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PubMed Journals Articles About "Signal Strength Controls Thymic Differentiation INKT Cell Subsets" RSS

22:36 EDT 26th March 2019 | BioPortfolio

Signal Strength Controls Thymic Differentiation INKT Cell Subsets PubMed articles on BioPortfolio. Our PubMed references draw on over 21 million records from the medical literature. Here you can see the latest Signal Strength Controls Thymic Differentiation INKT Cell Subsets articles that have been published worldwide.

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Showing "signal strength controls thymic differentiation iNKT cell subsets" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 34,000+

Levels of regulatory T cells and invariant natural killer cells and their associations with regulatory B cells in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Due to their immunoregulatory properties, several specialized cell subsets, including regulatory T (Treg), invariant natural killer T (iNKT) and regulatory B (Breg) cells, are involved in the pathogenesis of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). However, the interaction between various cells remains to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the levels of Treg, iNKT and Breg cell subsets and their interrelationships in the peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) of patients with B-cell NHL who ...


Styk1 is specifically expressed in NK1.1 lymphocytes including NK, γδ T and iNKT cells in mice, but is dispensable for their ontogeny and function.

Innate T cells, NK cells, and innate-like lymphocytes (ILCs) share transcriptional signatures that translate into overlapping developmental and functional programs. A prominent example for genes that are highly expressed in NK cells but not in ILCs is serine-threonine-tyrosine kinase 1 (Styk1 encoded by Styk1). We found Styk1 to be specifically expressed in lymphocytes positive for Killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily B, member 1, also known as CD161 or NK1.1, i.e. in NK cell, αβ iNKT and γδ NKT c...

TET mediated epigenetic regulation of iNKT cell lineage fate choice and function.

During the last years, intensive research has shed light in the transcriptional networks that shape the invariant NKT (iNKT) cell lineage and guide the choices towards functionally distinct iNKT cell subsets (Constantinides and Bendelac, 2013; Engel and Kronenberg, 2014; Gapin, 2016; Kim et al., 2015). However, the epigenetic players that regulate gene expression and orchestrate the iNKT cell lineage choices remain poorly understood. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of epigenetic regu...


Unveiling the regulation of NKT17 cell differentiation and function.

Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKTs) are distinct from conventional T cells. iNKT cells express a semi-invariant T cell receptor (TCR) that can specifically recognize lipid antigens presented by CD1d, an MHC class I-like antigen-presenting molecule. Currently, iNKT cells are distinguished in three functionally distinct subsets. Each subset is defined by lineage-specifying factors: T-bet shapes the fate of NKT1 subset that mainly secretes IFNγ, Gata3 specifies the NKT2 subset that produces robustly IL-4...

In Vitro Differentiation of Effector CD4 T Helper Cell Subsets.

CD4 T "helper" cells are key orchestrators of adaptive immune responses. Upon activation, naïve CD4 T cells are capable of differentiating into a number of effector subsets that perform distinct immune functions. These subsets include T helper 1 (T1), T2, T9, T17, T22, T follicular helper (T), and regulatory T cell (T) populations. The differentiation of these subsets is dependent, in large part, on the coordinated interplay between signals from the extracellular cytokine environment and downstream transcr...

The peripheral differentiation of human natural killer T cells.

The peripheral maturation of human CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells has not been well described. In this study, we identified four major subsets of NKT cells in adults, distinguished by the expression of CD4, CD8, and CCR5. Phenotypic analysis suggested a hierarchical pattern of differentiation, whereby immature CD4 CD8 CCR5 cells progressed to an intermediate CD4 CD8 CCR5 stage, which remained less differentiated than the CD4 CD8 and CD4 CD8 subsets, both of which expressed CCR5. This interpret...

miR-181a/b-1 controls thymic selection of Treg cells and tunes their suppressive capacity.

The interdependence of selective cues during development of regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in the thymus and their suppressive function remains incompletely understood. Here, we analyzed this interdependence by taking advantage of highly dynamic changes in expression of microRNA 181 family members miR-181a-1 and miR-181b-1 (miR-181a/b-1) during late T-cell development with very high levels of expression during thymocyte selection, followed by massive down-regulation in the periphery. Loss of miR-181a/b-1 r...

Soluble factors derived from neuroblastoma cell lines suppress dendritic cell differentiation and activation.

Dendritic cells (DCs) play a key role in the initiation of both antitumor immunity and immunological tolerance. It has been demonstrated that exposure to soluble factors produced by tumor cells modulates DC functions and induces tolerogenic DC differentiation. In this study, we investigated the effects of neuroblastoma cell line-derived soluble factors on DC differentiation. Monocytes isolated from healthy volunteers were incubated with IL-4 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor in the presen...

Thymus machinery for T-cell selection.

An immunocompetent and self-tolerant pool of naive T cells is formed in the thymus through the process of repertoire selection. T cells that are potentially capable of responding to foreign antigens are positively selected in the thymic cortex and are further selected in the thymic medulla to help prevent self-reactivity. The affinity between T-cell antigen-receptors (TCRs) expressed by newly generated T cells and self-peptide-MHC complexes displayed in the thymic microenvironments plays a key role in deter...

Thymic epithelial neoplasms with sebaceous differentiation: a clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical study of 8 cases.

Eight cases of primary thymic epithelial neoplasms corresponding to seven thymomas and one thymic carcinoma with sebaceous differentiation are presented. The patients are five men and three women between the ages of 45 and 63years (average: 54years) who presented with non-specific symptomatology related to their mediastinal mass. All patients underwent complete surgical resection of the mediastinal mass. Grossly, all the tumors were described as round to oval measuring from 3.5 to 6.0cm in greatest diameter...

Enhanced Anti-lymphoma Activity of CAR19-iNKT Cells Underpinned by Dual CD19 and CD1d Targeting.

Chimeric antigen receptor anti-CD19 (CAR19)-T cell immunotherapy-induced clinical remissions in CD19 B cell lymphomas are often short lived. We tested whether CAR19-engineering of the CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells would result in enhanced anti-lymphoma activity. CAR19-iNKT cells co-operatively activated by CD1d- and CAR19-CD19-dependent interactions are more effective than CAR19-T cells against CD1d-expressing lymphomas in vitro and in vivo. The swifter in vivo anti-lymphoma ac...

Resected thymic large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: report of a case.

Thymic large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is extremely rare. The detailed clinical features of thymic LNCECs remain unknown.

Comparative analysis of thymic subpopulations during different modes of atrophy identifies the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl cysteine, to increase the survival of thymocytes during infection- and lipopolysaccharide-induced thymic atrophy.

The development of immunocompetent T cells entails a complex pathway of differentiation in the thymus. Thymic atrophy occurs with ageing and during conditions such as malnutrition, infections, cancer chemotherapy etc. The comparative changes in thymic subsets under different modes of thymic atrophy and the mechanisms involved are not well characterized. These aspects were investigated, using mice infected with Salmonella Typhimurium, injection with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an inflammatory but non-infectiou...

Antigen-presenting cells and T-lymphocytes homing to the thymus shape T cell development.

Hematopoietic precursors entering the thymus undergo a maturation process leading to the generation of a variety of T cell subsets that migrate to the periphery to perform their effector functions. This maturation process is strictly regulated by multiple interactions of developing T cells with thymic stroma cells. Signals received via the T cell receptor for antigen, co-stimulatory molecules and cytokines will determine, through thymic selection and lineage choice, thymocyte-fate. Recently, different popul...

Selected Case From the Arkadi M. Rywlin International Pathology Slide Seminar: Atypical Thymoma With Rhabdomyomatous Differentiation.

Thymic epithelial neoplasms with foci of rhabdomyomatous differentiation are rare. A case is presented of a primary thymic epithelial neoplasm showing the features of an atypical spindle cell thymoma that contained foci of bland-appearing rhabdomyomatous cells. The histologic and immunohistochemical features of this tumor are discussed along with a review of the literature and the comments from the AMR members to the case.

Exosomes from Thymic Stromal Lymphopoietin-Activated Dendritic Cells Promote Th2 Differentiation through the OX40 Ligand.

Exosomes are extracellular vesicles released from various inflammatory cells, such as T cells, B cells, dendritic cells (DCs), and mast cells, which have been implicated in the modulation of immune response in asthma. This study aimed to investigate whether exosomes from DCs activated by thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) play a role in T-helper cell differentiation through the OX40 ligand (OX40L).

Perturbation of mucosal-associated invariant T cells and iNKT cells in HIV infection.

To analyze the possible role that the 'unconventional' T-cell populations mucosal-associated invariant T cell (MAIT) and iNKT cells play during HIV infection and following antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment.

Alterations in monocyte subsets and cytokine production after TLR activation in American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

Phenotypic and functional aspects of monocytes from Localized Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (LCL) patients were evaluated. The frequencies of monocyte subsets and TLR2/TLR4 expression were evaluated in fresh peripheral blood whereas cytokine production was evaluated in whole blood cell cultures stimulated with TLR agonists or L. braziliensis antigen (Ag). CD16 monocytes frequency was increased in patients compared to controls. A TLR4 agonist (LPS) induced expression of TNF and IL-10 in monocyte subsets of patient...

MicroRNA miR-181a/b-1 controls MAIT cell development.

Mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells) constitute a major fraction of innate-like T cells in humans with critical roles in defense against microbial pathogens and in maintaining mucosal integrity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying MAIT cell development remain largely elusive. Here we investigated the role of miR-181a/b-1, a pair of microRNAs that serve as rheostat of TCR signal strength, in this process. Loss of miR-181a/b-1 in mice resulted in a profound arrest in early MAIT cell deve...

Landscape of infiltrating B cells and their clinical significance in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

As a major cellular component in tumor microenvironment, the distribution, frequency, and prognostic significance of infiltrating B cell subsets in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain controversial. Using tyramide signal amplification (TSA) based fluorescent multiplexed immunohistochemistry , we evaluated the distribution and frequency of B cell subsets in two independent HCC cohorts (n = 619). The results were further confirmed by flow cytometry. Correlations of B cell subsets with clinicopathologic fe...

Imbalance of peripheral follicular helper T lymphocyte subsets in active vitiligo.

Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of several autoantibodies, some of which are directed against melanocyte components and have been shown to be associated with the progression of the disease. However, the mechanism involved in the production of autoantibodies remains unclear. Follicular helper CD4 T cells (TFH) are specialized in B cell activation and antibody production, especially the TFH cell subsets type 2 and type 17. To date, TFH cell subsets have not been studied in huma...

Potent antagonists of RORγt, cardenolides from Calotropis gigantea, exhibit discrepant effects on the differentiation of T lymphocyte subsets.

RORγt is the master transcription factor of IL-17 cytokine expression and Th17 lymphocyte differentiation, which are responsible for the induction of many autoimmune diseases. Recently, RORγt has become an attractive target for drug development to treat these types of diseases, and the field of RORγt antagonist research is now extremely competitive. In our current study, molecular docking was applied to demonstrate that cardenolides, including uscharin, calactin and calotropin derived from Calotropis gig...

TLR9-mediated dendritic cell activation uncovers mammalian ganglioside species with specific ceramide backbones that activate invariant natural killer T cells.

CD1d-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells represent a heterogeneous population of lipid-reactive T cells that are involved in many immune responses, mediated through T-cell receptor (TCR)-dependent and/or independent activation. Although numerous microbial lipid antigens (Ags) have been identified, several lines of evidence have suggested the existence of relevant Ags of endogenous origin. However, the identification of their precise nature as well as the molecular mechanisms involved in their...

Restricted Expression of the Thymoproteasome Is Required for Thymic Selection and Peripheral Homeostasis of CD8 T Cells.

The thymoproteasome subunit β5t is specifically expressed in cortical thymic epithelial cells (TECs) and generates unique peptides to support positive selection. In this study, using a mouse model ubiquitously expressing β5t, we showed that aberrant expression of self-peptides generated by β5t affects CD8 T cell homeostasis, including thymic selection and maintenance of the peripheral naive pool of CD8 T cells. In mice in which β5t was expressed both in cortical and medullary TECs, the abundance of CD...

The multifaceted role of Notch signal in regulating T cell fate.

Notch signaling pathway facilitates important cellular functions of the host. Notch signal is essential for the development of T cells, and the role of Notch in fine tuning of αβ versus γδ T cell lineage commitment is fundamentally different in mice and human. The Notch family of cell surface receptor likewise plays a critical role in regulating T cell activation, and influences T cell response both intrinsically and through the local environment. In this review, we take an overview of Notch signaling p...


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