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In the present double blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study we evaluated the impact of 12 weeks thiazolidinedione (TZD) administration on basal and insulin-stimulated substrate metabolism in growth hormone-replaced adults with growth hormone deficiency.
In human subjects GH (Growth Hormone) acutely antagonises the effects of insulin on glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and increases the hepatic glucose production of humans. This has clinical implications for patients with active acromegaly, in whom the prevalence of glucose intolerance and overt diabetes mellitus is increased. It is also of significance in relation to GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient adults not least when considering that a substantial proportion of these patients are insulin resistant in the GH-untreated state. There is evidence to indicate that the acute insulin antagonistic effects may be balanced with time by the favourable effects of GH on body composition and physical fitness, but the data are ambiguous. The mechanism underlying these effects of GH are not fully characterised, but there is experimental evidence of a causal linked to the concomitant stimulation of lipolysis, since GH-induced insulin resistance is partly abrogated when lipolysis is pharmacologically suppressed. This is noteworthy since elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFA) are also implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in patients with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are insulin sensitizers which function as highaffinity agonists for the nuclear peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma, which improve insulin sensitivity in T2DM. PPAR gamma is a nuclear receptor expressed mainly in adipocytes, which activates the transcription of genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. Administration of TZD in T2DM enhances insulin-stimulated glucose uptake via mechanisms including a lowering of circulating FFA and a redistribution of fat away from hepatocytes and myocytes and into peripheral adipocytes. To our knowledge, the impact of TZDs on GH-induced insulin resistance has not previously been reported. Experimental data in human subjects on this issue are of potential importance not only in relation to patients with abnormal GH status, but also regarding our understanding of the pathogenesis of insulin resistance in general and the complex actions of PPAR gamma activation in particular.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Placebo Control, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment, Masking: Double-Blind, Primary Purpose: Treatment
Growth Hormone Deficiency
Medical Department M, The Medical Research Laboratories, Aarhus University Hospital
University of Aarhus
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-07-24T14:21:47-0400
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A form of dwarfism caused by complete or partial GROWTH HORMONE deficiency, resulting from either the lack of GROWTH HORMONE-RELEASING FACTOR from the HYPOTHALAMUS or from the mutations in the growth hormone gene (GH1) in the PITUITARY GLAND. It is also known as Type I pituitary dwarfism. Human hypophysial dwarf is caused by a deficiency of HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE during development.
A 191-amino acid polypeptide hormone secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR), also known as GH or somatotropin. Synthetic growth hormone, termed somatropin, has replaced the natural form in therapeutic usage such as treatment of dwarfism in children with growth hormone deficiency.
An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by short stature, defective GROWTH HORMONE RECEPTOR, and failure to generate INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR I by GROWTH HORMONE. Laron syndrome is not a form of primary pituitary dwarfism (GROWTH HORMONE DEFICIENCY DWARFISM) but the result of mutation of the human GHR gene on chromosome 5.
The biologically active fragment of human growth hormone-releasing factor, consisting of GHRH(1-29)-amide. This N-terminal sequence is identical in several mammalian species, such as human, pig, and cattle. It is used to diagnose or treat patients with GROWTH HORMONE deficiency.
A pituitary tumor that secretes GROWTH HORMONE. In humans, excess HUMAN GROWTH HORMONE leads to ACROMEGALY.
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