PubMed Journals Articles About "Toward Comprehensive Explanatory Model Reliance Alternatives Evidence From" RSS

01:03 EDT 20th June 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Toward comprehensive explanatory model reliance alternatives evidence from" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 30,000+

Toward a comprehensive explanatory model of reliance on alternatives to the tap: evidence from California's retail water stores.

Building on a recent increase in scholarly attention to the problem of tap water mistrust and resulting negative health impacts, we examine the relationship between neighborhood reliance on tap water alternatives and a range of explanatory factors. We model retail water store locations as a proxy for reliance on tap water alternatives in urbanized neighborhoods across California. Our study is unique in its inclusion of variables representing both compliance with primary and secondary water quality standards...

The role of the striatum in linguistic selection: Evidence from Huntington's disease and computational modeling.

Though accumulating evidence indicates that the striatum is recruited during language processing, the specific function of this subcortical structure in language remains to be elucidated. To answer this question, we used Huntington's disease as a model of striatal lesion. We investigated the morphological deficit of 30 early Huntington's disease patients with a novel linguistic task that can be modeled within an explicit theory of linguistic computation. Behavioral results reflected an impairment in HD pati...

Decoupling sensory from decisional choice biases in perceptual decision making.

The contribution of sensory and decisional processes to perceptual decision making is still unclear, even in simple perceptual tasks. When decision makers need to select an action from a set of balanced alternatives, any tendency to choose one alternative more often-choice bias-is consistent with a bias in the sensory evidence, but also with a preference to select that alternative independently of the sensory evidence. To decouple sensory from decisional biases, here we asked humans to perform a simple perc...

Evidence-based dentistry: let's talk about experimental evidence.

As our reliance on empirical evidence within the dental community grows, now could be the time to understand why the experiment methodology is being favoured. This article reviews the background literature in greater detail, relating to what empirical evidence is and its relevance to evidence-based dentistry (EBD). It explores why empirical evidence is becoming synonymous with the outcome of an experiment methodology only. Furthermore, the article discusses why these preferences may not be truly justified a...

Unravelling how and why the Antiretroviral Adherence Club Intervention works (or not) in a public health facility: A realist explanatory theory-building case study.

Although empirical evidence suggests that the adherence club model is more effective in retaining people living with HIV in antiretroviral treatment care and sustaining medication adherence compared to standard clinic care, it is poorly understood exactly how and why this works. In this paper, we examined and made explicit how, why and for whom the adherence club model works at a public health facility in South Africa.

Maternal dominance and reliance on over-the-counter analgesia can hinder development of healthy coping strategies for adolescents in pain.

Single pivotal trials with few corroborating characteristics were used for FDA approval of cancer therapies.

Novel cancer therapies are often approved with evidence from a single pivotal trial alone. There are concerns about the credibility of this evidence. Higher validity may be indicated by five methodological and statistical characteristics of pivotal trial evidence that were described by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) which may corroborate the reliance on a single trial alone for approval decisions.

Committing to Priorities: Incompleteness in Macro-Level Health Care Allocation and Its Implications.

This article argues that values that apply to health care allocation entail the possibility of "spectrum arguments," and that it is plausible that they often fail to determine a best alternative. In order to deal with this problem, a two-step process is suggested. First, we should identify the Strongly Uncovered Set that excludes all alternatives that are worse than some alternatives and not better in any relevant dimension from the set of eligible alternatives. Because the remaining set of alternatives oft...

Screening of potential PFOS alternatives to decrease liver bioaccumulation: Experimental and computational approaches.

Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic pollutant with significant bioaccumulation potential in liver tissues. Exposure to PFOS could cause increase of liver weight, induce adenomas of the liver and hepatomegaly. Alternatives of PFOS might be designed and synthesized that have significantly lower liver bioaccumulation. In this study, we conducted animal exposure experiments to investigate tissue accumulations of 14 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances. Correlation analysis demonstrated tha...

Sifting through the Evidence: A Comprehensive Review and Analysis of Neurotization in Breast Reconstruction.

Discussion: The Preparation of the Recipient Site in Fat Grafting: A Comprehensive Review of the Preclinical Evidence.

Variable time preference.

We re-examine behavioral patterns of intertemporal choice with recognition that time preferences may be inherently variable, focusing in particular on the explanatory power of an exponential discounting model with variable discount factors - the variable exponential model. We provide analytical results showing that this model can generate systematically different choice patterns from an exponential discounting model with a fixed discount factor. The variable exponential model accounts for the common behavio...

Specific sediment yield model for reservoirs with medium-sized basins in Spain: An empirical and statistical approach.

The world's reservoirs are losing capacity at a rate of 0.5-1% a year due to sedimentation processes. The strategies to reverse this trend must include an accurate estimation of sedimentation rates in terms of Specific Sediment Yield (SSY). This research develops an empirical and statistical model based on data from the CEDEX (Spanish Studies and Experimentation Centre for Public Works). From an initial number of 131 reservoirs studied in the period 19,672,004, a group of 26 reservoirs with medium-sized bas...

Energy, hierarchy and the origin of inequality.

Where should we look to understand the origin of inequality? I propose an unusual window of evidence-modern societies. I hypothesize that evidence for the origin of inequality is encoded in the institutional structure of industrial societies. To test this idea, I use a model to project modern trends into the past. This model takes the modern relation between energy, hierarchy, and inequality and creates a hindcast of the origin of inequality. The results are broadly consistent with the available evidence. T...

Determination of Endocrine Disruption Potential of Bisphenol A Alternatives in Food Contact Materials Using In Vitro Assays: State of the Art and Future Challenges.

Alternatives to Bisphenol A (BPA) are developed for food contact materials due to increasing evidence of exposure-correlated harmful effects of BPA. In vitro assays provide the fast, affordable, and mechanism insightful ways to screen endocrine disruption (ED) which is a major concern of new BPA alternatives. In this review, we summarize the safety and regulation information of the alternatives to BPA, review the state of the art of in vitro assays for ED evaluation, highlight their advantages and limitatio...

THD Doppler: A Reliable Surgical Procedure to Treat Hemorrhoids.

The search for alternatives to excisional surgery for internal hemorrhoids has been motivated by a desire to reduce postoperative pain and its associated disability as well as chronic sequelae. Among several non-excisional procedures, Doppler-guided transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization (THD Doppler) has emerged as an alternative that offers minimal postoperative pain. However, there is some skepticism regarding the ligation of hemorrhoidal arteries, the usefulness of Doppler guidance, and the recurrence...

Large Trial Finds Yoga Boosts Quality of Life and Return to Activity and Adds to Emerging Evidence for Rehabilitation Alternatives.

Alternatives for Allergens in the 2018 American Contact Dermatitis Society Core Series: Report by the American Contact Alternatives Group.

The most successful treatment for contact allergy is allergen avoidance. Patient improvement ultimately relies on identification of safe alternative products, which can be used by the patient. "Safe" personal care product options can typically be found using ingredient database programs. Avoidance of allergens in other products (ie, shoes, clothing, dental care, etc) is often challenging. In this article, the American Contact Alternatives Group discusses how to find specific safe alternatives for the 80 all...

Organizations Behaving Badly: Antecedents and Consequences of Uncivil Workplace Environments.

The present study investigated the relationship between employees' perceptions of five characteristics emphasized in their work organization (i.e., individualism, hostile interaction styles, competition, hierarchical governance, and email reliance) and the occurrence of incivility in that context. We also examined how perceptions of uncivil environments, in turn, related to personal experiences of workplace incivility and negative outcomes for targets. The proposed model was examined in two samples of unive...

Consumer preferences for alternatives to chick culling in Germany.

The use of highly specialized breeds in poultry production has led to the situation in which fattening layer-type males are not economically viable, when competing with the conventional broiler meat. The vast majority of male layer chicks are therefore culled soon after hatching. Ethical concerns about this practice have led to a public debate in a number of countries, and its tenor seems unambiguous: the practice should end. Political and industrial representatives have also promoted putting an end to chic...

A Critical and Intersectional Model of LGBTQ Microaggressions: Toward a More Comprehensive Understanding.

This article summarizes a proposed critical and intersectional model of LGBTQ microaggressions that can be used by scholars and practitioners from multiple disciplines. Drawing on critical and intersectional paradigms and decades of research from multiple fields, we constructed a model that acknowledges the breadth, depth, scope, and complexity of LGBTQ microaggressions. This proposed model includes the following elements: hegemonic influences, intersectional complexities, perpetration, interpersonal and en...

Bayes, time perception, and relativity: The central role of hopelessness.

Time judgement and time experience are distinct elements of time perception. It is known that time experience tends to be slow, or dilated, when depressed, but there is less certainty or clarity concerning how depression affects time judgement. Here, we use a Bayesian Prediction Error Minimisation (PEM) framework called 'distrusting the present' as an explanatory and predictive model of both aspects of time perception. An interval production task was designed to probe and modulate the relationship between t...

Investigating Mitophagy and Mitochondrial Morphology In Vivo Using mito-QC: A Comprehensive Guide.

Autophagy evolved as a mechanism to sustain cellular homeostasis during instances of nutrient deprivation. Mounting evidence has also clarified that under basal and stress conditions, selective autophagy pathways can target the destruction of specific organelles. Mitochondrial autophagy, or mitophagy, has emerged as a key quality control (QC) mechanism to sustain the integrity of eukaryotic mitochondrial networks. We recently reported the development of mito-QC, a novel reporter mouse model that enables th...

Factors Influencing Emergency Care by Persons With Dementia: Stakeholder Perceptions and Unmet Needs.

People with dementia (PwD) frequently use emergency care services. To mitigate the disproportionately high rate of emergency care use by PwD, an understanding of contributing factors driving reliance on emergency care services and identification of feasible alternatives are needed. This study aimed to identify clinician, caregiver, and service providers' views and experiences of unmet needs leading to emergency care use among community-dwelling PwD and alternative ways of addressing these needs.

Comprehensive Researcher Achievement Model (CRAM): a framework for measuring researcher achievement, impact and influence derived from a systematic literature review of metrics and models.

Effective researcher assessment is key to decisions about funding allocations, promotion and tenure. We aimed to identify what is known about methods for assessing researcher achievements, leading to a new composite assessment model.

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