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Cardiac perfusion PET is increasingly used to assess ischemia and cardiovascular risk and can also provide quantitative myocardial blood flow (MBF) and flow reserve (MBFR) values. These have been shown to be prognostic biomarkers of adverse outcomes, yet MBF and MBFR quantification remains underutilized in clinical settings. We compare MBFR to traditional cardiovascular risk factors in a large and diverse clinical population (60% African-American, 35.3% Caucasian) to rank its relative contribution to cardio...
The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of stress myocardial blood flow ratio (SFR), a novel parameter derived from stress dynamic computed tomographic perfusion (CTP), for the detection of hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis.
The oxygen consumption by the heart and its extraction from the coronary arterial blood are the highest among all organs. Any increase in oxygen demand due to a change in the heart metabolic activity requires an increase in coronary blood flow. This functional requirement of adjustment of coronary blood flow is mediated by coronary flow regulation to meet the oxygen demand without any discomfort, even under strenuous exercise conditions. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of the theoretical ...
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide and ischemic heart disease is the most frequent etiology, with high economic costs for both treatment and diagnosis. Over the past two decades, the assessment of patients with this disease has undergone various changes, with cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) emerging as a powerful and versatile imaging exam for diagnosis and risk stratification of these patients. This review aimed to assess the utility of this exam, particularly through...
The PLEIO (comParison of ticagreLor and clopidogrEl on mIcrocirculation in patients with acute cOronary syndrome) study showed that 6 months of ticagrelor therapy significantly improved microvascular dysfunction in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients with stent implantation compared to clopidogrel. Improved microvascular function may affect myocardial blood flow (MBF). We compared the effects of ticagrelor and clopidogrel on MBF over a 6-month follow-up period among patients diagnosed with ACS treated wi...
In total, 97 acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients who received an emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were enrolled and divided into a ticagrelor group and a clopidogrel group. Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) blood flow and the corrected TIMI frame count (CTFC) were used to assess the blood perfusion of culprit vessels. Thromboelastography (TEG) was used to evaluate the antiplatelet effect of drugs. The results showed that the incidence of TIMI grade ...
Recognition that coronary blood flow is tightly coupled with myocardial metabolism has been appreciated for well over half a century. However, exactly how coronary microvascular resistance is tightly coupled with myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO) remains one of (if not) the most highly contested mysteries of the coronary circulation to this day. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for local metabolic control of coronary blood flow has been confounded by continued debate regarding both anticipated exp...
Measurement of myocardial blood flow (MBF) with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is feasible using cardiac cameras with solid-state detectors. SPECT MBF has been shown to be accurate when compared with positron emission tomography MBF measured in the same patients. However, the value of a test result applied to an individual patient depends strongly on the precision or repeatability of the test. The purpose of our study is to measure the precision of SPECT MBF measurements using Tc-tetrofo...
While extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is effective in preventing further hypoxemia and maintains blood flow in endotoxin-induced shock, ECMO alone does not reverse the hypotension. In this study, we tested whether concurrent vasopressor use with ECMO would provide increased circulatory support and blood flow, and characterized regional blood flow distribution to vital organs.
Background Direct intraindividual comparison of dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and machine learning (ML)-based CT fractional flow reserve (FFR) has not been explored for diagnosing hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease. Purpose To investigate the diagnostic performance of dynamic CT MPI and ML-based CT FFR for functional assessment of coronary stenosis. Materials and Methods Between January 2, 2017, and October 17, 2018, consecutive participants with stable angina were prospecti...
Measurement of the blood T1 time using conventional myocardial T1 mapping methods has gained clinical significance in the context of extracellular volume (ECV) mapping and synthetic hematocrit (Hct). However, its accuracy is potentially compromised by in-flow of non-inverted/non-saturated spins and in-flow of spins which are not partially saturated from previous imaging pulses. Bloch simulations were used to analyze various flow effects separately. T1 measurements of gadolinium doped water were performed us...
Fractional flow reserve (FFR) measures the drop in perfusion pressure across a stenosis, therefore representing its physiological effect on myocardial blood flow. Its use is widespread in percutaneous coronary interventions, though its role in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery remains uncertain. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to evaluate current evidence on outcomes following FFR-guided CABG compared to angiography-guided CABG.
Kinesiology taping (KT) is used in musculoskeletal practice for preventive and rehabilitative purposes. It is claimed that KT improves blood flow in the microcirculation by creating skin convolutions and that this reduces swelling and facilitates healing of musculoskeletal injuries. There is a paucity of physiological studies evaluating the effect of KT on cutaneous blood microcirculation.
Myocardial bridging (MB) is linked to angina and myocardial ischemia and may lead to sudden cardiac death in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). However, it remains unclear how MB affect the coronary blood flow in HCM patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of MB on coronary hemodynamics in HCM patients. Fifteen patients with MB (7 HCM and 8 non-HCM controls) in their left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery were chosen. Transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simul...
Vascular access is the "lifeline" of end-stage renal disease patients, which is surgically constructed to remove blood-waste and return artificially filtered blood into circulation. The arteriovenous shunting causes an abrupt change in blood flow and results in increased fluidic stress, which predisposes to access stenosis and thrombosis. While access flow is crucial to evaluate interventional endpoint, application to measure flow using digital angiogram is not yet available. The goal of this study was to d...
Blood flow autoregulation is an intrinsic mechanism of the healthy retinal vasculature to keep blood flow constant when ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) is changed. In the present study, we set out to investigate retinal blood flow in response to an experimental decrease in OPP in healthy participants using Doppler optical coherence tomography.
This study aimed to identify to resting-state cerebral blood flow (CBF) connectivity alterations in patients with anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis.
This study sought to determine the agreement between cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging and invasive measurements of fractional flow reserve (FFR) in the evaluation of nonculprit lesions after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In addition, we investigated whether fully quantitative analysis of myocardial perfusion is superior to semiquantitative and visual analysis.
The Fontan procedure for univentricular heart defects creates a non-physiologic circulation where systemic venous blood drains directly into the pulmonary arteries, leading to multiorgan dysfunction secondary to chronic low-shear non-pulsatile pulmonary blood flow and central venous hypertension. Although blood viscosity increases exponentially in this low-shear environment, the role of shear-dependent ("non-Newtonian") blood viscosity in this pathophysiology is unclear. We studied 3D-printed Fontan models ...
In this work, a numerical study is done on the blood flow inside an artery with a cone shape of stenosis. An artery has different stenosis angles. Also, blood flow is energized by constant heat flux which is applied on the wall. The finite volume method is employed to determine blood properties on the basis of a Sisko fluid model with different constant parameters.
We recently reported a new approach, namely postconditioning with lactate-enriched blood (PCLeB), for cardioprotection in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).