PubMed Journals Articles About "MOPV Monovalent Oral Polio Vaccine Poliomyelitis" RSS

05:26 EDT 19th September 2018 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "mOPV monovalent oral polio vaccine Poliomyelitis" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 5,700+

What is causing high polio vaccine dropout among Pakistani children?

Although the antipolio drive is undertaken across Pakistan, there are still children who have not received any oral polio vaccine or are unable to complete recommended doses of polio vaccine. This study aims at empirically analyzing the associated factors with the no oral polio vaccination (OPV) and OPV dropout groups of children in Pakistan.

Assessing the stability of polio eradication after the withdrawal of oral polio vaccine.

The oral polio vaccine (OPV) contains live-attenuated polioviruses that induce immunity by causing low virulence infections in vaccine recipients and their close contacts. Widespread immunization with OPV has reduced the annual global burden of paralytic poliomyelitis by a factor of 10,000 or more and has driven wild poliovirus (WPV) to the brink of eradication. However, in instances that have so far been rare, OPV can paralyze vaccine recipients and generate vaccine-derived polio outbreaks. To complete pol...

The battle in Madrid over poliomyelitis vaccines (1963): science, ideology and power in the first mass immunization campaign in Spain.

Between 1958 and 1963, Spain witnessed the highest ever incidence of poliomyelitis (2000 cases and 200 deaths per year). Although Salk's inactivated vaccine had arrived in Spain in 1957, the government took no decisive action to administer it to the entire population at risk. Neither was Sabin's attenuated vaccine administered, available in Europe from 1960. While other countries adopted one or the other, in Spain rivalry arose over the two vaccines, with mixed results. The Salk vaccine was administered to ...

On reducing the risk of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis in the global transition from oral to inactivated poliovirus vaccine.

Post-Polio Syndrome and the Late Effects of Poliomyelitis: Part 1. Pathogenesis, Biomechanical Considerations, Diagnosis, and Investigations.

Post-Polio Syndrome (PPS) is characterized by new muscle weakness and/or muscle fatigability that occurs many years following the initial poliomyelitis illness. There are many theories that exist on the pathogenesis of PPS, which remains incompletely understood. In contrast, the Late Effects of Poliomyelitis are often a consequence of biomechanical alterations that occur as a result of polio-related surgeries, musculoskeletal deformities or weakness. Osteoporosis and fractures of the polio-involved limbs ar...

Detection of rotavirus before and after monovalent rotavirus vaccine introduction and vaccine effectiveness among children in mainland Tanzania.

Monovalent rotavirus vaccine (RV1) was introduced in Tanzania in January 2013 under the Reach Every Child initiative, to be given at ages 6 and 10 weeks. We used the sentinel hospital rotavirus surveillance system to examine the rotavirus detection rate before and after vaccine introduction and estimate vaccine effectiveness.

Immunogenicity of sequential inactivated and oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV) versus inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) alone in healthy infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

The emergence of vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis has become an ongoing burden of poliomyelitis. During this special period from OPV to IPV-only immunization schedule, we did a meta-analysis to compare the immunogenicity of sequential IPV and OPV versus IPV alone in healthy infants.

Ending Use of Oral Poliovirus Vaccine - A Difficult Move in the Polio Endgame.

Epidemiological serosurvey of poliovirus in Guangdong, China: A cross-sectional study.

A cross-sectional study for poliovirus seroprevalence in Guangdong was carried out in 2014, just before a change in polio vaccine commenced in 2015. The aim of the study was to test whether polio immunity level was high enough to satisfy the polio vaccine switch. A total of 6339 people were tested for poliovirus neutralization antibodies (NA). Overall NA seropositivity for PV1, PV2 and PV3 were 95.2%, 94.9% and 88.7%, and the respective geometric mean titer (GMT) were 82.9, 55.8, and 26.3, respectively. The...

Comparing monovalent and combination hepatitis B vaccine outcomes in children delivered by mothers with chronic hepatitis B.

We compared the vaccine effectiveness of monovalent and combination hepatitis B vaccine regimens in infants born to chronic hepatitis B carrier mothers.

Post-Polio Syndrome and the Late Effects of Poliomyelitis: Part 2. Treatment, Management and Prognosis.

Post-Polio Syndrome (PPS) is characterized by new muscle weakness and/or muscle fatigability that occurs many years following the initial poliomyelitis illness. An individualized approach to rehabilitation management is critical. Interventions may include rehabilitation management strategies, adaptive equipment, orthotic equipment, gait/mobility aids and a variety of therapeutic exercises. The progression of muscle weakness in PPS is typically slow and gradual; however, there is also variability in both the...

Analysis of the dose-sparing effect of adjuvanted Sabin-inactivated poliovirus vaccine (sIPV).

Sabin-based inactivated poliovirus vaccine(sIPV) is gradually replacing live-attenuated oral polio vaccine(OPV). Sabin-inactivated poliovirus vaccine(sIPV) has played a vital role in reducing economic burden of poliomyelitis and maintaining appropriate antibody levels in the population. However, due to its high cost and limited manufacturing capacity, sIPV cannot reach its full potential for global poliovirus eradication in developing countries. Therefore, to address this situation, we designed this study t...

Implementation of hepatitis B vaccine in high-risk young adults with waning immunity.

Universal hepatitis B (HB) vaccination among Thai newborns was initiated in 1992. The first dose of the monovalent HB vaccine was given at birth, then at months 2 and 6 simultaneously with the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis whole-cell (DTPw) vaccine. In 2008, Thailand replaced the monovalent HB vaccine at months 2 and 6 with a combined DTP-HB given at months 2, 4, and 6, with an added monovalent HB vaccine at month 1 for infants whose mothers were HBV carriers. Despite this rigorous HB vaccination schedule, v...

Surveillance to Track Progress Toward Polio Eradication - Worldwide, 2016-2017.

Global efforts to eradicate polio began in 1988, and four of the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions currently have achieved poliofree certification. Within the remaining two regions with endemic poliomyelitis (African and Eastern Mediterranean), Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan have never interrupted transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV). The primary means of detecting poliovirus transmission is surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) among children aged

Immunogenicity and Safety of Monovalent Acellular Pertussis Vaccine at Birth: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

An alternative option to maternal vaccination to prevent severe pertussis in infants is vaccination at birth. Data are needed on the immunogenicity and safety of a birth dose of monovalent acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine.

The Effect of Formulation on Spray Dried Sabin Inactivated Polio Vaccine.

The objective of this study was to develop a stable spray dried formulation, containing the three serotypes of Sabin inactivated polio vaccine (sIPV), aiming for minimal loss of native conformation (D-antigen) during drying and subsequent storage. The influence of atomization and drying stress during spray drying on trivalent sIPV was investigated. This was followed by excipient screening, in which monovalent sIPV was formulated and spray dried. Excipient combinations and concentrations were tailored to max...

Poliovirus and Other Enteroviruses from Environmental Surveillance in Italy, 2009-2015.

Within the initiatives for poliomyelitis eradication by WHO, Italy activated an environmental surveillance (ES) in 2005. ES complements clinical Acute Flaccid Paralysis (AFP) surveillance for possible polio cases, detects poliovirus circulation in environmental sewage, and is used to monitor transmission in communities. In addition to polioviruses, the analyses comprised: (i) the monitoring of the presence of non-polio enteroviruses in sewage samples and (ii) the temporal and geographical distribution of th...

A virus-like particle-based tetravalent vaccine for hand, foot, and mouth disease elicits broad and balanced protective immunity.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease that mainly affects infants and children, causing considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. HFMD is commonly caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses A16 (CVA16), A6 (CVA6), and A10 (CVA10). Formalin-inactivated EV71 vaccines are currently available in China; however, these vaccines fail to confer cross-protection against infections by other HFMD-causing enteroviruses, highlighting the necessity of developing a multivalent HFMD ...

Immune efficacy of DNA vaccines based on oprL and oprF genes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in chickens.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a zoonotic pathogen that can infect a variety of animals, including poultry. However, as there is no commercial vaccine available it is imperative that new and effective vaccines are developed. In this study, 2 monovalent DNA vaccines (pOPRL and pOPRF), one divalent combination DNA vaccine (pOPRL+pOPRF) and one fusion DNA vaccine (pOPRLF) were constructed based on the oprL and oprF genes of P. aeruginosa. These vaccines were administered to chickens, an outer membra...

Timing of Rotavirus Vaccine Doses and Severe Rotavirus Gastroenteritis among Vaccinated Infants in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

Altering rotavirus vaccine schedules may improve vaccine performance in low- and middle-income countries. We analyzed data from clinical trials of the monovalent (RV1) and pentavalent (RV5) rotavirus vaccines in low- and middle-income countries to understand the association between vaccine dose timing and severe rotavirus gastroenteritis incidence.

Oral vaccine based on a surface immunogenic protein mixed with alum promotes a decrease in Streptococcus agalactiae vaginal colonization in a mouse model.

The Surface Immunogenic Protein (SIP) of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) had been described as a good target for vaccine development. To date, SIP has been reported as a highly conserved protein, and in a mouse model it induces protection against lethal GBS challenge. Also, similar effects have been described by intranasal immunization with a SIP-based vaccine. In this study, we show the immune response induced by an oral SIP-based vaccine formulated on alum in a mouse model. Our vaccine can reduce vaginal GBS ...

Seronegativity to polio viruses among previously immunized adult candidates to solid organ transplantation.

In the current effort to eliminate polio from the world, it is important to recognize and vaccinate susceptible groups, especially immunocompromised patients living in countries where attenuated polio vaccine is still used. In this report, we describe the frequency of protective antibodies in a small sample of adult SOT candidates in whom previous vaccination could be ascertained. Patients included in this report were selected among the participants of an ongoing prospective study carried out at the Referen...

Induction of salivary antibody levels in Dutch adolescents after immunization with monovalent meningococcal serogroup C or quadrivalent meningococcal serogroup A, C, W and Y conjugate vaccine.

Meningococcal infection starts with colonisation of the upper respiratory tract. Mucosal immunity is important for protection against acquisition and subsequent meningococcal carriage. In this study, we assessed salivary antibody levels against meningococcal serogroup A (MenA), W (MenW) and Y (MenY) after vaccination with a quadrivalent MenACWY conjugated vaccine. We also compared salivary meningococcal serogroup C (MenC) antibody levels after monovalent MenC and quadrivalent MenACWY conjugated vaccination.

Strengthening Acute Flaccid Paralysis Surveillance through the Village Polio Volunteers Program in Somalia.

Surveillance for cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a key strategy adopted for the eradication of polio. Detection of poliovirus circulation is often predicated on the ability to identify AFP cases and test their stool specimens for poliovirus infection in a timely manner. The Village Polio Volunteers (VPV) program was established in 2013 in a bid to strengthen polio eradication activities in Somalia, including AFP surveillance, given the country's vulnerability to polio outbreaks.

Type 2 Poliovirus Detection after Global Withdrawal of Trivalent Oral Vaccine.

Mass campaigns with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) have brought the world close to the eradication of wild poliovirus. However, to complete eradication, OPV must itself be withdrawn to prevent outbreaks of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPV). Synchronized global withdrawal of OPV began with serotype 2 OPV (OPV2) in April 2016, which presented the first test of the feasibility of eradicating all polioviruses.

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