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Severe pre-amputation pain is associated with phantom pain development, and phantom pain models assign major importance to central and peripheral nervous system changes related to pre-amputation pain. Several interventions have been evaluated for phantom pain prevention, including continuous brachial plexus blockade5, intravenous6 or epidural ketamine administration, postoperative perineural ketamine/clonidine infusion8 and oral gabapentin9, but their true effect remains unclear.
In a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial, 65 patients undergoing elective lower limb amputation were assigned to one of five analgesic regimens. Patients in groups 1-4 had lumbar epidural catheter placed 48 hours before amputation, and received epidural bupivacaine/fentanyl or saline infusion before and/or after amputation. Patients receiving epidural saline also had IV Fentanyl Patient-Control Analgesia, whereas patients receiving epidural analgesia also had IV saline. Group 5 (control) received IM meperidine and oral codeine/acetaminophen. VAS and McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) scores (for ischemic, phantom and stump pain) were recorded starting 48 hours before, continuing until 48 hours after amputation, and at 4 days, 10 days, 1 and 6 months after amputation. Phantom and stump pain intensity and frequency were the main study endpoints.
Allocation: Randomized, Control: Placebo Control, Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study, Intervention Model: Factorial Assignment, Masking: Double Blind (Subject, Investigator, Outcomes Assessor), Primary Purpose: Prevention
Phantom Limb Pain
perioperative epidural catheter
University of Patras
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:39:50-0400
Phantom limb pain is a complication of amputation. Although pre-empitve epidural analgesia was once thought to prevent such a com plication, recent studies did not demonstrate this. Periph...
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Perception of painful and nonpainful phantom sensations that occur following the complete or partial loss of a limb. The majority of individuals with an amputated extremity will experience the impression that the limb is still present, and in many cases, painful. (From Neurol Clin 1998 Nov;16(4):919-36; Brain 1998 Sep;121(Pt 9):1603-30)
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
Circumscribed collections of suppurative material occurring in the spinal or intracranial EPIDURAL SPACE. The majority of epidural abscesses occur in the spinal canal and are associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a vertebral body; ANALGESIA, EPIDURAL; and other conditions. Clinical manifestations include local and radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, URINARY INCONTINENCE, and FECAL INCONTINENCE. Cranial epidural abscesses are usually associated with OSTEOMYELITIS of a cranial bone, SINUSITIS, or OTITIS MEDIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p710 and pp1240-1; J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1998 Aug;65(2):209-12)
The injection of autologous blood into the epidural space either as a prophylactic treatment immediately following an epidural puncture or for treatment of headache as a result of an epidural puncture.
The administration of medication by insertion of a tiny needle or catheter into the spinal sac or epidural cavity.
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An anesthesiologist (US English) or anaesthetist (British English) is a physician trained in anesthesia and perioperative medicine. Anesthesiologists are physicians who provide medical care to patients in a wide variety of (usually acute) situations. ...