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PubMed Journals Articles About "Truthiness Illusory Truth Effect Role Need Cognition" RSS

17:57 EST 24th February 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "Truthiness illusory truth effect role need cognition" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 39,000+

Truthiness, the illusory truth effect, and the role of need for cognition.

Ease of processing-cognitive fluency-is a central input in assessments of truth, but little is known about individual differences in susceptibility to fluency-based biases in truth assessment. Focusing on two paradigms-truthiness and the illusory truth effect-we consider the role of Need for Cognition (NFC), an individual difference variable capturing one's preference for elaborative thought. Across five experiments, we replicated basic truthiness and illusory truth effects. We found very little evidence th...


An initial accuracy focus prevents illusory truth.

News stories, advertising campaigns, and political propaganda often repeat misleading claims, increasing their persuasive power. Repeated statements feel easier to process, and thus truer, than new ones. Surprisingly, this illusory truth effect occurs even when claims contradict young adults' stored knowledge (e.g., repeating The fastest land animal is the leopard makes it more believable). In four experiments, we tackled this problem by prompting people to behave like "fact checkers." Focusing on accuracy ...

Manipulating the temporal locus and content of mind-wandering.

The human brain has a tendency to drift into the realm of internally-generated thoughts that are unbound by space and time. The term mind-wandering (MW) is often used describe such thoughts when they are perceptually decoupled. Evidence suggests that exposure to forward and backward illusory motion skews the temporal orientation of MW thoughts to either the future or past respectively. However, little is known about the impact of this manipulation on other features of MW. Here, using a novel experimental pa...


Thinking in action: Need for Cognition predicts Self-Control together with Action Orientation.

Need for Cognition describes relatively stable interindividual differences in cognitive motivation. Previous research has shown relations of Need for Cognition to Self-Control-a capacity that can be broadly defined as resistance to temptation-yet, the processes underlying this relation remain unclear. One explanation for the prediction of Self-Control by Need for Cognition can be an increased motivation to invest cognitive effort with higher levels of Need for Cognition. Another possible link could be that ...

The Dynamic Double Flash Illusion: Auditory Triggered Replay of Illusory Visual Expansion.

In the original double flash illusion, a visual flash (e.g., a sharp-edged disk, or uniformly filled circle) presented with two short auditory tones (beeps) is often followed by an illusory flash. The illusory flash has been previously shown to be triggered by the second auditory beep. The current study extends the double flash illusion by showing that this paradigm can not only create the illusory repeat of an on-off flash, but also trigger an illusory expansion (and in some cases a subsequent contraction)...

Ventilation rate and successful recovery from cardiac arrest: illusory correlation bias or real effect?

Primo Levi's bearing witness and the reinterpreted past: post-truth and the authoritarian other.

The stark realism of Primo Levi's experiences of the Shoah is considered in light of the current political climate in which the authoritarian other induces a divergence between reality, a state of things as they actually exist or existed, and truth, that which to some extent accords to reality. In this paper I will consider how truth becomes divorced from reality by considering Giegerich's interpretation of Plato's Parable of the Cave, arguing that truth is affected by perception and belief. After addressin...

Shift in lateralization during illusory self-motion: EEG responses to visual flicker at 10 Hz and frequency-specific modulation by tACS.

Self-motion perception is a key aspect of higher vestibular processing, suggested to rely upon hemispheric lateralization and alpha-band oscillations. The first aim of this study was to test for any lateralization in the EEG alpha-band during the illusory sense of self-movement (vection) induced by large optic flow stimuli. Visual stimuli flickered at alpha-frequency (approx. 10 Hz) in order to produce steady state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs), a robust EEG measure which allows probing the frequency ...

The effect of atorvastatin on cognition and mood in bipolar disorder and unipolar depression patients: A secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

Statins have recently been linked to having effects on cognition and mood in mood disorders, though results are mixed. In this paper, we use data from a recent randomized controlled trial (RCT) to examine the effect of statins on cognition and mood in patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD).

Does the standard search task predict performance in related tasks for Kanizsa-style illusory contours?

It is often assumed that results from standard visual search tasks will be replicated in related tasks but his idea is rarely tested. In a conceptual replication of Li, Cave, and Wolfe (2008), we investigated the attentional demands of Kanizsa-style illusory contours using orientation-based search, comparing performance for items defined by real- as compared to illusory contours. After confirming the initial findings in standard search, we tested the same manipulation in multiple-target search, Thornton and...

Perceptual grouping constrains inhibition in time-based visual selection.

In time-based visual selection, task-irrelevant, old stimuli can be inhibited in order to allow the selective processing of new stimuli that appear at a later point in time (the preview benefit; Watson & Humphreys, 1997). The current study investigated if illusory and non-illusory perceptual groups influence the ability to inhibit old and prioritize new stimuli in time-based visual selection. Experiment 1 showed that with Kanizsa-type illusory stimuli, a preview benefit occurred only when displays containe...

The mediating role of cognition and social cognition on creativity among patients with schizophrenia and healthy control: revisiting the Shared Vulnerability Model.

As suggested by the Shared Vulnerability Model, impairment in executive functions could lead to worse creative performance among individuals with schizophrenia. Another impaired function in schizophrenia, previously related to creativity in healthy people, is theory of mind. However, little is known about the effect of theory of mind in creativity in schizophrenia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze differences in creativity among patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls and to ...

Making Functional Cognition a Professional Priority.

Functional cognition is a critical domain of concern for occupational therapy practice. As the health care system moves to assessing value through achievement of quality outcomes, the field of occupational therapy must address the inclusion of functional cognition in evaluation and treatment. Evidence indicates that impaired cognition contributes to risk of hospital readmission and poor overall health outcomes across diagnostic groups. Moreover, expenditure on occupational therapy services that address func...

Psychopathology and Truth: A Defense of Realism.

Recently Kenneth Kendler and Peter Zachar have raised doubts about the correspondence theory of truth and scientific realism in psychopathology. They argue that coherentist or pragmatist approaches to truth are better suited for understanding the reality of psychiatric disorders. In this article, I show that rejecting realism based on the correspondence theory is deeply problematic: It makes psychopathology categorically different from other sciences, and results in an implausible view of scientific discove...

Amplifying deceivers' flawed metacognition: Encouraging disclosures after delays with a model statement.

Truth tellers provide less detail in delayed than in immediate interviews (likely due to forgetting), whereas liars provide similar amounts of detail in immediate and delayed interviews (displaying a metacognitive stability bias effect). We examined whether liar's flawed metacognition after delays could be exploited by encouraging interviewees to provide more detail via a Model Statement. Truthful and deceptive participants were interviewed immediately (n = 78) or after a three-week delay (n = 78). Half...

The Cultural Fabric of Human Causal Cognition.

Causal cognition emerges early in development and confers an important advantage for survival. But does this mean that it is universal in humans? Our cross-disciplinary review suggests a broad evolutionary basis for core components of causal cognition but also underlines the essential role of culturally transmitted content as being uniquely human. The multiple ways in which both content and the key mechanisms of cultural transmission generate cultural diversity suggest that causal cognition in humans is not...

Blood donation and health status based on SF-36: The mediating effect of cognition in blood donation.

The relationship among blood donation, cognition in blood donation and health condition of blood donors remains unclear. Based on our hypothesis, this study aimed to explore the mediating effect of cognition in blood donation on the relationship between blood donation and blood donors' health status.

Dissociation of perceived size and perceived strength in the scintillating grid illusion.

The scintillating grid illusion is a geometric visual illusion where illusory dark spots are perceived on white circular patches that are located at the intersections of a grid pattern. Previous studies have measured the perceived strength of the illusory spots by varying stimulus and viewing conditions, to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the illusion; however, findings remain inconclusive. In the present study, we measured the perceived size of the illusory spots, in addition to their perceived strengt...

Medical science faces the post-truth era: a plea for the grassroot values of science.

Science and its public perception are compromised by scientific fraud and predatory journals, and also by the general erosion of the meaning of truth in the so-called post-truth era. These developments have significant influence on scientific medicine and their impact on the public discourse. The purpose of this article is to show how fake science, and also the uncritical dissemination of compromised results in public and social media, threatens scientific medicine.

Beyond Labeled Lines: A population coding account of the Thermal Grill Illusion.

Heat and pain illusions can be generated by simultaneous cold and warm stimulation on the skin, at temperatures that would normally be perceived as innocuous in isolation (e.g., 'synthetic heat' and the 'thermal grill illusion'). Historically, two key questions have dominated the literature: Which specific pathway conveys the illusory perception of heat and pain? Where specifically does the illusory pain originate in the central nervous system? Two major theories - the addition and the disinhibition theorie...

Association of Altered Liver Enzymes With Alzheimer Disease Diagnosis, Cognition, Neuroimaging Measures, and Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers.

Increasing evidence suggests an important role of liver function in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD). The liver is a major metabolic hub; therefore, investigating the association of liver function with AD, cognition, neuroimaging, and CSF biomarkers would improve the understanding of the role of metabolic dysfunction in AD.

Detecting falsehood relies on mismatch detection between sentence components.

How do people process and evaluate falsehood of sentences? Do people need to compare presented information with the correct answer to determine that a sentence is false, or do they rely on a mismatch between presented sentence components? To illustrate, when confronted with the false sentence 'trains run on highways', does one need to know that trains do not run on highways or does one need to know that trains run on tracks to reject the sentence as false? To investigate these questions, participants were a...

Effect of constant-current pallidal deep brain stimulation for primary dystonia on cognition, mood and quality of life: Results from a prospective pilot trial.

Knowledge on the effects of DBS on cognitive functions is limited and no data exists on the effects of constant-current DBS (CC-GPi-DBS), which appears to prevail over constant-voltage stimulation. Our aim was to prospectively assess the effect of Constant-Current-GPi-DBS, using an 8-contact lead, on cognition, mood and quality of life.

Pathways to Functional Outcomes in Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: Meta-Analysis of Social Cognitive and Neurocognitive Predictors.

The current meta-analysis explored relationships between functional outcomes in schizophrenia spectrum disorders and different domains of neurocognition and social cognition. Literature searches were conducted in PsycINFO, PubMed, and ProQuest to identify articles reporting correlations between cognition domains and functional outcomes. Of 1,361 articles identified, 166 met all inclusion criteria (12,868 participants; 518 correlations). Fifty-three random-effects meta-analyses yielded mean correlation estim...

The role of education in a vascular pathway to episodic memory: brain maintenance or cognitive reserve?

Educational attainment is associated with cognition among older adults, but this association is complex and not well understood. While associated with better cognition among healthy adults, more education predicts faster decline in older adults with cognitive impairment. Education may influence cognitive functioning through mechanisms involving brain maintenance (BM: reduced age-related pathology) or cognitive reserve (CR: altered pathology-cognition association). We examined evidence for each mechanism by ...


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