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Children are susceptible to severe influenza infections and facilitate community transmission. One potential strategy to improve vaccine immunogenicity in children against seasonal influenza involves a trivalent hemagglutinin DNA prime-trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) boost regimen.
To compare immunogenicity, reactogenicity and acceptability of high- and standard-dose trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (HDTIV, SDTIV) in 18-64 year olds.
The study examined the influence of sex and mouse strain on germinal center (GC) reaction and antibody responses to seasonal split trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV).
Intestinal Immunity to Poliovirus Following Sequential Trivalent Inactivated Polio Vaccine/Bivalent Oral Polio Vaccine and Trivalent Inactivated Polio Vaccine-only Immunization Schedules: Analysis of an Open-label, Randomized, Controlled Trial in Chilean Infants.
Identifying polio vaccine regimens that can elicit robust intestinal mucosal immunity and interrupt viral transmission is a key priority of the polio endgame.
Currently, circulating viruses responsible for annual seasonal influenza epidemics belong to two influenza A subtypes, A(H1N1) and A(H3N2), and to two antigenically distinct type B lineages, B/Yamagata and B/Victoria lineages. Like diseases due to influenza A virus, influenza B virus diseases may have severe consequences and should be prevented. Until now, in France, the vaccines used to prevent seasonal influenza were trivalent, systematically targeting viruses belonging to both A subtypes and to one or ot...
Prior influenza immunity influences homologous neutralizing antibody responses elicited by inactivated influenza vaccines (IIV), but neutralizing antibody responses to heterologous strains have not been extensively characterized.
Influenza is responsible for a significant disease burden annually, especially in older adults. This study reviews the relative vaccine efficacy or effectiveness (rVE) of high-dose inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (HD-IIV3) compared to standard-dose influenza vaccines (IIV3) in adults ≥65 against influenza-associated outcomes to inform evidence-based decision-making to shift clinical practice and standard of care in this population.
Influenza A virus (IAV) vaccines offer little protection from mismatched viruses with antigenically distant hemagglutinin (HA) glycoproteins. We sought to determine if a cationic lipid/DNA complex (CLDC) adjuvant could induce heterosubtypic protection if added to a whole-inactivated influenza A virus vaccine (WIV).
It has not yet been demonstrated whether two doses of inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (IIV4) prime a booster response in infants. We evaluated the anamnestic immune response to an IIV4 in children aged 17-48 months.
Seasonal influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza virus infection and its complications. Currently, China has licensed trivalent (IIV3) and quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4), including split-virus influenza vaccine and subunit vaccine. In most parts of China, influenza vaccine is a category Ⅱ vaccine, which means influenza vaccination is voluntary, and recipients need to pay for it. To strengthen the technical guidance for prevention and control of influenza and...
Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against influenza B was derived separately for Victoria and Yamagata lineages across eight seasons (2010-11 to 2017-18) in Canada when trivalent influenza vaccine was predominantly used. VE was ≥50% regardless of lineage match to circulating viruses, except when the vaccine strain was unchanged from the prior season.
Adults over the age of 60-65 years suffer disproportionally from seasonal influenza, experiencing high rates of complications, exacerbation of underlying medical comorbidities, and excess mortality. Thus, older adults are an important priority for influenza immunisation campaigns. Unfortunately, older adults generally display lower immune responses to standard influenza vaccines because of immunosenescence, with resulting suboptimal vaccine effectiveness. Thus, the development of improved vaccines that hei...
Little is known about inactivated influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) in preventing very severe disease, including influenza-associated intensive care unit (ICU) admissions.
Annual vaccination with influenza vaccines is recommended for protection against influenza in the United States. Past clinical studies and meta-analysis, however, have reported conflicting results on the benefits of annual vaccination. B-cell responses elicited following repeat influenza vaccinations over multiple seasons have not been examined in detail. We analyzed the B-cell and antibody responses in volunteers vaccinated yearly with seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (TIV) from 2010 or 20...
In recent influenza seasons, the effectiveness of inactivated influenza vaccines against circulating A(H3N2) virus has been lower than against A(H1N1)pdm09 and B viruses, even when circulating viruses remained antigenically similar to vaccine components.
Lack of efficient delivery systems for transporting antigenic molecules to the cytosol of antigen presenting cells presents a major obstacle for antigen uptake by immune cells. To this end, influenza Whole Inactivated Virus (WIV) vaccines were formulated with chitosan nanoparticles and CpG oligonucleotide as a biodegradable delivery system and a Th1-specific adjuvant, respectively. Intradermal injection of a single high dose and low dose of formulated candidate vaccines was carried out. Thirty days after in...
The alarming rise of morbidity and mortality caused by influenza pandemics and epidemics has drawn attention worldwide since the last few decades. This life-threatening problem necessitates the development of a safe and effective vaccine to protect against incoming pandemics. The currently available flu vaccines rely on inactivated viral particles, M2e-based vaccine, live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) and virus like particle (VLP). While inactivated vaccines can only induce systemic humoral responses,...
The limited protection of current commerical vaccines necessitates the investigation of novel vaccine strategies for unpredictable outbreaks. To investigate the feasibility of using vaccines derived from Group 1 influenza A virus to induce broadly cross-reactive immune responses against multiple influenza subtypes, we tested a panel of sequential 4-dose immunization regimens in mice. Mice were treated with inactivated (seasonal H1N1, pandemic H1N1 and H5N1) and vaccinia virus-based H5N1 live-attenuated vacc...
Vaccination against influenza is the most effective approach for reducing influenza morbidity and mortality. However, influenza vaccines are unique among all licensed vaccines as they are updated and administered annually to antigenically match the vaccine strains and currently circulating influenza strains. Vaccine efficacy of each selected influenza virus vaccine varies depending on the antigenic match between circulating strains and vaccine strains, as well as the age and health status of the vaccine rec...
Influenza viruses cause severe diseases and mortality in humans on an annual basis. The current influenza virus vaccines can confer protection when they are well-matched with the circulating strains. However, due to constant changes of the virus surface glycoproteins, the vaccine efficacy can drop substantially in some seasons. In addition, the current seasonal influenza virus vaccines do not protect from avian influenza viruses of human pandemic potential. Novel influenza virus vaccines that aim to elicit ...
Older individuals are at high risk for morbidity and mortality due to influenza, and the most effective way to prevent influenza is yearly vaccination. In China, the influenza vaccine is not covered by the national Expanded Program on Immunization, and more evidence is needed about influenza vaccine usage among older individuals.
Seasonal influenza is caused by two subtypes of influenza A and two lineages of influenza B. Although trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs) contain both circulating A strains, they contain only a single B-lineage strain. This can lead to mismatches between the vaccine and predominant circulating B lineages, a concern especially for at-risk populations. Quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs) containing a strain from both B lineages have been developed to improve protection against influenza. Here, we used a co...
Annual seasonal influenza vaccine manufacturing cycles align with temperate country seasonality in each hemisphere, yet influenza seasonality is poorly defined for many countries. The study introduces a novel and universal approach to defining and classifying seasonality that can be used to classify any country's influenza vaccine cycle alignment.
Development of broadly reactive or universal influenza vaccines will be a paradigm shifting event for the influenza vaccine field. These next generation vaccines could replace the current standard of care with vaccines that elicit broadly cross-protective immune responses. However, a variety of in vitro and in vivo models are necessary to make the best assessments of these vaccine formulations to determine their mechanisms of action, and allow for downselection of candidates prior to human clinical trials. ...