PubMed Journals Articles About "What Immunological Defects Predispose Tuberculosis Mycobacterial Infections" RSS

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Showing "What Immunological Defects Predispose tuberculosis Mycobacterial Infections" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 7,000+

What Immunological Defects Predispose to Non-tuberculosis Mycobacterial Infections?

Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are categorized as one of the large and diverse groups of environmental organisms which are abundant in water and soil.  NTM cause a variety of diseases in humans that mainly affect the lung. A predisposition to pulmonary NTM is evident in patients with parenchymal structural diseases including bronchiectasis, emphysema, tuberculosis (TB), cystic fibrosis (CF), rheumatologic lung diseases and other chronic diseases with pulmonary manifestations. Lung infections are not the...

The Child with Recurrent Mycobacterial Disease.

Many genetic conditions predispose affected individuals to opportunistic infections. A number of immunodeficiency diseases, including genetic defects termed Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD), permit infection from many different strains of mycobacteria that would otherwise not cause disease. These include tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacteria, and bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG). Patients may present with infections from other organisms that depend on macrophage function ...

Fluorescence Imaging of Mycobacterial Infection in Live Mice Using Fluorescent Protein-Expressing Strains.

Fluorescence imaging has been applied to various areas of biological research, including studies of physiological, neurological, oncological, cell biological, molecular, developmental, immunological, and infectious processes. In this chapter, we describe methods of fluorescent imaging applied to examination of subcutaneous and pulmonary mycobacterial infections in an animal model. Since slow growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) hinders development of new diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines for tub...

Galleria mellonella - a novel infection model for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

Animal models have long been used in tuberculosis research to understand disease pathogenesis and to evaluate novel vaccine candidates and anti-mycobacterial drugs. However, all have limitations and there is no single animal model which mimics all the aspects of mycobacterial pathogenesis seen in humans. Importantly mice, the most commonly used model, do not normally form granulomas, the hallmark of tuberculosis infection. Thus there is an urgent need for the development of new alternative in vivo models. T...

Control of mycobacteriosis in zebrafish (Danio rerio) mucosally vaccinated with heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis.

Mycobacterial infections greatly affect human and animal health worldwide, and vaccines are effective, sustainable and economic interventions for the prevention and control of these infectious diseases. Recent results support the use of zebrafish as a model for studying the pathophysiology of mycobacterial infection and for the development of novel interventions for tuberculosis (TB) control. Recently, we showed that oral immunization with the heat-inactivated M. bovis vaccine (M. bovis IV) protect wild boa...

Mycobacterium marinum infection drives foam cell differentiation in zebrafish infection models.

Host lipid metabolism is an important target for subversion by pathogenic mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The appearance of foam cells within the granuloma are well-characterised effects of chronic tuberculosis. The zebrafish-Mycobacterium marinum infection model recapitulates many aspects of human-M. tuberculosis infection and is used as a model to investigate the structural components of the mycobacterial granuloma. Here, we demonstrate that the zebrafish-M. marinum granuloma contains foa...

The function of sphingomyelinases in mycobacterial infections.

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is one of the deadliest and most important infectious diseases worldwide. The sphingomyelinase/ceramide system, which has been shown several times to be a crucial factor in the internalization, processing, and killing of diverse pathogens, also modulates the pro-inflammatory response and the state of mycobacteria in macrophages. Both acid and neutral sphingomyelinases are important in this activity. However, studies of the role of sphingomyelinases in...

Breast Implant Mycobacterial Infections - An Epidemiological Review and Outcome Analysis.

Epidemiological evidence of periprosthetic mycobacterial infections (PMIs) is limited. The recent boom in cosmetic surgery tourism has been associated with a rise of surgical site infections (SSIs) in returning patients. This review aims to explore available data, examine trends of documented PMIs and analyze outcomes of management techniques.

Cutaneous tuberculosis in China: A multicenter retrospective study of cases diagnosed between 1957 and 2013.

China has one of the largest populations with tuberculosis worldwide. Cutaneous tuberculosis (CTB) is a rare manifestation of mycobacterial infection. Although CTB is well described, it is important to periodically revisit the prevailing clinical and epidemiological features in most populated countries such as China, India, and Indonesia, where tuberculosis is still a major health problem.

Malnutrition is associated with diminished baseline and mycobacterial antigen - stimulated chemokine responses in latent tuberculosis infection.

Previous studies have demonstrated a diminution in the baseline and mycobacterial antigen - specific cytokines in low body mass index (LBMI) individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). We hypothesized that LBMI might be also associated with alteration in the baseline and antigen - stimulated levels of chemokines in LTBI.

Insight into the functional role of unique determinants in RNA component of RNase P of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

RNase P, an essential ribonucleoprotein enzyme is involved in processing 5' end of pre-tRNA molecules. All bacterial RNase P holoenzymes, including that of Mycobacterim tuberculosis, an important human pathogen contain a catalytically active RNA subunit and a protein subunit. However, the mycobacterial RNA is larger than typical bacterial RNase P RNAs. It contains the essential core structure and many unique features in the peripheral elements. In the current study, an extensive mutational analysis was perf...

Analysis of mycobacterial infection-induced changes to host lipid metabolism in a zebrafish infection model reveals a conserved role for LDLR in infection susceptibility.

Changes to lipid metabolism are well-characterised consequences of human tuberculosis infection but their functional relevance are not clearly elucidated in these or other host-mycobacterial systems. The zebrafish-Mycobacterium marinum infection model is used extensively to model many aspects of human-M. tuberculosis pathogenesis but has not been widely used to study the role of infection-induced lipid metabolism. We find mammalian mycobacterial infection-induced alterations in host Low Density Lipoprotein ...

The influence of interferon-β supplemented human dendritic cells on BCG immunogenicity.

Tuberculosis (TB) remains a huge worldwide burden, despite extensive vaccination coverage with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the only vaccine available against this disease, indicating that BCG-driven immunity is inadequate to protect the human population against TB. This underscore the critical necessitate to develop an improved TB vaccine, based on a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions and immune responses during mycobacterial infection.

Mycobacterial growth inhibition is associated with trained innate immunity.

The lack of defined correlates of protection hampers development of vaccines against tuberculosis (TB). In vitro mycobacterial outgrowth assays are thought to better capture the complexity of the human host/Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) interaction. We used a PBMC-based "mycobacterial-growth-inhibition-assay" (MGIA) to investigate the capacity to control outgrowth of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Interestingly, strong control of BCG outgrowth was observed almost exclusively in individuals with recent e...

Mycobacterium tuberculosis prosthetic joint infections: a case series and literature review.

We aimed to characterize diagnosis, management, and outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis prosthetic joint infections (PJI).

Small Heat Shock Protein16.3 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: After Two Decades of Functional Characterization.

Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are one of the five families of proteins acting as molecular chaperone. sHSPs possess a universally conserved alpha-crystallin domain, hence, also known as alpha-crystallin family. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is an etiological agent of tuberculosis, a disease claiming million of lives every year across the world. MTB has two sHSPs: sHSP16.3 (a 16.3 kDa protein) and Acr2 (a 17.8 kDa protein). Of these, sHSP16.3 has been reported to be crucial for survival of MTB during ...

Cutaneous atypical mycobacteriosis with sporotrichoid clinical presentation caused by automotive accident.

Atypical mycobacterial infections are caused by mycobacteria other than those from the M. tuberculosis complex and M. leprae. Its incidence has increased progressively, with considerable increase of scientific publications on the subject. Only 10% of the cases present with cutaneous infections, most of them related to surgical interventions and aesthetic procedures. We present a case of mycobacteriosis due to automotive accident that presented a diagnostic challenge due to its clinical presentation with les...

Nontuberculous mycobacteria in milk from positive cows in the intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin test: implications for human tuberculosis infections.

Although the tuberculin test represents the main in vivo diagnostic method used in the control and eradication of bovine tuberculosis, few studies have focused on the identification of mycobacteria in the milk from cows positive to the tuberculin test. The aim of this study was to identify Mycobacterium species in milk samples from cows positive to the comparative intradermal test. Milk samples from 142 cows positive to the comparative intradermal test carried out in 4,766 animals were aseptically collected...

Genotyping based on thermal denaturation of amplification products identifies species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

To develop a fast and inexpensive genotyping assay to identify the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) species most prevalent in human tuberculosis (TB), based on the thermal denaturation profiles of PCR products from mycobacterial 16S rDNA and three MTC genomic regions of difference (RD).

Identification of protective postexposure mycobacterial vaccine antigens using an immunosuppression-based reactivation model in the zebrafish.

Roughly one third of the human population carries a latentinfection, with a 5-10% lifetime risk of reactivation to active tuberculosis and further spreading the disease. The mechanisms leading to the reactivation of a latentinfection are insufficiently understood. Here, we used a natural fish pathogen,, to model the reactivation of a mycobacterial infection in the adult zebrafish (). A low-dose intraperitoneal injection (∼40 colony-forming units) led to a latent infection, with mycobacteria found in well-...

Identification of a plasma microRNA profile in untreated pulmonary tuberculosis patients that is modulated by anti-mycobacterial therapy.

microRNA expression profiles are of interest as a biomarker of tuberculosis (TB). How anti-TB therapy effects miRNA profiles is unknown and was examined.

Atypical Mycobacterial Infections of the Upper Extremity.

Atypical mycobacterial infections of upper extremity synovial-lined structures are often misdiagnosed and unrecognized. Despite an increasing incidence, lack of physician awareness of these pathogens may result in considerable delay in diagnosis and management, potentially leading to permanent disability. The authors conducted a literature review and analyzed 31 cases of penetrating atypical mycobacterial infection to better understand the clinical characteristics and to evaluate their posttreatment complic...

Epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in the U.S. Veterans Health Administration.

We identified patients with non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease in the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA), examined the distribution of diseases by NTM species, and explored the association between NTM disease and the frequency of clinic visits and mortality.

Modulation of autophagy as a strategy for development of new vaccine candidates against tuberculosis.

Effective prevention of tuberculosis (Tb) would undoubtedly be of paramount relevance in the control of its global burden, which resulted in more than 6 million new cases in 2016. Research aimed to improve the current vaccine, Bacillus Calmette- Guérin (BCG), or directed to develop new candidates, has taken into account the interaction between the host and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Recently, autophagy, an intracellular process of the host, has been shown to act as a mechanism that contributes to ba...

Targeting the proteostasis network for mycobacterial drug discovery.

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), remains one of the world's deadliest infectious diseases and urgently requires new antibiotics to treat drug-resistant strains and to decrease the duration of therapy. During infection, Mtb encounters numerous stresses associated with host immunity, including hypoxia, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, mild acidity, nutrient starvation, and metal sequestration and intoxication. The Mtb proteostasis network, composed of chaperones, proteases, ...

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