quality. Here, we assessed the avoidance response in two life stages (juvenile and adult) of three standardized soil toxicity test invertebrates (Folsomia candida, Enchytraeus crypticus and Eisenia fetid...

Effect of sodium chloride concentration on off-flavor removal correlated to glucosinolate degradation and red radish anthocyanin stability.

Anthocyanin-rich concentrates from different red radish can be used as natural food colorants. However, the development of off-flavor during extraction has been major challenge in processing industries. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration in phosphoric acidified medium pH 2.5 on removal of off-flavor from red radish anthocyanin. The effect of NaCl concentration on anthocyanin properties was also evaluated. Results showed that the total glucosinolate was highly degr...

Evidence of a seasonal trade-off between growth and starch storage in declining beeches: assessment through stem radial increment, non-structural carbohydrates and intra-ring δ13C.

Forest decline is reported in recent decades all over the world. However, developing a clear vision of the associated tree dysfunctioning is still a challenge for plant physiologists. In this study, our aim was to examine the seasonal carbon adjustments of beech trees in the case of a long-term drought-induced decline. We compared healthy and declining trees in terms of stem radial growth, phloem sugar content and δ13C, together with xylem carbohydrates and intra-ring δ13C patterns. The radial growth of d...

Wood structure and function change with maturity: Age of the vascular cambium is associated with xylem changes in current year growth.

Xylem vessel structure changes as trees grow and mature. Age and development related changes in xylem structure are likely related to changes in hydraulic function. We examined whether hydraulic function, including hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to water-stress induced xylem embolism, changed over the course of cambial development in the stems of 17 tree species. We compared current year growth of young (1-4 yr), intermediate (2-7 yr), and older (3-10 yr) stems occurring in series along branches. ...

Drought impacts on tree phloem: from cell-level responses to ecological significance.

On-going climate change is increasing the risk of drought stress across large areas worldwide. Such drought events decrease ecosystem productivity and have been increasingly linked to tree mortality. Understanding how trees respond to water shortage is key to predicting the future of ecosystem functions. Phloem is at the core of the tree functions, moving resources such as non-structural carbohydrates, nutrients, and defence and information molecules across the whole plant. Phloem function and ability to tr...


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