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Classical- (C-) and atypical L-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) prions cause different pathological phenotypes in cattle brains, and the disease-associated forms of each prion protein (PrPSc) has a dissimilar biochemical signature. Bovine C-BSE prions are the causative agent of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. To date, human infection with L-BSE prions has not been reported, but they can be transmitted experimentally from cows to cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis), a non-human primate mod...
Atypical fibroxanthoma is a rare superficial fibrohistiocytic tumor. Clinically, it presents itself as a painless, solitary, ulcerated, and slow-growing nodule found mainly on sun-exposed areas - especially of the head and neck - of elderly individuals. The diagnosis is based on histopathological and immunohistochemical features. Immunohistochemical staining plays a critical role for the exclusion of differential diagnoses. Since atypical fibroxanthoma has an indolent clinical course, surgical excision is a...
Eight cases of encapsulated and cystic atypical thymomas (World Health Organization type B3) are presented.
In some cases, classical diagnostic procedures of bovine mastitis, including adspectation, palpation, and examination of milk samples, are of limited reliability, such that histological examination of udder tissue would be a useful addition. The study aimed to identify localizations for tissue sampling and to validate the biopsy technique.
Alveolar type II (ATII) cells play a key role as part of the distal lung epithelium, including in the innate immune response and as self-renewing progenitors to replace alveolar type I (ATI) cells during epithelial regeneration. Their secretion of surfactant protein helps maintain homeostasis and exerts protective, antimicrobial properties. ATII cells remain difficult to study, partly due to inefficient and expensive isolation methods, a propensity to differentiate into ATI cells, and susceptibility to fibr...
Cave-dwelling animals have evolved a series of morphological and behavioral traits to adapt to their perpetually dark and food-sparse environments. Among these traits, foraging behavior is one of the useful windows into functional advantages of behavioral trait evolution. Presented herein are updated methods for analyzing vibration attraction behavior (VAB: an adaptive foraging behavior) and imaging of associated mechanosensors of cave-adapted tetra, Astyanax mexicanus. In addition, methods are presented fo...
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a tumor-predisposition disorder caused by germline mutations in NF1. NF1 patients have an 8-16% lifetime risk of developing a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST), a highly-aggressive soft-tissue sarcoma, often arising from pre-existing benign plexiform neurofibromas (PN) and atypical neurofibromas (ANF). ANF are distinct from both PN and MPNST, representing an intermediate step in malignant transformation.
The application of the tracking-learning-detection (TLD) framework; a performant tracking algorithm for real-life objects in CCD video, was evaluated and successfully optimized for tracking anatomical structures in low-quality 2D cine-MRI acquired during MRI-guided radiotherapy. Sub-pixel tracking accuracy and >95% precision and recall was achieved despite significant deformations and periodical disappearance.
Ruminants have been classified as having a 'moose-type' or 'cattle-type' digestive physiology. 'Cattle-type' ruminants have a clear difference in the mean retention time (MRT) of fluid vs. small particles in the reticulorumen (RR), with a high 'selectivity factor' (SF = MRT/ MRT, >1.80), and are typically grazers and intermediate feeders. 'Moose-type' ruminants have lower SF (
To determine the prevalence of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) in beef bulls; evaluate the presence of BLV provirus DNA in blood, smegma, and semen samples; and analyze whether blood BLV proviral load was associated with differential blood cell counts.
This case report describes an atypical or incomplete presentation of Kawasaki Disease. Kawasaki Disease is an inflammatory process that can affect all blood vessels and result in cardiac complications; particularly coronary artery aneurysms. Patients are typically young children, usually younger than 5 years of age, who initially present with a high fever and nonspecific rash. The child in this case presented with an atypical or incomplete presentation, and was diagnosed with Kawasaki disease after multiple...
Genetic polymorphism has great influences on the improvement of cattle traits. The polymorphism of the same gene family will greatly change the growth traits of cattle, such as the pleomorphic adenoma gene (PLAG) family. Many studies have shown that the PLAG family proteins are the transcription regulators of nuclear protein, which mainly regulates the expression of many important genes in the body. In cattle, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within or near the PLAG1 gene is associated with economic t...
It is difficult to distinguish solitary of fibrous tumor/hemangiopericytoma (SFT/HPC) from atypical meningioma (AM) by conventional imaging.As far as we know,diffusion weighting imaging may identify them effectively.
Type A personality has been associated with increased survival in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Systemic low-grade inflammation may play a critical role, as suggested in recent reports, although the links between the inflammatory circulating transcriptome and Type A remain unknown. This prompted our exploration of the potential associations between Type A personality and c-Fos gene expression, a candidate gene closely linked to inflammatory processes, in T1D.
A novel type of acuity measurement, which we refer to as 'differential acuity', requires the observer to identify one unique target among three others which are identical. This is a proof of concept study aimed to determine if differential acuity is equivalent to standard measures of recognition acuity.
The aim of this study was to estimate genetic associations between alternative somatic cell count (SCC) traits and milk yield, composition and udder type traits in Italian Jersey cows. Alternative SCC traits were test-day (TD) somatic cell score (SCS) averaged over early lactation (SCS_150), standard deviation of SCS of the entire lactation (SCS_SD), a binary trait indicating absence or presence of at least one TD SCC >400,000 cells/ml in the lactation (Infection) and the ratio of the number of TD SCC >400...
Having access to early predictions of both the genetic merit and expected phenotypic performance of an individual or its progeny can contribute to more informed decision-making. The objective here was to evaluate the usefulness of routinely available subjectively scored linear conformation information on live animals to predict genetic merit for primal carcass cut yields of their relatives. Data on 6 muscular and 6 skeletal traits on 43,078 live animals were used; the weights of up to 14 primal cuts plus 3 ...
This paper investigates a complicated class of cooperative tracking problems with time-varying number of tracking agents and communication time delays. During the entire tracking process, tracking agents are dynamically changing and the number is not fixed. This results in jumping of tracking errors and dynamic dimensions of the corresponding Laplacian matrices. Consequently, the stability analysis turns to be difficult especially when the effect of communication time delays is taken into consideration. In ...
Seasonal variation in glucose metabolism might be driven by changes in daylight. Melatonin entrains circadian regulation and is directly associated with daylight. The relationship between melatonin receptor 1B gene variants with glycemic traits and type 2 diabetes is well established. We studied if daylight length was associated with glycemic traits and if it modified the relationship between melatonin receptor 1B gene rs10830963 variant and glycemic traits.
We report an atypical case of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) concomitant with chronic aseptic meningitis. The patient experienced fever, abdominal and back pain because of serositis, and headache because of aseptic meningitis for 4 weeks. Blood examinations revealed increased white blood cells and serum amyloid A level. Medications, including steroids, did not improve his symptoms. However, the patient experienced immediate relief after the administration of colchicine. We diagnosed him as having atypic...
Virtually all human psychological and behavioral traits are at least partially heritable. For nearly a century, classical genetic studies have sought to understand how genetic variation contributes to human variation in these traits. More recently, genome-wide association studies have identified large numbers of specific genetic variants linked with complex traits. Many of these variants fall outside of protein-coding genes, in putative gene regulatory elements. This suggests that some fraction of causal hu...
The genetic regulation of lipolytic enzyme is closely related to carcass quality traits through deposition of intramuscular fat (marbling) in beef cattle breeds. The α/β hydrolase domain containing 5 (ABHD5) is an accelerating factor of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), which plays a key role in triglyceride metabolism. In this study, we determined that bovine ABHD5 gene was highly expressed in adult bovine adipose tissue. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in bovine ABHD5 regulation, we clo...
Reproductive performance is a complex quantitative trait, that is determined by multiple genes, regulatory pathways and environmental factors. A list of major genes with large effect have been detected, although multiple QTLs are identified. To identify candidate genes for pig prolificacy, whole genome variants from five high- and five low-prolificacy Yorkshire sows were collected using whole-genome resequencing. A total of 13,955,609 SNPs and 2,666,366 indels were detected across the genome. Common differe...
Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) have been widely used to search for optimal strategies for the planning and management of water resources systems, particularly reservoir operation. This study provides a comprehensive diagnostic assessment of state of the art of the non-animal-inspired EA applications to reservoir optimization. This type of EAs does not mimic biologic traits and group strategies of animal (wild) species. A search of pertinent papers was applied to the journal citation reports (JCRs). A bibliom...