PubMed Journals Articles About "What Immunological Defects Predispose Tuberculosis Mycobacterial Infections" RSS

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Showing "What Immunological Defects Predispose tuberculosis Mycobacterial Infections" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 7,000+

What Immunological Defects Predispose to Non-tuberculosis Mycobacterial Infections?

Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are categorized as one of the large and diverse groups of environmental organisms which are abundant in water and soil.  NTM cause a variety of diseases in humans that mainly affect the lung. A predisposition to pulmonary NTM is evident in patients with parenchymal structural diseases including bronchiectasis, emphysema, tuberculosis (TB), cystic fibrosis (CF), rheumatologic lung diseases and other chronic diseases with pulmonary manifestations. Lung infections are not the...

The Child with Recurrent Mycobacterial Disease.

Many genetic conditions predispose affected individuals to opportunistic infections. A number of immunodeficiency diseases, including genetic defects termed Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD), permit infection from many different strains of mycobacteria that would otherwise not cause disease. These include tuberculous and nontuberculous mycobacteria, and bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG). Patients may present with infections from other organisms that depend on macrophage function ...

Mycobacterial blood cultures in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in HIV-infected patients: are they useful?

It is standard practice to perform mycobacterial blood cultures (MBC) in HIV-infected patients with suspected Tuberculosis (TB). Our study aim wasto assess the overall sensitivity and incremental yield of this strategy in a setting where invasive biological samples and microbiological tests (including molecular studies and culture with automated techniques) are feasible. We retrospectively evaluated HIV patients admitted for TB at Centro Hospitalar São João (Porto, Portugal) between 2008-2014, n= 139. The...

Fluorescence Imaging of Mycobacterial Infection in Live Mice Using Fluorescent Protein-Expressing Strains.

Fluorescence imaging has been applied to various areas of biological research, including studies of physiological, neurological, oncological, cell biological, molecular, developmental, immunological, and infectious processes. In this chapter, we describe methods of fluorescent imaging applied to examination of subcutaneous and pulmonary mycobacterial infections in an animal model. Since slow growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) hinders development of new diagnostics, therapeutics, and vaccines for tub...

Galleria mellonella - a novel infection model for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

Animal models have long been used in tuberculosis research to understand disease pathogenesis and to evaluate novel vaccine candidates and anti-mycobacterial drugs. However, all have limitations and there is no single animal model which mimics all the aspects of mycobacterial pathogenesis seen in humans. Importantly mice, the most commonly used model, do not normally form granulomas, the hallmark of tuberculosis infection. Thus there is an urgent need for the development of new alternative in vivo models. T...

Control of mycobacteriosis in zebrafish (Danio rerio) mucosally vaccinated with heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis.

Mycobacterial infections greatly affect human and animal health worldwide, and vaccines are effective, sustainable and economic interventions for the prevention and control of these infectious diseases. Recent results support the use of zebrafish as a model for studying the pathophysiology of mycobacterial infection and for the development of novel interventions for tuberculosis (TB) control. Recently, we showed that oral immunization with the heat-inactivated M. bovis vaccine (M. bovis IV) protect wild boa...

Mycobacterium marinum infection drives foam cell differentiation in zebrafish infection models.

Host lipid metabolism is an important target for subversion by pathogenic mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The appearance of foam cells within the granuloma are well-characterised effects of chronic tuberculosis. The zebrafish-Mycobacterium marinum infection model recapitulates many aspects of human-M. tuberculosis infection and is used as a model to investigate the structural components of the mycobacterial granuloma. Here, we demonstrate that the zebrafish-M. marinum granuloma contains foa...

The function of sphingomyelinases in mycobacterial infections.

Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is one of the deadliest and most important infectious diseases worldwide. The sphingomyelinase/ceramide system, which has been shown several times to be a crucial factor in the internalization, processing, and killing of diverse pathogens, also modulates the pro-inflammatory response and the state of mycobacteria in macrophages. Both acid and neutral sphingomyelinases are important in this activity. However, studies of the role of sphingomyelinases in...

Breast Implant Mycobacterial Infections - An Epidemiological Review and Outcome Analysis.

Epidemiological evidence of periprosthetic mycobacterial infections (PMIs) is limited. The recent boom in cosmetic surgery tourism has been associated with a rise of surgical site infections (SSIs) in returning patients. This review aims to explore available data, examine trends of documented PMIs and analyze outcomes of management techniques.

Malnutrition is associated with diminished baseline and mycobacterial antigen - stimulated chemokine responses in latent tuberculosis infection.

Previous studies have demonstrated a diminution in the baseline and mycobacterial antigen - specific cytokines in low body mass index (LBMI) individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). We hypothesized that LBMI might be also associated with alteration in the baseline and antigen - stimulated levels of chemokines in LTBI.

Insight into the functional role of unique determinants in RNA component of RNase P of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

RNase P, an essential ribonucleoprotein enzyme is involved in processing 5' end of pre-tRNA molecules. All bacterial RNase P holoenzymes, including that of Mycobacterim tuberculosis, an important human pathogen contain a catalytically active RNA subunit and a protein subunit. However, the mycobacterial RNA is larger than typical bacterial RNase P RNAs. It contains the essential core structure and many unique features in the peripheral elements. In the current study, an extensive mutational analysis was perf...

Analysis of mycobacterial infection-induced changes to host lipid metabolism in a zebrafish infection model reveals a conserved role for LDLR in infection susceptibility.

Changes to lipid metabolism are well-characterised consequences of human tuberculosis infection but their functional relevance are not clearly elucidated in these or other host-mycobacterial systems. The zebrafish-Mycobacterium marinum infection model is used extensively to model many aspects of human-M. tuberculosis pathogenesis but has not been widely used to study the role of infection-induced lipid metabolism. We find mammalian mycobacterial infection-induced alterations in host Low Density Lipoprotein ...

Significance of a histone-like protein with its native structure for the diagnosis of asymptomatic tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis causes the highest mortality among all single infections. Asymptomatic tuberculosis, afflicting one third of the global human population, is the major source as 5-10% of asymptomatic cases develop active tuberculosis during their lifetime. Thus it is one of important issues to develop diagnostic tools for accurately detecting asymptomatic infection. Mycobacterial DNA-binding protein 1 (MDP1) is a major protein in persistent Mycobacterium tuberculosis and has potential for diagnostic use in dete...

Mycobacterium tuberculosis prosthetic joint infections: a case series and literature review.

We aimed to characterize diagnosis, management, and outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis prosthetic joint infections (PJI).

Small Heat Shock Protein16.3 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: After Two Decades of Functional Characterization.

Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) are one of the five families of proteins acting as molecular chaperone. sHSPs possess a universally conserved alpha-crystallin domain, hence, also known as alpha-crystallin family. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is an etiological agent of tuberculosis, a disease claiming million of lives every year across the world. MTB has two sHSPs: sHSP16.3 (a 16.3 kDa protein) and Acr2 (a 17.8 kDa protein). Of these, sHSP16.3 has been reported to be crucial for survival of MTB during ...

Two Faces of CwlM, an Essential PknB Substrate, in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis claims >1 million lives annually, and its causative agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a highly successful pathogen. Protein kinase B (PknB) is reported to be critical for mycobacterial growth. Here, we demonstrate that PknB-depleted M. tuberculosis can replicate normally and can synthesize peptidoglycan in an osmoprotective medium. Comparative phosphoproteomics of PknB-producing and PknB-depleted mycobacteria identify CwlM, an essential regulator of peptidoglycan synthesis, as a major P...

Cutaneous atypical mycobacteriosis with sporotrichoid clinical presentation caused by automotive accident.

Atypical mycobacterial infections are caused by mycobacteria other than those from the M. tuberculosis complex and M. leprae. Its incidence has increased progressively, with considerable increase of scientific publications on the subject. Only 10% of the cases present with cutaneous infections, most of them related to surgical interventions and aesthetic procedures. We present a case of mycobacteriosis due to automotive accident that presented a diagnostic challenge due to its clinical presentation with les...

Genotyping based on thermal denaturation of amplification products identifies species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.

To develop a fast and inexpensive genotyping assay to identify the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) species most prevalent in human tuberculosis (TB), based on the thermal denaturation profiles of PCR products from mycobacterial 16S rDNA and three MTC genomic regions of difference (RD).

Identification of a plasma microRNA profile in untreated pulmonary tuberculosis patients that is modulated by anti-mycobacterial therapy.

microRNA expression profiles are of interest as a biomarker of tuberculosis (TB). How anti-TB therapy effects miRNA profiles is unknown and was examined.

Epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacterial infections in the U.S. Veterans Health Administration.

We identified patients with non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) disease in the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA), examined the distribution of diseases by NTM species, and explored the association between NTM disease and the frequency of clinic visits and mortality.

Hijacking Host Angiogenesis to Drive Mycobacterial Growth.

In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Walton et al. (2018) uncover the mycobacterial factors that activate VEGF signaling and promote aberrant angiogenesis in the tuberculous granuloma. Preventing abnormal angiogenesis in the granuloma represents a potential therapeutic approach for tuberculosis.

Acquired and genetic host susceptibility factors and microbial pathogenic factors that predispose to nontuberculous mycobacterial infections.

Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in the environment and human exposure is likely to be pervasive; yet, the occurrence of NTM-related diseases is relatively infrequent. This discrepancy suggests that host risk factors play an integral role in vulnerability to NTM infections. Isolated NTM lung disease (NTM-LD) is often due to underlying anatomical pulmonary or immune disorders, either of which may be acquired or genetic. However, many cases of NTM-LD have no known underlying risk factors and m...

The assessment of changes to the nontuberculous mycobacterial metabolome in response to anti-TB drugs.

Mycobacterium species can cause a range of nontuberculous infections of healthy and immunocompromised people as well as infect people during and after surgical procedures. The similarity of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) to the tuberculosis bacilli (TB) could ultimately enable the use of anti-TB drugs for the genus. Hence, three NTM (M. smegmatis, M. phlei and M. avium) were cultured under different lab conditions, causing two mycobacterial phenotypes (active and dormant), and treated with isoniazid (INH...

Anti-mycobacterial activity of some medicinal plants used traditionally by tribes from Madhya Pradesh, India for treating tuberculosis related symptoms.

Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the highly infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Several medicinal plants are traditionally used by the tribal healers of some tribal pockets of Madhya Pradesh (M.P.), India in the treatment of various ailments including TB related symptoms. The information of traditional knowledge of plants is empirical lacking systematic scientific investigation.

Validation of a CD1b tetramer assay for studies of human mycobacterial infection or vaccination.

CD1 tetramers loaded with lipid antigens facilitate the identification of rare lipid-antigen specific T cells present in human blood and tissue. Because CD1 proteins are structurally non-polymorphic, these tetramers can be applied to genetically diverse human populations, unlike MHC-I and MHC-II tetramers. However, there are no standardized assays to quantify and characterize lipid antigen-specific T cells present within clinical samples. We incorporated CD1b tetramers loaded with the mycobacterial lipid gl...

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