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PubMed Journals Articles About "Targeting Asexual Sexual Blood Stages Human Malaria Parasite" RSS

12:51 EDT 18th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

Targeting Asexual Sexual Blood Stages Human Malaria Parasite PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Targeting Asexual Sexual Blood Stages Human Malaria Parasite articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "Targeting Asexual Sexual Blood Stages Human Malaria Parasite" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 32,000+

Targeting Asexual and Sexual Blood Stages of Human Malaria Parasite P. falciparum with 7-Chloroquinoline based 1,2,3-Triazoles.

Novel 4-amino-7-chloroquinoline and [1,2,3]-triazole based hybrids were synthesized in good to excellent yields via Cu[I] catalysed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of 2-azido-N-(7-chloroquinolin-4-ylaminoalkyl)acetamides with various terminal alkynes in 50% t-butanol in water containing a catalytic amount of CuSO4 and sodium ascorbate at ambient temperature. After spectroscopic characterization, the newly synthesized hybrids were screened for their in vitro antimalarial activity against asexual stages of ...


Adaptive plasticity in the gametocyte conversion rate of malaria parasites.

Sexually reproducing parasites, such as malaria parasites, experience a trade-off between the allocation of resources to asexual replication and the production of sexual forms. Allocation by malaria parasites to sexual forms (the conversion rate) is variable but the evolutionary drivers of this plasticity are poorly understood. We use evolutionary theory for life histories to combine a mathematical model and experiments to reveal that parasites adjust conversion rate according to the dynamics of asexual den...

The antimalarial screening landscape-looking beyond the asexual blood stage.

In recent years, the research agenda to tackle global morbidity and mortality from malaria disease has shifted towards innovation, in the hope that efforts at the frontiers of scientific research may re-invigorate gains made towards eradication. Discovery of new antimalarial drugs with novel chemotypes or modes of action lie at the heart of these efforts. There is a particular interest in drug candidates that target stages of the malaria parasite lifecycle beyond the symptomatic asexual blood stages. This i...


Exploring parasite heterogeneity using single-cell RNA-seq reveals a gene signature among sexual stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites.

The malaria parasite has a complex lifecycle, including several events of differentiation and stage progression, while actively evading immunity in both its mosquito and human hosts. Important parasite gene expression and regulation during these events remain hidden in rare populations of cells. Here, we combine a capillary-based platform for cell isolation with single-cell RNA-sequencing to transcriptionally profile 165 single infected red blood cells (iRBCs) during the intra-erythrocyte developmental cycl...

Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte-infected erythrocytes do not adhere to human primary erythroblasts.

Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes, the sexual stages responsible for malaria parasite transmission, develop in the human bone marrow parenchyma in proximity to the erythroblastic islands. Yet, mechanisms underlying gametocytes interactions with these islands are unknown. Here, we have investigated whether gametocyte-infected erythrocytes (GIE) adhere to erythroid precursors, and whether a putative adhesion may be mediated by a mechanism similar to the adhesion of erythrocytes infected with P. falciparum ase...

Rodent malaria models: insights into human disease and parasite biology.

The use of rodents as model organisms to study human disease is based on the genetic and physiological similarities between the species. Successful molecular methods to generate transgenic reporter or humanized rodents has rendered rodents as powerful tools for understanding biological processes and host-pathogen interactions relevant to humans. In malaria research, rodent models have been pivotal for the study of liver stages, syndromes arising from blood stages of infection, and malaria transmission to an...

An experimental human blood stage model for studying Plasmodium malariae infection.

Plasmodium malariae is considered a 'minor' malaria parasite, although its global disease burden is underappreciated. The aim of this study was to develop an induced blood stage malaria (IBSM) model of P. malariae to study parasite biology, diagnostics, and treatment.

Periodic, Parasite-Mediated Selection For and Against Sex.

Asexual lineages should rapidly replace sexual populations. Why sex then? The Red Queen hypothesis proposes that parasite-mediated selection against common host genotypes could counteract the per capita birth rate advantage of asexuals. Under the Red Queen hypothesis, fluctuations in parasite-mediated selection can drive fluctuations in the asexual population, leading to the coexistence of sexual and asexual reproduction. Does shifting selection by parasites drive fluctuations in the fitness and frequency o...

CEREBRAL MALARIA.

Malaria remains of significant public health concern under the tropics, causing millions of deaths annually. The disease is caused by protozoans of the Plasmodium genus, of which harbors several distinct species. Human infection occurs during the blood meal of an infected female mosquito belonging to the Anopheles genus. It is estimated that around 1 % of children infected with Plasmodium falciparum develops a more severe form of malaria, which may eventually lead to cerebral complications including cerebra...

Malaria parasite detection and cell counting for human and mouse using thin blood smear microscopy.

Despite the remarkable progress that has been made to reduce global malaria mortality by 29% in the past 5 years, malaria is still a serious global health problem. Inadequate diagnostics is one of the major obstacles in fighting the disease. An automated system for malaria diagnosis can help to make malaria screening faster and more reliable. We present an automated system to detect and segment red blood cells (RBCs) and identify infected cells in Wright-Giemsa stained thin blood smears. Specifically, using...

Intra-host dynamics of co-infecting parasite genotypes in asymptomatic malaria patients.

Malaria-infected individuals often harbor mixtures of genetically distinct parasite genotypes. We studied intra-host dynamics of parasite genotypes co-infecting asymptomatic adults in an area of intense malaria transmission in Chikhwawa, Malawi. Serial blood samples (5 ml) were collected over seven consecutive days from 25 adults with asymptomatic Plasmodium falciparum malaria and analyzed to determine whether a single peripheral blood sample accurately captures within-host parasite diversity. Blood sampl...

Essentiality of Plasmodium falciparum plasmepsin V.

The malaria parasite replicates within erythrocytes. The pathogenesis of clinical malaria is in large part due to the capacity of the parasite to remodel its host cell. To do this, intraerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum export more than 300 proteins that dramatically alter the morphology of the infected erythrocyte as well as its mechanical and adhesive properties. P. falciparum plasmepsin V (PfPMV) is an aspartic protease that processes proteins for export into the host erythrocyte and is though...

Reinvestigating the status of malaria parasite (Plasmodium sp.) in Indian non-human primates.

Many human parasites and pathogens have closely related counterparts among non-human primates. For example, non-human primates harbour several species of malaria causing parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Studies suggest that for a better understanding of the origin and evolution of human malaria parasites it is important to know the diversity and evolutionary relationships of these parasites in non-human primates. Much work has been undertaken on malaria parasites in wild great Apes of Africa as well as wi...

Novel 8-aminoquinolines containing an aminoxyalkyl side chain exert in vitro dual-stage antiplasmodial activity.

A series of novel 8-aminoquinolines (8-AQs) with an aminoxyalkyl side chain was synthesized and evaluated for its in vitro antiplasmodial properties against asexual blood stages, liver stages, and sexual stages. 8-AQs bearing a 2-alkoxy- and a 5-phenoxy-substituent at the quinoline ring system were the most promising compounds under study, exhibiting potent blood schizontocidal and moderate tissue schizontocidal in vitro activity.

The Toll-Like Receptor 2 agonist PEG-PamCys as an immunochemoprophylactic and immunochemotherapeutic against the liver and transmission stages of malaria parasites.

Both vaccine and therapeutic approaches to malaria are based on conventional paradigms; whole organism or single antigen epitope-based vaccines administered with or without an adjuvant, and chemotherapeutics (anti-malaria drugs) that are toxic to the parasite. Two major problems that limit the effectiveness of these approaches are i) high levels of antigenic variation within parasite populations rendering vaccination efficacy against all variants difficult, and ii) the capacity of the parasite to quickly ev...

Microvesicles from malaria-infected red blood cells activate natural killer cells via MDA5 pathway.

Natural killer (NK) cells provide the first line of defense against malaria parasite infection. However, the molecular mechanisms through which NK cells are activated by parasites are largely unknown, so is the molecular basis underlying the variation in NK cell responses to malaria infection in the human population. Here, we compared transcriptional profiles of responding and non-responding NK cells following exposure to Plasmodium-infected red blood cells (iRBCs) and identified MDA5, a RIG-I-like receptor...

Transmission of the malaria parasite requires ferlin for gamete egress from the red blood cell.

Ferlins mediate calcium-dependent vesicular fusion. Although conserved throughout eukaryotic evolution, their function in unicellular organisms including apicomplexan parasites is largely unknown. Here, we define a crucial role for a ferlin-like protein (FLP) in host-to-vector transmission of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. Infection of the mosquito vectors requires the formation of free gametes and their fertilization in the mosquito midgut. Mature gametes will only emerge upon secretion of...

Knockdown of the translocon protein EXP2 in Plasmodium falciparum reduces growth and protein export.

Malaria parasites remodel their host erythrocytes to gain nutrients and avoid the immune system. Host erythrocytes are modified by hundreds of effector proteins exported from the parasite into the host cell. Protein export is mediated by the PTEX translocon comprising five core components of which EXP2 is considered to form the putative pore that spans the vacuole membrane enveloping the parasite within its erythrocyte. To explore the function and importance of EXP2 for parasite survival in the asexual bloo...

Growing evidence of Plasmodium vivax across malaria-endemic Africa.

Effective malaria control strategies require an accurate understanding of the epidemiology of locally transmitted Plasmodium species. Compared to Plasmodium falciparum infection, Plasmodium vivax has a lower asexual parasitaemia, forms dormant liver-stages (hypnozoites), and is more transmissible. Hence, treatment and diagnostic policies aimed exclusively at P. falciparum are far less efficient against endemic P. vivax. Within sub-Saharan Africa, malaria control programmes justly focus on reducing the morbi...

Targeting malaria parasite invasion of red blood cells as an antimalarial strategy.

Plasmodium spp. parasites that cause malaria disease remain a significant global-health burden. With the spread of parasites resistant to artemisinin combination therapies in Southeast Asia, there is a growing need to develop new antimalarials with novel targets. Invasion of the red blood cell by Plasmodium merozoites is essential for parasite survival and proliferation, thus representing an attractive target for therapeutic development. Red blood cell invasion requires a co-ordinated series of protein/prot...

Artemisinin Resistance and Stage Dependency of Parasite Clearance in Falciparum Malaria.

Artemisinin resistance in falciparum malaria is associated with kelch13 propeller mutations, reduced ring stage parasite killing, and, consequently, slow parasite clearance. We assessed how parasite age affects parasite clearance in artemisinin resistance.

Re-Evaluation of Asynchronous Asexual Development of Cystoisospora canis in Intestines of Dogs.

The coccidian parasite Cystoisospora canis (syn. Isospora canis) can cause clinical disease in dogs. Three generation of schizonts have been reported in the small intestine of dogs before oocysts are excreted 9-11 days post inoculation (PI). Here, we re-evaluated asexual development of C. canis in 2 dogs necropsied 10 days after oral inoculation with 100,000 C. canis oocysts; both dogs had excreted oocysts 9 days PI. Asexual and sexual stages were seen in the lamina propria throughout the small intestine. M...

Cytomegalovirus vectors expressing Plasmodium knowlesi antigens induce immune responses that delay parasitemia upon sporozoite challenge.

The development of a sterilizing vaccine against malaria remains one of the highest priorities for global health research. While sporozoite vaccines targeting the pre-erythrocytic stage show great promise, it has not been possible to maintain efficacy long-term, likely due to an inability of these vaccines to maintain effector memory T cell responses in the liver. Vaccines based on human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) might overcome this limitation since vectors based on rhesus CMV (RhCMV), the homologous virus in ...

Imaging & identification of malaria parasites using cellphone microscope with a ball lens.

We have optimized the design and imaging procedures, to clearly resolve the malaria parasite in Giemsa-stained thin blood smears, using simple low-cost cellphone-based microscopy with oil immersion. The microscope uses a glass ball as the objective and the phone camera as the tube lens. Our optimization includes the optimal choice of the ball lens diameter, the size and the position of the aperture diaphragm, and proper application of immersion, to achieve diagnostic capacity in a wide field of view. The re...

Plasmodium-specific antibodies block in vivo parasite growth without clearing infected red blood cells.

Plasmodium parasites invade and multiply inside red blood cells (RBC). Through a cycle of maturation, asexual replication, rupture and release of multiple infective merozoites, parasitised RBC (pRBC) can reach very high numbers in vivo, a process that correlates with disease severity in humans and experimental animals. Thus, controlling pRBC numbers can prevent or ameliorate malaria. In endemic regions, circulating parasite-specific antibodies associate with immunity to high parasitemia. Although in vitro a...


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