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20:05 EST 28th February 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Tetraphase Pharmaceuticals" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 306

Mytilidae as model organisms in the marine ecotoxicology of pharmaceuticals - A review.

Growing production and consumption of pharmaceuticals is a global problem. Due to insufficient data on the concentration and distribution of pharmaceuticals in the marine environment, there are no appropriate legal regulations concerning their emission. In order to understand all aspects of the fate of pharmaceuticals in the marine environment and their effect on marine biota, it is necessary to find the most appropriate model organism for this purpose. This paper presents an overview of the ecotoxicologica...


Occurrence and ranking of pharmaceuticals in the major rivers of China.

Residual pharmaceuticals have received widespread attention worldwide due to their continuous release and potential hazard to the environment. As a result of rapid development and a large population, China has become a country with high production and consumption of pharmaceuticals. This may be the main reason for the high detection frequencies and concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment in China. Rivers represent an important water resource and play an important role in the sustainable...

Analysis, occurrence and removal of pharmaceuticals in African water resources: A current status.

Pharmaceuticals are organic compounds used in medicines for alleviation of pain. Since 2017, there has been a steady increase on the availability of information on contamination of water resources caused by pharmaceuticals in some African countries. Thus far, most environmental monitoring studies of pharmaceuticals are conducted in South Africa while there is still no available data in majority of the African countries. Therefore, the knowledge on the presence of pharmaceuticals in African water resources i...


Prioritization of pharmaceuticals in water environment in China based on environmental criteria and risk analysis of top-priority pharmaceuticals.

Numerous studies have shown that a wide range of pharmaceuticals are present in the environment and many of their adverse biological effects on the aquatic ecosystem and human health are unknown. Due to the high population density and large number of pharmaceuticals produced and consumed in China, a systematic approach is needed to identify pharmaceuticals that require greater attention. The present study provides a ranking of pharmaceuticals in China in terms of their occurrence (O), persistence, bioaccumu...

Biological-activity-based prioritization of pharmaceuticals in wastewater for environmental monitoring: G protein-coupled receptor inhibitors.

Pharmaceuticals raise concerns for aquatic species owing to their biological activities. It is estimated that nearly 40% of marketed pharmaceuticals target G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Using an in vitro transforming growth factor-α (TGFα) shedding assay, we previously detected antagonistic activities of GPCR-acting pharmaceuticals against angiotensin (AT1), dopamine (D2), acetylcholine (M1), adrenergic family members (β1), and histamine (H1) receptors at up to μg-antagonist-equivalent quantities...

Occurrence, distribution, and ecological risk of pharmaceuticals in a seasonally ice-sealed river: From ice formation to melting.

Occurrence, distribution, and ecological risk of 21 pharmaceuticals in the Jilin Songhua River were investigated during its freeze-thaw periods, including ice formation, sealed, and breakup. Florfenicol was the most abundant pharmaceutical, with mean concentrations of 123.4 ± 61.1 ng L in water and 73.8 ± 66.3 ng kg in ice. Sulfadiazine occurred at a higher mean concentration in downstream areas (45.6 ± 7.4 ng L) than in upstream areas (0.7 ± 0.7 ng L). Most pharmaceuticals appea...

Separation of trace pharmaceuticals individually and in combination via forward osmosis.

With a high rejection coefficient for trace pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), forward osmosis (FO) membrane separation has become a cutting-edge technology in water treatment owing to its low energy consumption and low membrane fouling. Wastewater contains many types of PPCPs, and one pharmaceutical molecule affects the separation behaviors of other pharmaceuticals in FO. Therefore, simultaneous FO of multiple PPCPs needs to be investigated. In this study, the separation behaviors of four ...

Comparison of the regulatory outline of ecopharmacovigilance of pharmaceuticals in Europe, USA, Japan and Australia.

Pharmaceuticals are known to improve the quality of life by curing and preventing diseases. However, these pharmaceutical products, when it diffuses through the environment by various routes, can cause severe harmful effects to the living organisms. During the last several years, the coping with the impact of pharmaceuticals on the environment was one of the challenging tasks for the pharmaceutical industries. These concerns about the environmental health and safety risks paved the way in developing a prope...

Biological removal of pharmaceuticals by Navicula sp. and biotransformation of bezafibrate.

Pharmaceutically active compounds are of great concern due to their detection frequency in the environment and the unexpected risks. In this study, the simultaneous removal of mixed pharmaceuticals by microalgae was explored using a typical freshwater diatom Navicula sp. Results showed that Navicula sp. could efficiently remove atenolol, carbamazepine, ibuprofen and naproxen with the efficiencies of >90% after 21 d of exposure. As compared to the removal efficiencies of each pharmaceutical in the individu...

Sorption of ionic and neutral species of pharmaceuticals to loessial soil amended with biochars.

To clarify the impact of biochar amendment on soil sorption for coexisting pharmaceuticals, wheat straw-derived biochars pyrolyzed at 300 and 700 °C (labeled as WS300 and WS700, respectively) were prepared. Batch experiments on ketoprofen (KTP), atenolol (ATL) and carbamazepine (CBZ) sorption to biochars, loessial soil and biochar-amended soils were conducted. The results indicated that sorption affinity of different species of pharmaceuticals to WS300 and WS700 was in the order of cationic ATL > neutral C...

Desorption of pharmaceuticals from pristine and aged polystyrene microplastics under simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

Microplastics (MPs) in the environment usually undergo extensive weathering and can transport pollutants to organisms once being ingested. However, the transportation mechanism and effect of aging process are poorly understood. This study systematically investigated the desorption mechanisms of pharmaceuticals from pristine and aged polystyrene (PS) MPs under simulated gastric and intestinal conditions of marine organisms. Results showed that the increased desorption in stomach mainly depended on the solubi...

Insights into the isotherm and kinetic models for the coadsorption of pharmaceuticals in the absence and presence of metal ions: A review.

Pharmaceuticals are a wide class of emerging pollutants due to their continuous and the increasing consumption of users. These pollutants are usually found in the real environment as mixtures alone or with metal ions. Thus, the migration risk increases, which complicates the removal of pharmaceuticals because of the combined and synergistic effects. The focus of treatment of pharmaceutical mixtures and their coexistence with metals is of considerable importance. For this purpose, adsorption has been efficie...

Pharmaceuticals removal in an on-farm pig slurry treatment plant based on solid-liquid separation and nitrification-denitrification systems.

The fate and degradation of 28 multiple-class veterinary pharmaceuticals in an on-farm pig slurry treatment plant based on solid-liquid separation and a nitrification-denitrification (NDN) sequence batch reactor (SBR) were evaluated for the first time. The pharmaceuticals detected at the highest concentrations in raw pig slurries belonged to the group of tetracycline antibiotics. Fluoroquinolone, lincosamide and pleuromutilin antibiotics and other drugs such as flubendazole and flunixin were also frequently...

Cobalt-Catalyzed Alkylation of Drug-Like Molecules and Pharmaceuticals Using Heterocyclic Phosphonium Salts.

Alkylated pyridines are common in pharmaceuticals, and metal catalysis is frequently used to prepare this motif via Csp-Csp coupling processes. We present a cobalt-catalyzed coupling reaction between pyridine phosphonium salts and alkylzinc reagents that can be applied to complex drug-like fragments and for late-stage functionalization of pharmaceuticals. The reaction generally proceeds at room temperature, and 4-position pyridine C-H bonds are the precursors in this strategy. Given the challenges in select...

Investigation of pharmaceutical and personal care product interactions of soil and beets (Beta vulgaris L.) under the effect of wastewater reuse.

Although, several recent greenhouse studies are beginning to address the uptake of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) by a variety of crops, few studies have assessed the effects of exposure to complex, realistic wastewater effluents on uptake. Hence, in this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in order to study the interactions occurring exclusively between PPCPs in soil, and in the edible plant part of beets (Beta vulgaris) after exposure to treated wastewater effluent. According ...

Simultaneous scavenging of persistent pharmaceuticals with different charges by activated carbon fiber from aqueous environments.

The adsorptive removal possibility of persistent pharmaceuticals with different charges by activated carbon fiber (ACF) was examined. The pharmaceuticals tested included carbamazepine (CBZ), propranolol (PRO), and diclofenac (DCF), in neutral, cationic, and anionic forms, respectively, which were frequently detected in sewage. The adsorption characteristics of ACF were identified according to the kinetics, isotherm, pH, and ionic strength experiments. The results revealed that ACF can effectively remove the...

External Reference Pricing for Pharmaceuticals-A Survey and Literature Review to Describe Best Practices for Countries With Expanding Healthcare Coverage.

Countries with expanding healthcare coverage (CEHCs) increasingly use external reference pricing (ERP) for pharmaceuticals. The ERP policies must aim to optimize efficiency, minimize disturbances, and maximize access to effective therapies for all patients.

The importance of household pharmaceutical products disposal and its risk management: Example from Southwestern Europe.

The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment is an emergent unknown environmental problem, linked to increased production and consumption of pharmaceuticals and, as such, understanding risk perception is fundamental. This study focuses on exploring causes (trust and knowledge) and effects (intention and proper individual disposal of pharmaceutical leftovers) of environmental and health risk perception. Survey data was collected in Portugal, Spain, and France (sample of 509 individuals). Data illustrat...

Spatial distribution and temporal trends of pharmaceuticals sorbed to suspended particulate matter of German rivers.

Although several studies confirmed a wide distribution of pharmaceuticals in rivers and streams, a limited knowledge is available about the partitioning of pharmaceuticals between the water phase and suspended particulate matter (SPM). To close this gap of knowledge, we developed and validated a sensitive and high throughput analytical method for the analysis of 57 pharmaceuticals, 42 metabolites and transformation products (TP) as well as the artificial sweetener acesulfame sorbed to SPM. The method was ba...

Mechanistic study on uptake and transport of pharmaceuticals in lettuce from water.

The dissemination of pharmaceuticals in agroecosystems originating from land application of animal manure/sewage sludge and irrigation with treated wastewater in agricultural production has raised concern about the accumulation of pharmaceuticals in food products. The pathways of pharmaceutical entries via plant roots, transport to upper fractions, and the factors influencing these processes have yet been systematically elucidated, thus impeding the development of effective measures to mitigate pharmaceutic...

Analysis of neurotransmitters in Daphnia magna affected by neuroactive pharmaceuticals using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

Neurotransmission plays an essential role during the central nervous system (CNS) development. During the last years, several studies based on the changes produced in neurotransmitters of aquatic organisms caused by pharmaceuticals have been reported. Daphnia magna, the aquatic ecotoxicological model organism, shares several of the neurotransmitters targeted by antidepressant and other neuro-active drugs with vertebrates. Therefore, a method based on liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spe...

The accessibility of data on environmental risk assessment of pharmaceuticals - are environmental risk assessments information on emissions with respect to international and European environmental information law?

In the pharmaceutical sector, the right of access to environmental information is in most cases not feasible as the authorisation holders refer to commercially/industrial confidential information (CCI). However, CCI can not refuse access to environmental risk assessments (ERAs) if ERAs are to be classified as information on emissions. Pharmaceuticals inevitably enter the environment as a consequence of their intended use. This release is calculated in the ERA as predicted environmental concentration when a ...

Cell-based assays as an alternative for the study of aquatic toxicity of pharmaceuticals.

An increasing number and amount of pharmaceuticals for human and veterinary use currently reach the aquatic environment, and the determination of their effects on aquatic organisms becomes of major importance. The 96-h fish lethal test is one of the conventional assays required for environmental hazardous assessment, but it is extremely time-consuming and costly, and it raises ethical concerns. In a broad study, we compared the ability of cell-based assays to detect, in absolute terms, lethal toxicity in fi...

Reductive sp-sp Coupling Reactions Enable Late-Stage Modification of Pharmaceuticals.

Late-stage derivatization of pharmaceutically relevant scaffolds relies on the availability of highly functional-group tolerant reactions. Reactions that increase the sp character of molecules enable the pursuit of more selective and well-tolerated pharmaceuticals. Herein, we report the use of sp-sp cross-electrophile reductive couplings to modify a generic ATP-competitive kinase inhibitor with a broad range of primary and secondary alkyl halide coupling partners.

Identifying targets of potential concern by a screening level ecological risk assessment of human use pharmaceuticals in China.

The pollution of pharmaceuticals has attracted a lot of concerns during recent years. The goal of this study was to identify targets of ecological concern considering human use pharmaceuticals marketed in China. We constructed a database for 593 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) by collecting their information on use and emission (e.g. production, human excretion, and removal by wastewater treatment) to calculated predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) by using an adapted European Medicines Ag...


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