PubMed Journals Articles About "Temozolomide Vatalanib Adjuvant Therapy Radiation Therapy Brain Central" RSS

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Showing "temozolomide vatalanib adjuvant therapy radiation therapy Brain Central" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 26,000+

Phase 2 Study of Radiation Therapy Plus Low Dose Temozolomide Followed by Temozolomide and Irinotecan for Glioblastoma: NRG Oncology RTOG Trial 0420.

Evaluate the toxicity and efficacy of adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) and irinotecan (CPT-11) for 12 months following concurrent chemo-radiation in newly diagnosed glioblastoma (GBM).

Good tolerability of maintenance temozolomide in glioblastoma patients after severe hematological toxicity during concomitant radiotherapy and temozolomide treatment: report of two cases.

Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive primitive brain tumor in adults. Temozolomide (TMZ) administered daily with radiation therapy, followed by adjuvant TMZ has become the standard treatment. Although TMZ treatment has been considered to have a low toxicity profile, studies have noted the development of a severe myelosuppression, especially during the concomitant treatment; this toxicity may in some cases be prolonged and consequently treatment must be definitively discontinued. We analyzed two ca...

Re-examining the role of adjuvant radiation therapy.

Previously important roles for adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in melanoma patients included improved regional control after resection of high-risk nodal disease, to reduce local recurrence for desmoplastic, and other subtypes of melanoma with neurotropism, reducing in-brain relapse of brain metastases after surgery and other situations on a case-by-case basis. This review evaluates the integration of adjuvant RT into clinical practice at this time of rapidly evolving knowledge and improving outcomes from effect...

Fluoxetine reverses brain radiation and temozolomide-induced anxiety and spatial learning and memory defect in mice.

Radiation therapy and concomitant temozolomide chemotherapy are commonly used in treatment of brain tumors, but they may also result in behavioral impairments such as anxiety and cognitive deficit. The present study sought to investigate the effect of fluoxetine on the behavioral impairments caused by radiation and temozolomide treatment. C57BL/6J mice were subjected to a single cranial radiation followed by 6-week cyclic temozolomide administration, and then treated with chronic administration of fluoxetin...

Assessment of radiation resistance and therapeutic targeting of cancer stem cells: A Raman spectroscopic study of Glioblastoma.

Radiation is the standard therapy used for treating Glioblastoma (GBM), a grade IV brain cancer. Glioma Stem-like Cells (GSCs), an integral part of GBM enforces resistance to radiation therapy of GBM. Studying the differential biomolecular composition of GSCs with varying levels of radiation sensitivity can aid in identifying the molecules and their associated pathways which impose resistance to cells thereby unraveling new targets which would serve as potential adjuvant therapy. Raman spectroscopy being a ...

Risk of cardiac disease after adjuvant radiation therapy among breast cancer survivors.

Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) for breast cancer is associated with heart disease, although the impact of patient-specific factors on the interaction between cardiac risk and RT is not well-studied in cancer patients. The objective of this study is to compare acute coronary events (ACE) among the general population and women with breast cancer after adjuvant RT. Secondary analysis evaluated whether a healthy lifestyle could protect against RT-related cardiac toxicity.

Radiation-Induced Gliomas.

Radiation therapy has been a cornerstone of cancer management for many decades and is an integral part of the multi-modality care of patients with brain tumors. The known serious side effects of radiation therapy on the head or central nervous system are uncommon and include radiation necrosis, microangiopathy, and progressive leukencephalopathy. In addition, there have been descriptions of radiation-induced tumors including sarcomas, gliomas, lymphomas, and carcinomas of the thyroid. Patients who have rece...

Adjuvant and Neoadjuvant Therapy, Treatment for Advanced Disease, and Genetic Considerations for Adrenocortical Carcinoma: An Update from the SSO Endocrine and Head and Neck Disease Site Working Group.

This is the second of a two-part review on adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) management. While margin-negative resection provides the only potential cure for ACC, recurrence rates remain high. Furthermore, many patients present with locally advanced, unresectable tumors and/or diffuse metastases. As a result, selecting patients for adjuvant therapy and understanding systemic therapy options for advanced ACC is important. Herein, we detail the current literature supporting the use of adjuvant mitotane therapy, ...

Survival Benefit of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy in Node-positive Vulvar Cancer.

Adjuvant radiation therapy improves overall survival in patients with vulvar cancer with 2+ positive lymph nodes, but its benefit remains uncertain for 1 positive lymph node.

Management of Brain Metastases in the New Era of Checkpoint Inhibition.

Brain metastasis is a common complication of advanced malignancies, especially, lung cancer, breast cancer, renal cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Traditionally surgery, when indicated, and radiation therapy, either as whole-brain radiation therapy or stereotactic radiosurgery, constituted the major treatment options for brain metastases. Until recently, most of the systemic chemotherapy agents had limited activity for brain metastases. However, with the advent of small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors and ...

"Stroke-like" events after brain radiotherapy: a large series with long-term follow-up.

Patients with history of brain radiotherapy can experience acute "stroke-like" syndromes related to the delayed effects of brain radiation, including "Stroke-like Migraine Attacks after Radiation Therapy (SMART)", "Peri-Ictal Pseudoprogression (PIPG)", and "Acute Late-onset Encephalopathy after Radiation Therapy (ALERT)" syndrome. The aim of this study is to collect evidence on the long-term outcome and treatment of these conditions, whose knowledge is undermined by their rarity and fragmented description.

The prognostic significance of p16 status in patients with vulvar cancer treated with vulvectomy and adjuvant radiation.

Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (VSCC) is a relatively rare malignancy. Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been implicated as a causative factor for a subset of these patients. The purpose of this study is to evaluate if p16-positivity (an HPV surrogate) predicts for better response rates in women who undergo surgery followed by adjuvant radiation therapy (RT).

Meta-analysis of postoperative adjuvant therapy for small bowel adenocarcinoma.

The role of adjuvant therapy in small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA), a rare malignancy with a poor prognosis, is controversial. The purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of adjuvant therapy on the survival of patients with SBA in a meta-analysis.

Carbon fibre/polyether ether ketone (CF/PEEK) implants in orthopaedic oncology.

Radiation therapy is an important therapeutic element in musculoskeletal tumours, especially when encountering multiple or painful lesions. In osteolytic lesions, a surgical stabilization with implants is often required. However, metallic implants not only complicate the CT-based planning of a subsequent radiation therapy, but also have an uncontrollable dose-modulating effect in adjuvant radiotherapy. In addition, follow-up imaging and the diagnosis of local recurrences are often obscured by metallic artef...

A roadmap for important centers of growth in the pediatric skeleton to consider during radiation therapy and associated clinical correlates of radiation-induced growth toxicity.

With the increasing use of advanced radiation techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy, stereotactic radiation therapy, and proton therapy, radiation oncologists now have the tools to mitigate radiation-associated toxicities. This is of utmost importance in the treatment of a pediatric patient. To best utilize these advanced techniques to mitigate radiation-induced growth abnormalities, the radiation oncologist should be equipped with a nuanced understanding of the anatomy of centers of grow...

Phase 1 lead-in to a phase 2 factorial study of temozolomide plus memantine, mefloquine, and metformin as postradiation adjuvant therapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma.

Repurposed memantine, mefloquine, and metformin have putative anticancer activity. The objective of this phase 1 study was to determine the maximum tolerated doses (MTDs) of combinations of these agents with temozolomide (TMZ).

Emerging Role of MRI in Radiation Therapy.

Advances in multimodality imaging, providing accurate information of the irradiated target volume and the adjacent critical structures or organs at risk (OAR), has made significant improvements in delivery of the external beam radiation dose. Radiation therapy conventionally has used computed tomography (CT) imaging for treatment planning and dose delivery. However, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides unique advantages: added contrast information that can improve segmentation of the areas of interest,...

The Promise of Proton Therapy for Central Nervous System Malignancies.

Radiation therapy plays a significant role in management of benign and malignant diseases of the central nervous system. Patients may be at risk of acute and late toxicity from radiation therapy due to dose deposition in critical normal structures. In contrast to conventional photon delivery techniques, proton therapy is characterized by Bragg peak dose deposition which results in decreased exit dose beyond the target and greater sparing of normal structure which may reduce the rate of late toxicities from ...

Neurocognitive evaluation of brain metastases patients treated with post-resection stereotactic radiosurgery: a prospective single arm clinical trial.

Post-operative radiation therapy for brain metastases (BM) has become standard treatment. Concerns regarding the deleterious cognitive effects of Whole Brain Radiation Therapy spurred a trend to use focal therapies such as stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the neuropsychological effects following post-resection SRS treatment since limited data exist in this context.

Is whole-brain radiotherapy still a standard treatment for primary central nervous system lymphomas?

In primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL), optimal therapy remains to be established, and the role of whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) is a matter of debate. With radiation alone, transient responses and clinical improvement are frequent, but long-term disease control is exceptional. WBRT has been considered possible consolidation therapy after high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX)-based initial chemotherapy. This strategy has been questioned due to a high risk of delayed neurotoxicity after combined trea...

Stage II Oral Tongue Cancer: Survival Impact of Adjuvant Radiation Based on Depth of Invasion.

Objective To determine if adjuvant radiation therapy for patients with pT2N0 oral cavity tongue cancer affects overall survival. Study Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting National Cancer Database. Subjects and Methods Cases diagnosed between 2004 and 2013 with pathologic stage pT2N0 oral cavity tongue cancer with negative surgical margins were extracted from the National Cancer Database. Data were stratified by treatment received, including surgery only and surgery + postoperative radiation therapy. ...

Statins: a new approach to combat temozolomide chemoresistance in glioblastoma.

Patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) have an average life expectancy of approximately 15 months. Recently, statins have emerged as a potential adjuvant cancer therapy due to their ability to inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in many types of cancer. The exact mechanisms that mediate the inhibitory actions of statins in cancer cells are largely unknown. The purpose of this proceeding paper is to discuss some of the known anticancer effects of statins, while focusing on GBM therapy that i...

Modalities and advantages of image guided radiation therapy of breast cancer in adjuvant setting.

In adjuvant setting, breast cancer radiotherapy volumes include whole mammary gland or chest wall, and when indicated, nodal area such as axilla, supraclavicular, and internal mammary chain. An accurate patients positioning is required due to some geometric complexity of target volumes closed to organs at risk as heart and lung. Image guided radiation therapy allows such accuracy. Here we propose a review on image guided radiotherapy for breast cancer.

Trajectories of psychosocial and cognitive functioning in pediatric patients with brain tumors treated with radiation therapy.

Pediatric patients with brain tumors who are treated with radiation therapy (RT) are at risk for neurocognitive and psychosocial late effects. Research to date has primarily examined these outcomes at a group level and in isolation. Advanced statistical techniques allow for person-centered analyses, as well as examination of relationships between domain-specific trajectories.

Adjuvant vs. salvage radiation therapy in men with high-risk features after radical prostatectomy: Survey of North American genitourinary expert radiation oncologists.

The management of patients with high-risk features after radical prostatectomy is controversial. Level 1 evidence demonstrates that adjuvant RT improves survival compared to no treatment; however, it may overtreat up to 30% of patients, as randomized clinical trials (RCTs) using salvage RT on observation arms failed to reveal a survival advantage of adjuvant RT. We, therefore, sought to determine the current view of adjuvant vs. salvage RT among North American genitourinary (GU) radiation oncology experts.

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