PubMed Journals Articles About "Trial Cocaine Biases Choice Toward Cocaine Through Suppression" RSS

03:59 EDT 22nd March 2019 | BioPortfolio

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Showing "trial cocaine biases choice toward cocaine through suppression" PubMed Articles 1–25 of 8,400+

Making risky decisions to take drug: Effects of cocaine abstinence in cocaine users.

Risky decision-making is characteristic of drug users, but little is known about the effects of circumstances, such as abstinence, on risky choice behavior in human drug users. We hypothesized that cocaine users would make more risky choices for cocaine (defined as taking a chance to receive a large number of cocaine doses as opposed to choosing to receive a fixed amount of cocaine) after 3 or 7 days of cocaine abstinence, compared to 1 day of cocaine abstinence. Six male nontreatment-seeking current co...

Using a data science approach to predict cocaine use frequency from depressive symptoms.

Depressive symptoms may contribute to cocaine use. However, tests of the relationship between depression and severity of cocaine use have produced mixed results, possibly due to heterogeneity in individual symptoms of depression. Our goal was to establish which symptoms of depression are most strongly related to frequency of cocaine use (one aspect of severity) in a large sample of current cocaine users. We utilized generalized additive modeling to provide data-driven exploration of the relationships betwee...

Impairments in reversal learning following short access to cocaine self-administration.

Cocaine use disorder is characterized by compulsive drug-seeking that persists long into abstinence. Work using rodent models of cocaine addiction has found evidence for reversal learning deficits 21 days after non-contingent cocaine administration and 60 days after self-administration. Here we sought to determine if a deficit in reversal learning is present 3-4 weeks after cessation of cocaine self-administration, when relapse to cocaine-seeking is robust. Conversely, we hypothesized that reversal learning...

Recent cocaine use and the incidence of hemodynamic events during general anesthesia: A retrospective cohort study.

To evaluate the intraoperative hemodynamics and medication requirements of cocaine-positive patients compared to matched cocaine-negative controls.

Forensic Drug Profile: Cocaethylene.

This article is intended as a brief review or primer about cocaethylene (CE), a pharmacologically active substance formed in the body when a person co-ingests ethanol and cocaine. Reference books widely used in forensic toxicology contain scant information about CE, even though this cocaine metabolite is commonly encountered in routine casework. CE and cocaine are equi-effective at blocking the reuptake of dopamine at receptor sites, thus reinforcing the stimulant effects of the neurotransmitter. In some an...

Changes in the prevalence and correlates of cocaine use and cocaine use disorder in the United States, 2001-2002 and 2012-2013.

To present nationally representative data on changes in the prevalences of 12-month cocaine use, cocaine use disorder (CocUD) and 12-month CocUD among 12-month cocaine users between 2001 and 2002 and 2012-2013. Data were derived from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and the 2012-2013 NESARC-III. Between 2001 and 2002 and 2012-2013, prevalences of 12-month cocaine use and DSM-IV CocUD significantly increased and 12-month CocUD among 12-month users signifi...

Pitolisant and intravenous cocaine self-administration in mice.

Pitolisant, a selective inverse agonist for the histamine H3 receptor, is a new treatment for adults suffering from narcolepsy. Numerous studies have shown that striatal H3 receptors can modulate the activity of the dopamine mesolimbic system, a pathway that plays a crucial role in drug addiction. Therefore, it is important to guarantee that pitolisant has no abuse potential and does not potentiate the behavioral effects of psychostimulants. The present study tested the effects of pitolisant on cocaine rein...

A Novel Role of Prolidase in Cocaine-Mediated Breach in the Barrier of Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells.

Cocaine use is associated with breach in the blood brain barrier (BBB) and increased HIV-1 neuro-invasion. We show that the cellular enzyme "Prolidase" plays a key role in cocaine-induced disruption of the BBB. We established a barrier model to mimic the BBB by culturing human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) in transwell inserts. In this model, cocaine treatment enhanced permeability of FITC-dextran suggesting a breach in the barrier. Interestingly, cocaine treatment increased the activity of...

Persistent increase of I.V. cocaine self-administration in a subgroup of C57BL/6J male mice after social defeat stress.

Stressful life experiences can persistently increase the motivation for, and consumption of, intensely rewarding stimuli, like cocaine, over time. In rodents, intermittent versus continuous exposure to social stress engenders opposing changes to reward-related behavior, as measured by consumption of sucrose and cocaine.

Response inhibition and fronto-striatal-thalamic circuit dysfunction in cocaine addiction.

Many studies have investigated how cognitive control may be compromised in cocaine addiction. Here, we extend this literature by employing spatial Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to describe circuit dysfunction in relation to impairment in response inhibition in cocaine addiction.

Effects of chronic cocaine self-administration and N-acetylcysteine on learning, cognitive flexibility, and reinstatement in nonhuman primates.

Cocaine use disorder (CUD) is associated with cognitive deficits that have been linked to poor treatment outcomes. An improved understanding of cocaine's deleterious effects on cognition may help optimize pharmacotherapies. Emerging evidence implicates abnormalities in glutamate neurotransmission in CUD and drugs that normalize glutamatergic homeostasis (e.g., N-acetylcysteine [NAC]) may attenuate CUD-related relapse behavior.

fMRI Stroop and behavioral treatment for cocaine-dependence: Preliminary findings in methadone-maintained individuals.

Although behavioral treatment for cocaine use disorders is common, the use of cognitive neuroscience methods to investigate these treatments' mechanisms of action remains limited. Cognitive control (e.g., as measured by the Stroop task) has been proposed to be central to cocaine-use disorders, including treatment response.

An Unusually High Cocaine Blood Concentration in an Impaired Driving Investigation.

Cocaine is an illicit drug frequently encountered by forensic practitioners in driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) casework. Whole blood collected from a suspected drugged driver was found to contain 3.000 mg/L cocaine, 1.600 mg/L benzoylecgonine, and 0.260 mg/L methamphetamine. The high concentration of cocaine, while common in overdose death investigations, is unusual for an impaired driving case. Information from the officer revealed that the motorist swallowed cocaine during the traffic stop....

P53 knockout mice are protected from cocaine-induced kindling behaviors via inhibiting mitochondrial oxidative burdens, mitochondrial dysfunction, and proapoptotic changes.

Previously we demonstrated that p53 mediates dopaminergic neurotoxicity via inducing mitochondrial burdens and proapoptotsis. However, little is known about the role of p53 in the excitotoxicity induced by psychostimulant, such as cocaine. Cocaine-induced kindling (convulsive) behaviors significantly increased p53 expression in the brain. Cocaine-induced p53 expression was more pronounced in hippocampus than in striatum or prefrontal cortex. Genetic depletion of p53 significantly attenuated cocaine-induced ...

Glutathione peroxidase-1 overexpressing transgenic mice are protected from cocaine-induced drug dependence.

Converging evidence has demonstrated that oxidative burdens are associated with drug dependence induced by psychostimulants. Here, we investigated whether oxidative stress directly mediates conditioned place preference and behavioral sensitization (drug dependence) induced by cocaine and whether glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), a major GPx, modulates cocaine-induced psychotoxic changes in mice. Cocaine-induced drug dependence was followed by increases in c-Fos-immunoreactivity (c-Fos-IR) in the nucleus acc...

Increased Presence of Fentanyl in Cocaine-Involved Fatal Overdoses: Implications for Prevention.

After remaining stable from 2010 to 2014, the  rate of cocaine-involved overdose death increased sharply from 2015 to 2016. This study aims to determine the contribution of opioids, and fentanyl in particular, to the increase in cocaine-involved overdose death from 2015 to 2016. Using New York City death certificate data linked to medical examiner toxicology data, we identified all overdose deaths where post-mortem toxicology results were positive for cocaine from 2010 to 2016. We analyzed cocaine-involved...

Prelimbic cortex is a common brain area activated during cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine and heroin seeking in a polydrug self-administration rat model.

Many preclinical studies examined cue-induced relapse to heroin and cocaine seeking in animal models, but most of these studies examined only one drug at a time. In human addicts, however, polydrug use of cocaine and heroin is common. We used a polydrug self-administration relapse model in rats to determine similarities and differences in brain areas activated during cue-induced reinstatement of heroin and cocaine seeking. We trained rats to lever press for cocaine (1.0 mg/kg/infusion, 3-h/d, 18 d) or heroi...

The histone demethylase KDM6B in the medial prefrontal cortex epigenetically regulates cocaine reward memory.

Epigenetic remodeling contributes to synaptic plasticity via modification of gene expression, which underlies cocaine-induced long-term memory. A prevailing hypothesis in drug addiction is that drugs of abuse rejuvenate developmental machinery to render reward circuitry highly plastic and thus engender drug memories to be highly stable. Identification and reversal of these pathological pathways are therefore critical for cocaine abuse treatment. Previous studies revealed an interesting finding in which the ...

Comparative efficacy and acceptability of psychosocial interventions for individuals with cocaine and amphetamine addiction: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Clinical guidelines recommend psychosocial interventions for cocaine and/or amphetamine addiction as first-line treatment, but it is still unclear which intervention, if any, should be offered first. We aimed to estimate the comparative effectiveness of all available psychosocial interventions (alone or in combination) for the short- and long-term treatment of people with cocaine and/or amphetamine addiction.

Dr. C. R. Agnew's Choice: Cocaine Anesthesia Discoverer Over U.S. President.

Localization and Expression of CTP:Phosphocholine Cytidylyltransferase in Rat Brain following Cocaine Exposure.

Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a primary phospholipid and major source of secondary lipid messengers and also serves as a biosynthetic precursor for other membrane phospholipids. Phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) is the rate-limiting enzyme responsible for catalyzing the formation of PC. Changes in CCT activity have been associated with lipid dysregulation across various neurological disorders. Additionally, intermediates in PC synthesis, such as CDP-choline, have been suggested to attenuate drug cravi...

Neuroactive steroid levels and cocaine use chronicity in men and women with cocaine use disorder receiving progesterone or placebo.

Neuroactive steroids (NAS) may play a role in addiction, with observed increases in response to acute stress and drug use, but decreases with chronic substance use, suggesting that NAS neuroadaptations may occur with chronic substance use. However, levels of NAS in addicted individuals have not been systematically examined. Here, we evaluated a panel of NAS in men and women with cocaine use disorder (CUD) who participated in a clinical laboratory study of progesterone.

Hemodynamic and neuronal responses to cocaine differ in awake versus anesthetized animals: Optical brain imaging study.

Cocaine is a highly addictive drug with complex pharmacological effects. Most preclinical imaging studies investigating the effects of cocaine in the brain have been performed under anesthesia, which confounds findings. To tackle this problem, we used optical imaging to compare the effects of cocaine in the awake versus the anesthetized state. For this purpose, we customized an air floating mobile cage to fit the multi-wavelength spectral and laser speckle optical imaging system and implanted a multi-layer ...

7,8-dihydroxyflavone blocks the development of behavioral sensitization to MDPV, but not to cocaine: differential role of the BDNF-TrkB pathway.

3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) acts as a dopamine transporter blocker and exerts powerful psychostimulant effects. In this study we aimed to investigate the bidirectional cross-sensitization between MDPV and cocaine, as well as to evaluate the role of the BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway in the development of locomotor sensitization to both drugs. Mice were treated with MDPV (1.5 mg/kg) or cocaine (10 or 15 mg/kg) once daily for 5 days. After withdrawal (10 days), animals were challenged with cocaine (8 m...

Determination of cutting agents in seized cocaine samples using GC-MS, GC-TMS and LC-MS/MS.

Cocaine is usually sold as a white powder and can contain several adulterants and diluents, known as cutting agents. The cutting agents play an important role in the identification of trafficking routes, and they can also modify or intensify signs and symptoms of drug intoxication increasing the risk to the health's user. The purpose of this work was to quantify cocaine and cutting agents in 116 illicit samples from NMS Labs, Willow Grove, PA, U.S. Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and handle-p...

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