PubMed Journals Articles About "Daptomycin Staphylococcal Infections" RSS

22:12 EST 15th December 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "daptomycin Staphylococcal Infections" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 3,500+

Comparison of the Effects of Daptomycin on Bacterial and Model Membranes.

Daptomycin is a phosphatidylglycerol specific, calcium dependent membrane-active antibiotic that has been approved for the treatment of Gram-positive infections. A recent Bacillus subtilis study found that daptomycin clustered into fluid lipid domains of bacterial membranes and the membrane binding was correlated with dislocation of peripheral membrane proteins and depolarization of membrane potential. In particular, the study disproved the existence of daptomycin ion channels. Our purpose here is to study ...

A randomized phase 2B trial of vancomycin versus daptomycin for the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia due to isolates with high vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations - results of a prematurely terminated study.

Studies have suggested the reduced effectiveness of vancomycin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bloodstream infections with high vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations. Alternative agents such as daptomycin may be considered. We conducted a randomized controlled study comparing daptomycin against vancomycin in the treatment of MRSA bloodstream infections with high vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentrations.

Survival of Patients With Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Bacteremia Treated With Conventional or High Doses of Daptomycin or Linezolid Is Associated With the Rate of Bacterial Clearance.

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are important pathogens for healthcare-associated infections. Although linezolid is bacteriostatic and daptomycin is rapidly bactericidal against vancomycin-resistant enterococci in vitro, it is not clear whether they differ in their effect on bacterial clearance in patients with vancomycin-resistant enterococci bloodstream infections.

Comparison of Risk Factors and Outcomes of Daptomycin-Susceptible and -Nonsusceptible Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Infections in Liver Transplant Recipients; A reply to Lewis et al.

Daptomycin resistance is emerging and is associated with liver transplantation (LTX). The outcomes of patients infected with daptomycin-nonsusceptible-enterococci (DNSE) with minimum-inhibitory-concentrations (MIC)>4 mg/L are unfavorable. As a result, some have recommended reducing the breakpoint for DAP susceptibility in enterococci to ≤2 mg/L. Unfavorable outcomes associated with DNSE are due in part to decreased efficacy of DAP and alternative agents, along with increased toxicity of these regimens for...

Current use of daptomycin and systematic therapeutic drug monitoring: clinical experience in a tertiary care institution.

Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) could optimize daptomycin use. However, no validated serum level targets have been established. We aimed to evaluate the adequacy of daptomycin doses in a real-life study, assess interpatient variability in serum levels, identify the predictive factors for non-adequate serum levels and assess their clinical impact. This is a prospective study at a tertiary center including hospitalized patients receiving daptomycin. Blood samples (Cmin and Cmax) were drawn at least 3-days p...

Emergence of Daptomycin-Nonsusceptible Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Clinical Isolates Among Daptomycin-Naive Patients in Korea.

This study was conducted to assess emergence of daptomycin-nonsusceptible (DAP-NS) phenotype in DAP-naive patients with invasive Staphylococcus aureus (ISA) infections in Korea. A total of 208 S. aureus clinical isolates were selected from a previous prospective study on ISA infections and evaluated for DAP-NS. Although DAP has never been introduced in Korea, five DAP-NS S. aureus strains (2.4%) were identified among 208 S. aureus strains collected from ISA infections. The DAP-NS phenotype was observed only...

Update on prevalence and mechanisms of resistance to linezolid, tigecycline and daptomycin in enterococci in Europe: Towards a common nomenclature.

Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are important nosocomial pathogens. Invasive VRE infections are difficult to treat since common therapeutic options including ampicillin and glycopeptides often fail. In vitro, most VRE remain susceptible to last-resort antibiotics such as linezolid, tigecycline and daptomycin. However, neither tigecycline nor linezolid act in a bactericidal manner, and daptomycin has proven activity only at high dosages licensed for treating enterococcal endocarditis. Despite these ph...

Pharmacodynamic Analysis of Daptomycin-Treated Enterococcal Bacteremia: It Is Time to Change the Breakpoint.

Currently, there is debate that the daptomycin susceptibility breakpoint (i.e., minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC, ≤4 mg/L) is inappropriate for application to serious enterococcal infections. Observational data support prescription of high doses (>8 mg/kg/day) in the treatment of bacteremia. Pharmacodynamic targets associated with positive patient outcomes, however, remain undefined.

A Fixed versus Weight-Based Dosing Strategy of Daptomycin may Improve Safety in Obese Adults.

To compare daptomycin exposures and predicted safety outcomes with a simulated weight-based and fixed dose in morbidly-obese and non-obese subjects METHODS: We performed a nonparametric population pharmacokinetic analysis of daptomycin concentration-time data from a prior obese and non-obese kidney function matched cohort of healthy adult volunteers. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to compare the maximum concentrations (C ), minimum concentrations (C ), and area under the curve (AUC) with the standar...

Two mutations commonly associated with daptomycin resistance in Enterococcus faecium LiaS and LiaR appear to function epistatically in LiaFSR signaling.

The cyclic antimicrobial lipopeptide daptomycin is now frequently used as a first-line therapy in serious infections caused by multidrug-resistant Enterococcus faecium. Resistance to daptomycin in E. faecium is mediated by activation of the LiaFSR membrane stress response pathway. Deletion of liaR, encoding the response regulator of the system, restores susceptibility to daptomycin, suggesting that the LiaFSR pathway is a potential target for the development of drugs that would induce hypersusceptibility to...

Characterization of a nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae thermonuclease.

Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) has been shown to form biofilms, comprised of extracellular DNA (eDNA), in the middle ear and bronchus during clinical infections. Studies in our laboratory have shown that NTHi possesses a homolog of Staphylococcus aureus thermonuclease (staphylococcal thermonuclease), NTHi nuclease (NTHi Nuc, HI_1296). This enzyme had similar size, heat stability, and divalent cation requirements to those of the staphylococcal homolog as determined by light scattering and circular...

Cefazolin versus anti-staphylococcal penicillins for the treatment of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infections in acutely-ill adult patients: results of a systematic review and meta-analysis.

A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the comparative efficacy and tolerability of cefazolin versus anti-staphylococcal penicillins (ASPs) for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) bloodstream infections (BSI). Utilizing published regression models, included studies were stratified into high and low pre-probability of mortality subgroups. Cefazolin was associated with significantly lower rates of treatment failure (OR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.61-0.82; P

Simple LC-MS/MS Methods Using Core-Shell ODS Microparticulate for the Quantitation of Total and Free Daptomycin in Human Plasma.

Daptomycin, a cyclic lipopeptide antibiotic, displays high plasma protein binding. This study developed the simple method of liquid chromatographic separation using a core shell ODS microparticulate coupled to tandem mass spectrometry for the quantitation of total and free daptomycin in human plasma.

Fulminant Staphylococcal Infections.

Fulminant staphylococcal infection indicates an explosive, intense, and severe infection occurring in a patient whose previous condition and antecedent would never have caused any anticipation of life-threatening development. This includes necrotizing pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, and to some extent toxic shock syndrome and infective endocarditis. In the three former diseases, toxin production plays a major role whereas in the latter (fulminant presentation of infective endocarditis), association with a...

High-dose daptomycin in patients with infective endocarditis or sternal wound infections.

Dissemination of the Methicillin Resistance Staphylococcus Aureus Pediatric Clone (ST5-T002-IV-PVL+) as a Major Cause of Community Associated Staphylococcal Infections in Bedouin Children, Southern Israel.

Pediatric community associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections are emerging worldwide. High CA-MRSA carriage rates were previously described in healthy Bedouin children. We assessed demographic, clinical and molecular characteristics of pediatric MRSA infections in southern Israel.

Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the quantification of moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, daptomycin, caspofungin, and isavuconazole in human plasma.

A simple and precise ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of five anti-infective agents used to treat severe infections [three antibiotics (daptomycin, moxifloxacin, ciprofloxacin) and two antifungals (isavuconazole, caspofungin)] in human plasma. Sample preparation was based on protein precipitation with ice cold methanol. All five agents were analyzed with the corresponding isotopically labeled internal standards. ...

Pharmacokinetics of 300 mg/d Intraperitoneal Daptomycin: New Insight from the DaptoDP Study.

The DaptoDP (NCT 2012-005699-33) study aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetic parameters of daptomycin (DAP) in peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis (PDRP) patients following intraperitoneal (IP) administration. The authors have already reported the findings on the 200-mg dosing and present here the follow-up results of the 300-mg dosing. The primary endpoint was a dialysate concentration of DAP above the effective concentration during 6 hours of dwell time i.e., 16 mg/L. Secondary endpoints were to avoi...

Daptomycin and vancomycin heteroresistance revealed among CC5-SCCmecII MRSA clone and in vitro evaluation of treatment alternatives.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a threat to clinical treatment. Besides high resistance, presence of heterogeneous vancomycin intermediate S. aureus (hVISA) and heterogeneous daptomycin non-susceptible S. aureus (hDNSSA) in the hospital environment are underestimated and associated with treatment failure.

Eosinophilia and reduced STAT3 signalling affect neutrophil cell death in autosomal-dominant Hyper-IgE syndrome.

The autosomal-dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES), caused by mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), is a rare primary immunodeficiency which predisposes to mucocutaneous candidiasis and staphylococcal skin and lung infections. This infection phenotype is suggestive of defects in neutrophils, but data on neutrophil functions in HIES are inconsistent. This study was undertaken to functionally characterize neutrophils in STAT3-deficient HIES patients and to analyse whether the ...

Bactericidal activity of Gallium-doped chitosan coatings against staphylococcal infection.

This study was to develop a new class of Gallium (Ga)-doped Chitosan (CS) coatings fabricated by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) that promise new opportunities in staphylococcal infection therapy.

Photochemical internalization enhances cytosolic release of antibiotic and increases its efficacy against staphylococcal infection.

Bacterial pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis can survive in different types of cells including professional phagocytes, causing intracellular infections. Antibiotic treatment of intracellular infections is often unsuccessful due to the low efficacy of most antibiotics inside cells. Therefore, novel techniques which can improve intracellular activity of antibiotics are urgently needed. We aimed to use photochemical internalization (PCI) to enhance cytosolic release of anti...

Discovery of novel arylethenesulfonyl fluorides as potential candidates against methicillin-resistant of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) for overcoming multidrug resistance of bacterial infections.

The multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most prevalent human pathogens involved in many minor to major disease burdens throughout the world. Inhibition of biofilm formation is an attractive strategy to treat diseases associated with MRSA infection. In the present investigation, a series of functional group diverse (hetero)aryl fluorosulfonyl analogs were designed, synthesized and tested as antibacterial agents against Staphylococcal spp., and as anti-biofilm candidates. Compounds ...

Mechanistic studies on the effect of membrane lipid acyl chain composition on daptomycin pore formation.

Daptomycin is a lipopeptide antibiotic that binds and permeabilizes the cell membranes of Gram-positive bacteria. Membrane permeabilization requires both calcium and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) in the target membrane, and it correlates with the formation of an oligomer that likely comprises eight subunits, which are evenly distributed between the two membrane leaflets. In both bacterial cells and model membranes, changes in the fatty acyl composition of the membrane phospholipids can prevent permeabilization....

Can β-Lactam Antibiotics Be Resurrected to Combat MRSA?

The use of β-lactam antibiotics to treat infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus has been severely compromised by the acquisition by horizontal gene transfer of a gene that encodes the β-lactam-insensitive penicillin-binding protein PBP2a. This allows methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) to proliferate in the presence of β-lactam antibiotics. Paradoxically the dependence on PBP2a for the essential transpeptidase activity in cell wall peptidoglycan biosynthesis is the 'Achilles heel' of MRSA. Compoun...

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