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Hemangioblastomas (HBs) are benign vascular tumors of the central nervous system and histologically contain abundant microvessels. Therefore, they clinically exhibit vascular malformation-like characteristics. It has been described that endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) contributes to the pathogenesis of cerebral cavernous malformations. However, it remains unknown whether EndMT contributes to the pathogenesis of central nervous system HBs. The aim of our study was to investigate whether EndMT o...
Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are a group of neoplasms that originate from various cells in the CNS. The increasing incidence and prevalence of this type of tumor in developing countries are striking; however, there are few current studies in Latin America including Mexico estimating the impact of these pathological entities on the general population.
The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and predictors of social difficulties in adolescent survivors of central nervous system (CNS) tumors.
Angiogenesis plays an essential role in tumors development. In case of central nervous system tumors, the most important role in this process plays VEGF-A. The purpose of this study was to determine the plasma concentration of this agent in patients treated surgically because of intracranial tumors. The study involved 48 adult patients, both sexes, treated surgically because of a brain tumor. The control group consisted of 50 adult volunteers of both sexes, without cancer diagnosis. Based on the studies, it...
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare disease. Studies of PCNSL in patients with rheumatic diseases are lacking. Neither clinical symptoms nor radiographic manifestation is specific to PCNSL. Therefore, it could be misdiagnosed with other diseases such as brain tumors. Chemotherapy is the primary treatment for PCNSL, while the role of surgery remains controversial.
The lack of a standard treatment approach has contributed to poor outcomes of patients with recurrent central nervous system (CNS) mixed malignant germ cell tumors (MMGCT). There are no data in the literature supporting optimal re-induction chemotherapy regimens that should be used for patients with recurrent CNS MMGCT.
The brain is, by weight, only 2% the volume of the body and yet it consumes about 20% of the total glucose, suggesting that the energy requirements of the brain are high and that glucose is the primary energy source for the nervous system. Due to this dependence on glucose, brain physiology critically depends on the tight regulation of glucose transport and its metabolism. Glucose transporters ensure efficient glucose uptake by neural cells and contribute to the physiology and pathology of the nervous syste...
Central nervous system lymphomas (CNSLs) are rare tumors which may show variable appearance in standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depending on their origin (primary or secondary) or patients' immunological status.
CD4 T helper (Th) cells play a central role in orchestrating protective immunity but also in autoimmunity. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a human autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by the infiltration of inflammatory lymphocytes and myeloid cells into the brain and spinal cord, leading to demyelination, axonal damage, and progressive loss of motor functions. The release of T cells in the circulation and their migration in the central nervous system are key and tightly regulated...
Malignancies of the central nervous system include primary brain tumors and brain metastases, the latter being the major cause of intracranial neoplasms in adults. Although prostate cancer (PCa) brain metastases are not the most common source, recent data show that the relevance of prostate cancer brain metastases (PCBM) cannot be neglected. In this review, we focus on the molecular repertory as well as on the phenotypical similarities between PCBM and primary PCa, such as the cellular evolution and the mai...
In vivo determination of brain mediators plays an important role in providing insight in how the brain functions. For this purpose, targeted metabolomics can be a very useful tool. Targeted metabolomics detects and measures certain known low-molecular-weight biomolecules involved in signaling pathways and biochemical processes in the central nervous system. Microdialysis is a powerful technique to sample brain mediators in the central nervous system. Several analytical techniques that can possibly be couple...
Central nervous system myelomatosis is uncommon and is associated with a particularly poor prognosis. PET images, from a 53-year-old man referred to a fully digital F-FDG PET for relapsed multiple myeloma, revealed high F-FDG uptakes located in the cortex and sulci of the right central area and within the meningeal envelopes of the cerebellum, the trigeminal nerves, and on the spinal canal. These particular uptakes gave evidence of a central nervous system myelomatosis subsequently confirmed by plasma cells...
This phase 1/2 study (NCT01751308) evaluated cabazitaxel in pediatric patients. Phase 1 determined the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in patients with recurrent/refractory solid tumors, including central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Phase 2 evaluated activity in pediatric recurrent high-grade glioma (HGG) or diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG).
We characterized associations between central nervous system (CNS) adverse events and brain neurotransmitter transporter/receptor genomics among participants randomized to efavirenz-containing regimens in AIDS Clinical Trials Group studies in the USA.
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare disease affecting the brain, leptomeninges, spinal cord, cerebrospinal fluid, or vitreoretinal compartment, without evidence of systemic disease. Prognosis is still poor after intensive methotrexate-based chemotherapy.
Cardiac function is under the control of the autonomic nervous system, composed by the parasympathetic and sympathetic divisions, which are finely tuned at different hierarchical levels. While a complex regulation occurs in the central nervous system involving the insular cortex, the amygdala and the hypothalamus, a local cardiac regulation also takes place within the heart, driven by an intracardiac nervous system. This complex system consists of a network of ganglionic plexuses and interconnecting ganglio...
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a non-Hodgkin lymphoma that affects the central nervous system (CNS). Although previous studies have reported the most common mutated genes in PCNSL, including MYD88 and CD79b, our understanding of genetic characterizations in primary CNS lymphomas is limited. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis investigating the most frequent mutation types, and their frequency, in PCNSL.
Carbonic anhydrase related proteins (CARPs) VIII, X and XI functionally differ from the other carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzymes. Structurally, they lack the zinc binding residues, which are important for enzyme activity of classical CAs. The distribution pattern of the CARPs in fetal brain implies their role in brain development. In the adult brain, CARPs are mainly expressed in the neuron bodies but only weaker reactivity has been found in the astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Altered expression patterns of C...
The central control of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and the complex interplay of its components can be described by a functional integrated mode - the central autonomic network (CAN). CAN represents the integrated functioning and interaction between the central nervous system (CNS) and ANS (parasympathetic and sympathetic activity).
Collision tumors are defined as coexistence of two histologically different neoplasms occurring in the same anatomic location. Such co-occurrence of tumors in the brain is an uncommon entity. To our knowledge, meningioma colliding with extranodal NK/T cell lymphoma(ENKTCL) has not been described previously. We herein present such a case with detailed clinical, imaging and histopathologic characteristics.
The optimal timing of corticosteroid (CS) treatment in patients with primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma (PCNSL) remains controversial. While poor clinical presentation may justify early treatment with CS, this may ultimately result in reduced concentrations of chemotherapeutic agents via perturbations in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier.
Proton therapy is a form of particle therapy with physical properties that provide a superior dose distribution compared to photons. The ability to spare healthy, developing tissues from low dose radiation with proton therapy is well known. The capability to decrease radiation exposure for children has been lauded as an important advance in pediatric cancer care, particularly for central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Favorable clinical outcomes have been reported and justify the increased cost and burden of ...
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are particularly susceptible to several central nervous system infections: human cytomegalovirus, which may cause encephalitis, ventriculitis, polyradiculitis, or polyradiculomyelitis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which can cause meningitis or space-occupying lesions; and Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum (T. pallidum), which affects the meninges, cerebrospinal fluid, cranial nerves, and vasculature in early neurosyphilis, and additionally the brai...
The regulation of body temperature is one of the most critical functions of the nervous system. Here we review our current understanding of thermoregulation in mammals. We outline the molecules and cells that measure body temperature in the periphery, the neural pathways that communicate this information to the brain, and the central circuits that coordinate the homeostatic response. We also discuss some of the key unresolved issues in this field, including the following: the role of temperature sensing in ...