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PubMed Journals Articles About "Spatiotemporal Epidemic Models Rabies Among Animals" RSS

12:48 EDT 19th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

Spatiotemporal Epidemic Models Rabies Among Animals PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Spatiotemporal Epidemic Models Rabies Among Animals articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Spatiotemporal epidemic models rabies among animals" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 13,000+

Spatiotemporal analysis of canine rabies in El Salvador: Violence and poverty as social factors of canine rabies.

The incidence of canine rabies cases in El Salvador has decreased in the last decade since the establishment of intense control programs, such as massive vaccination campaigns implemented by the Ministry of Health. Socioeconomic crises in recent years have limited the access to certain areas across the country and have impacted surveillance and prevention campaigns, which places the country at risk for a resurgence of canine rabies.We aimedto describe the spatiotemporal patterns of canine rabies and its ass...


Transmission dynamics of re-emerging rabies in domestic dogs of rural China.

Despite ongoing efforts to control transmission, rabies prevention remains a challenge in many developing countries, especially in rural areas of China where re-emerging rabies is under-reported due to a lack of sustained animal surveillance. By taking advantage of detailed genomic and epidemiological data for the re-emerging rabies outbreak in Yunnan Province, China, collected between 1999 and 2015, we reconstruct the demographic and dispersal history of domestic dog rabies virus (RABV) as well as the dyna...

Rabies surveillance in the United States during 2017.

OBJECTIVE To describe rabies and rabies-related events occurring during 2017 in the United States. DESIGN Cross-sectional analysis of passive surveillance data. ANIMALS All animals submitted for laboratory diagnosis of rabies in the United States during 2017. PROCEDURES State and territorial public health departments provided data on animals submitted for rabies testing in 2017. Data were analyzed temporally and geographically to assess trends in domestic and sylvatic animal rabies cases. RESULTS During 201...


Pyrimethamine inhibits rabies virus replication in vitro.

Rabies virus transmits from animals to humans and causes encephalitis. Every year more than 15 million people receive a post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) treatment that is highly effective in the prevention of rabies disease. However, when clinical symptoms appear, for example in people who did not receive PEP, rabies is almost invariably fatal. Due to the limited access to PEP in some target populations, mostly in Asia and in Africa, rabies causes at least 59,000 deaths a year. PEP is not effective after the...

A comparative review of prevention of rabies incursion between Japan and other rabies-free countries or regions.

Although rabies still kills many people, global eradication of human rabies is considered to be feasible. Because the progress toward eradication may be different among regions with different socio-economic status, states that successfully eradicate this disease must be vigilant for re-emergence of rabies. In this article, we describe arguments over current rabies prevention measures and risk assessment results for rabies introduction and spread in rabies-free Japan. We also summarize the measures taken by ...

Of bats and livestock: The epidemiology of rabies in Trinidad, West Indies.

Vampire bat-transmitted human rabies was first recognized in Trinidad during a major outbreak during the first half of the 20th century. To date, Trinidad is the only Caribbean island with vampire bat-transmitted rabies. Herein, we summarized the epidemiological situation of rabies in Trinidad during the period 1971-2015 through the analysis of field and laboratory records. During the study period, 259 domestic and wild animal rabies cases were laboratory confirmed with an annual median of 2 animal rabies c...

Human Rabies - Virginia, 2017.

On May 9, 2017, the Virginia Department of Health was notified regarding a patient with suspected rabies. The patient had sustained a dog bite 6 weeks before symptom onset while traveling in India. On May 11, CDC confirmed that the patient was infected with a rabies virus that circulates in dogs in India. Despite aggressive treatment, the patient died, becoming the ninth person exposed to rabies abroad who has died from rabies in the United States since 2008. A total of 250 health care workers were assessed...

Experimental screening studies on rabies virus transmission and oral rabies vaccination of the Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros).

Rabies in the Greater Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) in Namibia is unique and found in such magnitude as has not been reported elsewhere in southern Africa. Reasons as to why Kudus appear to be exceptionally susceptible to rabies still remain speculative at best. Because the current severe rabies endemic in Kudus continues to have an enormous negative impact on the Namibian agricultural sector, we set out to question existing dogmas regarding the epidemiology of the disease in a unique experimental settin...

Perceptions of rabies risk: a survey of travellers and travel clinics from Canada, Germany, Sweden and the UK.

Extensive global experience shows that rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) through vaccination is effective and well tolerated, yet many travellers opt not to be vaccinated when travelling to rabies-endemic countries. Previous research has identified several factors influencing the choices travellers make to reduce the risk of rabies, including cost, time constraint and perspective on the importance of vaccination. The objectives of this study were to assess travellers' awareness of rabies and advice-see...

Translocation of a Stray Cat Infected with Rabies from North Carolina to a Terrestrial Rabies-Free County in Ohio, 2017.

On July 24, 2017, the Ohio Department of Health (ODH) was notified of a positive rabies test result from a domestic cat in Summit County, a county considered free from terrestrial rabies. Oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of raccoons, in the form of consumable bait, is conducted each year along the Ohio-Pennsylvania border to prevent the westward expansion of the raccoon rabies virus variant (RVV). In the United States, several distinct rabies virus variants exist; raccoon RVV is enzootic along the eastern part...

Isolation of Rabies Virus from the Salivary Glands of Wild and Domestic Carnivores during a Skunk Rabies Epizootic.

Rabies is a fatal zoonotic disease of global importance. Rabies virus is shed in the saliva of infected hosts and is primarily transmitted through bite contact. Canine rabies has been eliminated from the US, but wildlife constitutes more than 90% of the reported cases of animal rabies in the US each year. In the US, several wild carnivore species are reservoirs of distinct variants of rabies virus (RV). After decades of apparent absence, the south-central skunk (SCSK) RV variant was detected in Colorado in ...

Improving systematic rabies surveillance in Cameroon: A pilot initiative and results for 2014-2016.

Canine rabies is endemic in Cameroon, but human rabies exposures and cases are likely underreported because of inadequate surveillance. In 2014, the surveillance network in the West region of Cameroon was reinforced by introducing a new anti-rabies center, a framework for data collection and evaluation, provisions for sample collecting and laboratory confirmation, and training for health professionals. The objective of this observational cohort study was to describe the incidence and characteristics of repo...

Bat rabies in Washington State: Temporal-spatial trends and risk factors for zoonotic transmission (2000-2017).

Rabies is a zoonotic viral disease that can affect all mammals. In the United States, the majority of human rabies cases are caused by bats, which are the only known reservoirs for rabies virus (RABV) in Washington State. We sought to characterize bat RABV epidemiology in Washington among bats submitted by the public for RABV testing.

Epidemics in Competition: Partial Cross-Immunity.

The competition between two pathogen strains during the course of an epidemic represents a fundamental step in the early evolution of emerging diseases as well as in the antigenic drift process of influenza. The outcome of the competition, however, depends not only on the epidemic properties of the two strains but also on the timing and size of the introduction, characteristics that are poorly captured by deterministic mean-field epidemic models. We describe those aspects of the competition that can be dete...

Long term trends and spatial distribution of animal bite injuries and deaths due to human rabies infection in Uganda, 2001-2015.

In the absence of accurate data on trends and the burden of human rabies infection in developing countries, animal bite injuries provide useful information to bridge that gap. Rabies is one of the most deadly infectious diseases, with a case fatality rate approaching 100%. Despite availability of effective prevention and control strategies, rabies still kills 50,000 to 60,000 people worldwide annually, the majority of whom are in the developing world. We describe trends and geographical distribution of anim...

Novel mass spectrometry based detection and identification of variants of rabies virus nucleoprotein in infected brain tissues.

Human rabies is an encephalitic disease transmitted by animals infected with lyssaviruses. The most common lyssavirus that causes human infection is rabies virus (RABV), the prototypic member of the genus. The incubation period of RABV in humans varies from few weeks to several months in some instances. During this prodromal period, neither antibodies nor virus is detected. Antibodies, antigen and nucleic acids are detectable only after the onset of encephalitic symptoms, at which point the outcome of the d...

Rabies vaccine initiation and adherence among animal-bite patients in Haiti, 2015.

Approximately 59,000 people die from rabies worldwide annually. Haiti is one of the last remaining countries in the Western Hemisphere with endemic canine rabies. Canine-mediated rabies deaths are preventable with post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP): wound treatment, immunoglobulin, and vaccination. In countries where PEP is available, variability in healthcare seeking behaviors and lack of adherence to recommended treatment guidelines could also contribute to these deaths. Yet, few studies have addressed these...

Bolstering human rabies surveillance in Africa is crucial to eliminating canine-mediated rabies.

Epidemiological aspects of the persistent transmission of rabies during an outbreak (2010 - 2017) in Harare, Zimbabwe.

Canine-mediated human rabies is endemic to the entire African continent, where the disease burden is often highest in rural communities of resource-limited countries. In this study, we analysed an animal rabies outbreak, which had persisted since 2010 in the predominantly metropolitan capital city of Zimbabwe, Harare. As rabies is considered to disproportionally affect rural communities, the persistence of urban rabies in this metropolitan setting is of interest. In order to gain an improved understanding o...

Reconstructing the transmission dynamics of rubella in Japan, 2012-2013.

Japan experienced a nationwide rubella epidemic from 2012 to 2013, mostly in urban prefectures with large population sizes. The present study aimed to capture the spatiotemporal patterns of rubella using a parsimonious metapopulation epidemic model and examine the potential usefulness of spatial vaccination.

The Effect of Concurrent Tetanus-diphtheria Vaccination on the Antibody Response to Rabies Vaccine: A Preliminary Study.

The number of studies in the literature investigating the effect of tetanus vaccination on rabies prophylaxis is rather limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of concurrent tetanus-diphtheria (Td) vaccination on the antibody response to rabies vaccine. The data of consecutive 80 patients who presented to Sakarya University Training and Research Hospital, Department of Emergency due to rabies suspected exposure between 15 October 2012 and 12 June 2013 were enrolled to this study. Postexpo...

Control and elimination of rabies in Croatia.

Despite the implementation of control measures (preventive dog vaccination), rabies has become endemic in Croatia, with red foxes being the main reservoir species. Oral rabies vaccination (ORV) campaigns supported by the European Commission have been conducted twice a year since the spring of 2011. The first campaigns were limited to the northern and eastern parts of the country, and from the autumn of 2012, the program was extended to the entire country. The Lysvulpen vaccine containing the SAD Bern strain...

Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding rabies in Grenada.

While Grenada attained a zero-human-rabies case status since 1970, the authors conducted the first study to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practices that may contribute to this status as well as to receive feedback about the rabies control program in Grenada.

Human rabies: evaluation of post-exposure prophylaxis prevalence in Ceará, Brazil, 2007-2015.

to analyze the prevalence of inadequate human anti-rabies post-exposure prophylaxis in patients attacked by animals in the state of Ceará, Brazil, 2007-2015.

An ELISA-based method for detection of rabies virus nucleoprotein-specific antibodies in human antemortem samples.

Rabies is a fatal encephalitic disease in humans and animals caused by lyssaviruses, most commonly rabies virus (RABV). Human antemortem diagnosis of rabies is a complex process involving multiple sample types and tests for the detection of antibodies, antigen (protein), and nucleic acids (genomic RNA). Serological diagnosis of human rabies includes the detection of either neutralizing or binding antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or serum samples from unimmunized individuals without prior rabies v...


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