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PubMed Journals Articles About "Piriform Cortex Epilepsy What Learn From Kindling Model" RSS

05:59 EST 24th January 2020 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "piriform cortex epilepsy What learn from kindling model" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 21,000+

The piriform cortex in epilepsy: What we learn from the kindling model.

Epilepsy is a circuit-level brain disorder characterized by excessive or hypersynchronous epileptic seizures involving a complex epileptogenic network. Cumulative evidence suggests that the piriform cortex (PC) is a crucial site in seizure initiation, propagation, and generalization in epilepsy. The kindling model is a classic animal model of complex partial seizures with secondarily generalized tonic seizures, which is usually used for the study of epilepsy pathogenesis and preclinical anti-epilepsy drug e...


Anatomical imaging of the piriform cortex in epilepsy.

The piriform cortex is a distinct brain region that plays a key role in the sense of smell. The piriform cortex is the major part of primary olfactory cortex and has broad connections that extend beyond the olfactory regions into limbic and fronto-temporal cortical networks. Numerous studies have described these anatomical connections via microscopic imaging and tracer studies. More recently, macroscopic anatomical imaging studies have demonstrated changes in the piriform cortex in humans with focal epileps...

Multiunit cluster firing patterns of piriform cortex and mediodorsal thalamus in absence epilepsy.

The objective of the study were to investigate patterns of multiunit cluster firing in the piriform cortex (PC) and mediodorsal thalamus (MDT) in a rat model of genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) with absence seizures and to assess whether these regions contribute to the initiation or spread of generalized epileptiform discharges.


Genetic absence epilepsy: Effective connectivity from piriform cortex to mediodorsal thalamus.

The objective of the study was to quantify effective connectivity from the piriform cortex to mediodorsal thalamus, in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS).

Antiepileptic effects of electrical stimulation of the piriform cortex.

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) may help control seizures in individuals with medically intractable epilepsy who are not candidates for resective surgery. The current review focuses on some preclinical studies of DBS of the piriform cortex (PC), an area involved in the generation and maintenance of seizures, as a potential therapeutic option for refractory epilepsy. We also present findings suggesting the safety of low frequency stimulation (LFS) of the PC on memory. A variety of LFS parameters have been sugge...

The effects of ammonia stimulation on kainate-induced status epilepticus and anterior piriform cortex electrophysiology.

Strong olfactory stimulation (OS) with such substances as toluene or ammonia has been reported to suppress seizures. We aimed to investigate the role of ammonia stimulation on acute kainic acid (KA)-induced seizures. We also investigated any possible effects of ammonia stimulation on the electrophysiology of the anterior piriform cortex (APC).

Effect of adenovirus-mediated overexpression of PTEN on brain oxidative damage and neuroinflammation in a rat kindling model of epilepsy.

Epilepsy is a chronic and severe neurological disorder. Phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN)-deficient mice exhibit learning and memory deficits and spontaneous epilepsy. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PTEN in brain oxidative damage and neuroinflammation in a rat model of epilepsy.

Piriform cortex ictogenicity in vitro.

The piriform cortex is recognized to play critical roles in focal ictogenesis, both in animal models and in humans. We review here the contribution of in vitro studies performed on rodent brain tissue that were aimed at understanding the ictogenic properties of the piriform cortex and the contiguous olfactory areas. During in vitro experiments, epileptiform events can be easily generated in the piriform area by diverse pro-convulsive drugs (4-aminopyridine, bicuculline, picrotoxin) or by electrical stimulat...

Tetramethylpyrazine reduces epileptogenesis progression in electrical kindling models by modulating hippocampal excitatory neurotransmission.

Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are the primary agents prescribed for clinical management of limbic epilepsy. However, high incidence of pharmacoresistance and a limited armory of drugs for inhibiting the pathological progression of epilepsy pose major obstacles to managing epilepsy. Here, we investigated the effect of Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), the main bioactive alkaloid isolated from the oriental medicine Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., against the epileptogenesis progression of acute hippocampal and corneal (6 ...

Orchestration of Hippocampal Information Encoding by the Piriform Cortex.

The hippocampus utilizes olfactospatial information to encode sensory experience by means of synaptic plasticity. Odor exposure is also a potent impetus for hippocampus-dependent memory retrieval. Here, we explored to what extent the piriform cortex directly impacts upon hippocampal information processing and storage. In behaving rats, test-pulse stimulation of the anterior piriform cortex (aPC) evoked field potentials in the dentate gyrus (DG). Patterned stimulation of the aPC triggered both long-term pote...

TRPM2 ion channel is involved in the aggravation of cognitive impairment and down regulation of epilepsy threshold in pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling mice.

Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions. Recent findings suggest that one of the mechanisms promoting its existence is calcium influx. The transient receptor potential melastatin type 2 channel (TRPM2) is a Ca-permeable cation channel that contributes to cell apoptosis; its possible signaling pathway is the PARP1/BNIP3/AIF/Endo G pathway that may be related to epilepsy. The aim of this study was to investigate the TRPM2 channel's involvement in epilepsy and how it works. We also explored ...

An interaction study of Ocimum sanctum L. and levetiracetam in pentylenetetrazole kindling model of epilepsy.

Ocimum sanctum L. commonly known as tulsi (synonym of Ocimum tenuiflorum L.) is widely used in Ayurveda medicine and is having multitude neuromodulatory effect including the anticonvulsant effect in acute seizure models as per previous studies. In India, it is used for the treatment of epilepsy as traditional medicine. However, its role in chronic seizure model and interaction with newer antiepileptic drugs has not been investigated, which will enhance its translational value.

Resective epilepsy surgery involving eloquent cortex in the age of responsive neurostimulation: A value-based decision-making framework.

Resective epilepsy surgery has endured as the most effective way to render patients with seizure-free intractable localization-related epilepsy. Under conditions where the seizure focus is in close proximity to eloquent cortex, a postoperative deficit may be expected. Patients often accept the risk or certainty of these deficits for the possibility of seizure freedom. Recently, responsive neurostimulation (RNS) has emerged as an alterative to resective epilepsy surgery. This cranially implanted closed-loop ...

Transcranial focal electrical stimulation via concentric ring electrodes in freely moving cats: Antiepileptogenic and postictal effects.

Transcranial focal electrical stimulation (TFS) via tripolar concentric ring electrodes (TCRE), tripolar TFS, is proposed to treat pharmacoresistant epilepsy. We determined the effect of tripolar TFS on electrical amygdaloid kindling (AK) in freely moving cats. Fifteen cats were bilaterally implanted with electrodes in the amygdala (AM) and prefrontal cortex and assigned to three groups: the control group, which only received AK; the tripolar TFS before AK group, in which TCREs were placed over the vertex a...

Functional Integration of Neuronal Precursors in the Adult Murine Piriform Cortex.

The extent of functional maturation and integration of nonproliferative neuronal precursors, becoming neurons in the adult murine piriform cortex, is largely unexplored. We thus questioned whether precursors eventually become equivalent to neighboring principal neurons or whether they represent a novel functional network element. Adult brain neuronal precursors and immature neurons (complex cells) were labeled in transgenic mice (DCX-DsRed and DCX-CreERT2 /flox-EGFP), and their cell fate was characterized w...

Temporal Differences in Interneuron Invasion of Neocortex and Piriform Cortex during Mouse Cortical Development.

Establishing a balance between excitation and inhibition is critical for brain functions. However, how inhibitory interneurons (INs) generated in the ventral telencephalon integrate with the excitatory neurons generated in the dorsal telencephalon remains elusive. Previous studies showed that INs migrating tangentially to enter the neocortex (NCx), remain in the migratory stream for days before invading the cortical plate during late corticogenesis. Here we show that in developing mouse cortices, INs in the...

Profiling the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress associated heat shock proteins in animal epilepsy models.

Unfolded protein response is a signaling cascade triggered by misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Heat shock protein H4 (HSPH4) and A5 (HSPA5) are two chaperoning proteins present within the organelle, which target misfolded peptides during prolonged stress conditions. Epileptogenic insults and epileptic seizures are a notable source of stress on cells. To investigate whether they influence expression of these chaperones, we performed immunohistochemical stainings in brains from rats that exper...

Activation of adenosine receptors modulates the efflux transporters in brain capillaries and restores the anticonvulsant effect of carbamazepine in carbamazepine resistant rats developed by window-pentylenetetrazole kindling.

Up-regulation of efflux transporters in brain capillaries may lead to the decreased therapeutic efficacy of antiepileptic drugs in patients with Drug Resistant Epilepsy. Adenosine receptor activation in brain capillaries can modulate blood-brain barrier permeability by decreasing the protein levels and function of efflux transporters. Therefore, we aimed to investigate whether the activation of adenosine receptors improves convulsions outcome in carbamazepine (CBZ) resistant animals and modulates the protei...

Neuroprotective effects and improvement of learning and memory elicited by erythravine and 11α-hydroxy-erythravine against the pilocarpine model of epilepsy.

Deficits in cognitive functions are often observed in epileptic patients, particularly in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Evidence suggests that this cognitive decline can be associated with the occurrence of focal brain lesions, especially on hippocampus and cortex regions. We previously demonstrated that the erythrinian alkaloids, (+)-erythravine and (+)-11α-hydroxy-erythravine, inhibit seizures evoked in rats by different chemoconvulsants.

Evaluation of sodium valproate loaded nanoparticles in acute and chronic pentylenetetrazole induced seizure models.

Efficacy of sodium valproate in epilepsy is limited by its poor blood brain barrier penetration and side effects. Nanoparticles may offer a better drug delivery system to overcome these limitations. This study evaluated the efficacy of sodium valproate encapsulated in nanoparticles in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced acute and kindling models of seizures in male Wistar rats.

Cognitive deficits in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy using touchscreen-based translational tools.

Cognitive deficits are commonly observed in people with epilepsy, but the biologic causation of these is challenging to identify. Animal models of epilepsy can be used to explore pathophysiologic mechanisms leading to cognitive problems, as well as to test novel therapeutics. We utilized a well-validated animal model of epilepsy to explore cognitive deficits using novel translational assessment tools/automated rodent touchscreen assays.

The role of BTBD9 in the cerebral cortex and the pathogenesis of restless legs syndrome.

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a nocturnal neurological disorder affecting up to 10% of the population. It is characterized by an urge to move and uncomfortable sensations in the legs which can be relieved by movements. Mutations in BTBD9 may confer a higher risk of RLS. We developed Btbd9 knockout mice as an animal model. Functional alterations in the cerebral cortex, especially the sensorimotor cortex, have been found in RLS patients in several imaging studies. However, the role of cerebral cortex in the...

Does the new Korean term for epilepsy reduce the stigma for Korean adults with epilepsy?

The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in stigma, disclosure management of epilepsy, and knowledge about epilepsy between patients with epilepsy who recognized and did not recognize the new Korean term for epilepsy.

Effects of vitamin D and paricalcitol on epileptogenesis and behavioral properties of WAG/Rij rats with absence epilepsy.

Vitamin D (Vit D) has been considered as a neurosteroid and has a pivotal role in neuroprotection including epilepsy. Vit D regulator acts via a Vit D receptor (VDR). WAG/Rij rats have a genetically epileptic model of absence epilepsy with comorbidity of depression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Vit D and paricalcitol (PRC) on WAG/Rij rats.

Post traumatic epilepsy: there is still much to learn.


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