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Urinary kallikrein excretion is known to increase in patients with nephrotic syndrome and sick cell disease, but decrease in patients with chronic kidney disease or uremia. Some of authors consider urinary kallikrein is a marker of nephropathy. To evaluate the possible role of kallikrein kinin system in chronic kidney disease, we conduct a retrospective longitudinal observation study. Patients who participating in the “Efficacy of Pentoxifylline on Chronic Kidney Disease” study are included in the study. The morning spot urinary kallikrein and cytokines are measured at the time point of 0 and 12 month in addition to clinical parameters. The correlation of urinary kallikrein and cytokine concentration will be evaluated. Using multiple regression model, the relationship of urinary kallikrein excretion with degree of proteinuria, creatinine clearance and other clinical parameter will also be evaluated.
Additional Descriptors: Convenience Sample, Observational Model: Natural History, Time Perspective: Longitudinal, Time Perspective: Retrospective
Chronic Kidney Disease
National Taiwan University Hospital
Published on BioPortfolio: 2014-08-27T03:41:46-0400
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Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level for more than three months. Chronic kidney insufficiency is classified by five stages according to the decline in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA). The most severe form is the end-stage renal disease (CHRONIC KIDNEY FAILURE). (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002)
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Decalcification of bone or abnormal bone development due to chronic KIDNEY DISEASES, in which 1,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D3 synthesis by the kidneys is impaired, leading to reduced negative feedback on PARATHYROID HORMONE. The resulting SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM eventually leads to bone disorders.
Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.
A severe irreversible decline in the ability of kidneys to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal failure, either acute (KIDNEY FAILURE, ACUTE) or chronic (KIDNEY FAILURE, CHRONIC), requires HEMODIALYSIS.
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